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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534815/multispectral-fluorescent-and-photoplethysmographic-imaging-for-remote-skin-assessment
#1
REVIEW
Janis Spigulis
Optical tissue imaging has several advantages over the routine clinical imaging methods, including non-invasiveness (it does not change the structure of tissues), remote operation (it avoids infections) and the ability to quantify the tissue condition by means of specific image parameters. Dermatologists and other skin experts need compact (preferably pocket-size), self-sustaining and easy-to-use imaging devices. The operational principles and designs of ten portable in-vivo skin imaging prototypes developed at the Biophotonics Laboratory of Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia during the recent five years are presented in this paper...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534485/pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-associated-genetic-variants-affect-transcription-factor-binding-and-alternative-splicing-of-loxl1
#2
Francesca Pasutto, Matthias Zenkel, Ursula Hoja, Daniel Berner, Steffen Uebe, Fulvia Ferrazzi, Johannes Schödel, Panah Liravi, Mineo Ozaki, Daniela Paoli, Paolo Frezzotti, Takanori Mizoguchi, Satoko Nakano, Toshiaki Kubota, Shinichi Manabe, Erika Salvi, Paolo Manunta, Daniele Cusi, Christian Gieger, Heinz-Erich Wichmann, Tin Aung, Chiea Chuen Khor, Friedrich E Kruse, André Reis, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
Although lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) is known as the principal genetic risk factor for pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, a major cause of glaucoma and cardiovascular complications, no functional variants have been identified to date. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association scan on 771 German PEX patients and 1,350 controls, followed by independent testing of associated variants in Italian and Japanese data sets. We focus on a 3.5-kb four-component polymorphic locus positioned spanning introns 1 and 2 of LOXL1 with enhancer-like chromatin features...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533750/characterization-of-cardiovascular-alterations-induced-by-different-chronic-cisplatin-treatments
#3
Esperanza Herradón, Cristina González, José A Uranga, Raquel Abalo, Ma I Martín, Visitacion López-Miranda
In the last years, many clinical studies have revealed that some cisplatin-treated cancer survivors have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, being cisplatin-induced cardiovascular toxicity an increasing concern. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cardiovascular alterations induced by different chronic cisplatin treatments, and to identify some of the mechanisms involved. Direct blood pressure, basal cardiac (left ventricle and coronary arteries) and vascular (aortic and mesenteric) functions were evaluated in chronic (5 weeks) saline- or cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532814/control-aspects-of-the-human-cardiovascular-respiratory-system-under-a-nonconstant-workload
#4
Pio Gabrielle B Calderon, Mustafa Habib, Franz Kappel, Aurelio A de Los Reyes V
The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O2) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O2 and CO2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532062/polylactide-and-polycaprolactone-based-substrates-enhance-angiogenic-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-implications-for-cardiovascular-repair
#5
Małgorzata Sekuła, Patrycja Domalik-Pyzik, Anna Morawska-Chochół, Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz, Elżbieta Karnas, Sylwia Noga, Dariusz Boruczkowski, Marta Adamiak, Zbigniew Madeja, Jan Chłopek, Ewa K Zuba-Surma
Recent approaches in tissue regeneration focus on combining innovative achievements of stem cell biology and biomaterial sciences to develop novel therapeutic strategies for patients. Growing recent evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells harvested from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hUC-MSCs) are a new valuable source of cells for autologous as well as allogeneic therapies in humans. hUC-MSCs are multipotent, highly proliferating cells with prominent immunoregulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of widely used FDA approved poly(α-esters) including polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) on selected biological properties of hUC-MSCs in vitro...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531568/macronutrient-and-alcohol-intake-is-associated-with-intermuscular-adipose-tissue-in-a-randomly-selected-group-of-younger-and-older-men-and-women
#6
Kajsa Sjöholm, Lena Gripeteg, Ingrid Larsson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and macronutrient intake have been found to be related to general and central body fat distribution. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is a small ectopic fat depot located within the muscle bundles. IMAT is important for muscle function, mobility and energy homeostasis and also associated with cardiovascular- and diabetes-related risk factors. AIM: To test the hypothesis that macronutrient and alcohol intake is associated with IMAT. METHODS: 50 men and 50 women, randomly selected from the general population formed height- and weight-representative age groups of 50 younger (27-31 years) and 50 older (57-61 years) subjects...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530031/celecoxib-for-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Livia Puljak, Ana Marin, Davorka Vrdoljak, Filipa Markotic, Ana Utrobicic, Peter Tugwell
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by degeneration of the joint cartilage and growth of new bone, cartilage and connective tissue. It is often associated with major disability and impaired quality of life. There is currently no consensus on the best treatment to improve OA symptoms. Celecoxib is a selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical benefits (pain, function, quality of life) and safety (withdrawals due to adverse effects, serious adverse effects, overall discontinuation rates) of celecoxib in osteoarthritis (OA)...
