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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190854/-clostridium-difficile-infection-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-therapy-and-prevention
#1
Magnus Kaffarnik, Caroline Isner, Uwe Hamsen
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are common causes of diarrhoea in hospitalised medical and surgical patients. Clinical presentation ranges from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembraneous enterocolitis of the colon and sometimes the small intestines, with development of a toxic megacolon. Recurrent infections are common. Early diagnosis is necessary because of high rates of complications and mortality. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of CDI is recommended. Early initiation of therapy is recommended to avoid complications and standard therapy is antibiotics, while therapy with monoclonal antibodies and vaccination is under research and development...
November 30, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125568/chemical-composition-of-herbal-macerates-and-corresponding-commercial-essential-oils-and-their-effect-on-bacteria-escherichia-coli
#2
Marietta Białoń, Teresa Krzyśko-Łupicka, Agnieszka Pik, Piotr P Wieczorek
This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial essential oils (clove, juniper, oregano, and marjoram oils), as well as appropriate herbal extracts obtained in the process of cold maceration and their biological activity against selected Escherichia coli strains: E. coli ATTC 25922, E. coli ATTC 10536, and E. coli 127 isolated from poultry waste. On the basis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis, it was found that the commercial essential oils revealed considerable differences in terms of the composition and diversity of terpenes, terpenoids and sesquiterpenes as compared with the extracts obtained from plant material...
November 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#3
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055553/effects-of-leymus-chinensis-replacement-with-whole-crop-wheat-hay-on-blood-parameters-fatty-acid-composition-and-microbiomes-of-holstein-bulls
#4
Wenjing Niu, Yang He, Haibo Wang, Chuanqi Xia, Haitao Shi, Binghai Cao, Huawei Su
This study investigated the replacement of Leymus chinensis (LC) with whole-crop wheat hay (WCWH) in the diets of Holstein bulls in the fattening stage and examined the potential effects on blood parameters, fatty acids in rumen fluid and serum, and the rumen microbiomes. In this study, 12 Holstein bulls in the fattening period (body weight = 485.0 ± 40.8 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of a 17-d adaptation period and a 5-d collection period...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970141/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-protective-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Dustin E Bosch, Matthew M Yeh
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs with higher prevalence in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) relative to the general population, and susceptibility is related to the metabolic syndrome, as well as higher prevalence of bowel resection and gut microbiotal factors. Liver complications, including NAFLD and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) contribute to treatment and prognosis of patients with IBD. However, the potential interplay of NAFLD and PSC is not well understood. We retrospectively assessed severity of steatosis and steatohepatitis in liver specimens from 49 patients with IBD only, 44 with IBD and co-morbid PSC, and 30 with IBD and PSC after liver transplantation...
September 29, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842931/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-and-their-effects-on-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Rory M Shallis, Christopher M Terry, Seah H Lim
The human intestinal microbiota is essential for microbial homeostasis, regulation of metabolism, and intestinal immune tolerance. Rapidly evolving understanding of the importance of the microbiota implicates changes in the composition and function of intestinal microbial communities in an assortment of systemic conditions. Complications following allogeneic stem cell transplant now join the ever-expanding list of pathologic states regulated by intestinal microbiota. Dysbiosis, or disruption of the normal ecology of this microbiome, has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of entities such as Clostridium difficile infections, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and most recently disease relapse, all of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant...
August 26, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682226/la-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te-influe-sur-les-%C3%A3-cosyst%C3%A3-mes-microbiens-par-l%C3%A2-interm%C3%A3-diaire-du-syst%C3%A3-me-immunitaire-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te
#7
Hela El Kafsy, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role in the development of host immunity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506921/decrease-of-blood-anti-%C3%AE-1-3-galactose-abs-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-clinically-isolated-syndrome-cis-patients
#8
L Le Berre, J Rousse, P-A Gourraud, B-M Imbert-Marcille, A Salama, G Evanno, G Semana, A Nicot, E Dugast, P Guérif, C Adjaoud, T Freour, S Brouard, F Agbalika, R Marignier, D Brassat, D-A Laplaud, E Drouet, V Van Pesch, J-P Soulillou
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains elusive. Among the possible causes, the increase of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies during EBV primo-infection of Infectious mononucleosis (IMN) may damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier facilitating the transfer of EBV-infected B cells and anti-EBV T cell clones in the brain. We investigated the change in titers of anti-Neu5Gc and anti-α1,3 Galactose antibodies in 49 IMN, in 76 MS, and 73 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, as well as age/gender-matched healthy individuals...
July 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406401/le-microbiote-intestinal%C3%A2-un-organe-%C3%A3-part-enti%C3%A3-re
#9
Jean-Jacques Morand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404738/microbiotal-host-interactions-and-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Blair Mell, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (BP), has been extensively researched over decades and clearly demonstrated to be caused due to a combination of host genetic and environmental factors. Although much research remains to be conducted to pin-point the precise genetic elements on the host genome that control BP, new lines of evidence are emerging to indicate that, besides the host genome, the genomes of all indigenous commensal micro-organisms, collectively referred to as the microbial metagenome or microbiome, are important, but largely understudied, determinants of BP...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196137/effects-of-dietary-nutrient-levels-on-microbial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-the-ileal-contents-of-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#11
Yujiao Ji, Xiangfeng Kong, Huawei Li, Qian Zhu, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189107/c-elegans-and-its-bacterial-diet-as-a-model-for-systems-level-understanding-of-host-microbiota-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Jingyan Zhang, Amy D Holdorf, Albertha Jm Walhout
Resident microbes of the human body, particularly the gut microbiota, provide essential functions for the host, and, therefore, have important roles in human health as well as mitigating disease. It is difficult to study the mechanisms by which the microbiota affect human health, especially at a systems-level, due to heterogeneity of human genomes, the complexity and heterogeneity of the gut microbiota, the challenge of growing these bacteria in the laboratory, and the lack of bacterial genetics in most microbiotal species...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131419/-predictive-biomarkers-of-efficacy-of-checkpoint-blockade-inhibitors-in-cancer-treatment
#13
Michaël Duruisseaux, Cécile Lize-Dufranc, Céline Badoual, Frédéric Bibeau
The remarkable efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4 immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to numerous approvals in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, kidney cancer and several other cancers. Nevertheless, a response is observed in a variable proportion of patients, emphasizing the need for predictive biomarkers of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors effectiveness. Several predictive biomarkers of efficacy are of interest: companion tests such PD-L1 immunohistochemistry, the mutational load, the immune status of the tumor and its molecular profile...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070678/trna-misacylation-with-methionine-in-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-in-situ
#14
Michael H Schwartz, Tao Pan
Global protein mistranslation with methionine has been shown to be a conserved biological process that affords distinct functional advantages in all three domains of life. In all instances, methionine mistranslation occurs through a regulated process where low-fidelity forms of methionyl-tRNA synthetase are conditionally induced to mischarge non-methionyl-tRNAs with methionine followed by the utilization of the misacylated tRNAs in translation. In mammals, methionine mistranslation contributes to oxidative stress response; in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, methionine mistranslation produces proteins that are better adapted to low temperature growth; in E...
July 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#15
Rebecca