May 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529488/endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-promises-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Carina Hromada, Severin Mühleder, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#9
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529179/mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-targets-for-a-better-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
REVIEW
Alexis Boulinguiez, Bart Staels, Helene Duez, Steve Lancel
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders represent a major health burden, with economic and social consequences. Although adapted lifestyle and bariatric surgery are effective in reducing body weight, obesity prevalence is still rising. Obese individuals often become insulin-resistant. Obesity impacts on insulin responsive organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of obesity and insulin resistance on skeletal muscle, an important organ for the control of postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528699/steps-toward-maturation-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-by-defined-physical-signals
#11
Nian Shen, Anne Knopf, Claas Westendorf, Udo Kraushaar, Julia Riedl, Hannah Bauer, Simone Pöschel, Shannon Lee Layland, Monika Holeiter, Stefan Knolle, Eva Brauchle, Ali Nsair, Svenja Hinderer, Katja Schenke-Layland
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) may offer significant advances in creating in vitro cardiac tissues for disease modeling, drug testing, and elucidating developmental processes; however, the induction of ESCs to a more adult-like CM phenotype remains challenging. In this study, we developed a bioreactor system to employ pulsatile flow (1.48 mL/min), cyclic strain (5%), and extended culture time to improve the maturation of murine and human ESC-CMs...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526540/sodium-dependent-glucose-transporters-sglt-in-human-ischemic-heart-a-new-potential-pharmacological-target
#14
Alessandra Di Franco, Giulia Cantini, Alessia Tani, Raffaele Coppini, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Laura Raimondi, Michaela Luconi, Edoardo Mannucci
BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin is reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality and the rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients with prior cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of this sodium/glucose transporter 2 (SGT2) inhibitor have not yet been clarified, though a direct action of the drug on the cardiomyocytes could be hypothesized. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative expression of SGLT2 and SGLT1, the two most relevant members of the SGLT family being potentially responsive to empagliflozin, in normal, ischemic and hypertrophic human hearts...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522646/mr-spectroscopy-of-hepatic-fat-and-adiponectin-and-leptin-levels-during-testosterone-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Line Velling Magnussen, Poul Erik Andersen, Anabel Diaz, Jelena Markovic Ostojic, Kurt Højlund, David M Hougaard, Anders Nymark Christensen, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen
BACKGROUND: Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine secreting profile. HYPOTHESIS: Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels <7...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521870/the-use-of-statins-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-and-other-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-cardiovascular-risk-an-expert-panel-statement
#16
REVIEW
Vasilios G Athyros, Theodore K Alexandrides, Helen Bilianou, Evangelos Cholongitas, Michael Doumas, Emmanuel S Ganotakis, John Goudevenos, Moses S Elisaf, Georgios Germanidis, Olga Giouleme, Asterios Karagiannis, Charalambos Karvounis, Niki Katsiki, Vasilios Kotsis, Jannis Kountouras, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Christos Pitsavos, Stergios Polyzos, Loukianos S Rallidis, Dimitrios Richter, Apostolos G Tsapas, Alexandros D Tselepis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Themistoklis G Vasiliadis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos Mantzoros
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. It is closely related to the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in NAFLD/NASH patients...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#17
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521185/association-of-aortic-perivascular-adipose-tissue-density-with-aortic-calcification-in-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Kelly J Shields, Samar R El Khoudary, Joseph M Ahearn, Susan Manzi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the vascular wall, is associated with CVD risk factors, and may contribute to premature CVD in SLE. We previously found greater volumes of aortic PVAT associated with aortic calcification (AC) in female SLE patients. There is recent evidence that not only volume but adipose density may also be indicative of inflammation...
April 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520942/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#19
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520813/pancreatic-fat-content-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-subjects-with-prediabetes-diabetes-and-controls-from-a-general-population-without-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Sophia D Heber, Holger Hetterich, Roberto Lorbeer, Christian Bayerl, Jürgen Machann, Sigrid Auweter, Corinna Storz, Christopher L Schlett, Konstantin Nikolaou, Maximilian Reiser, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Despite the relevance of pancreatic fat content in the development of metabolic diseases, its association with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and other adipose tissue compartments remains unclear. Thus, we determined differences in pancreatic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between subjects with prediabetes, diabetes, and normal controls in a cohort from the general population. METHODS: Subjects without history of cardiovascular disease with established diabetes or prediabetes as well as normal controls were included and underwent whole-body MRI on a 3T scanner...
2017: PloS One
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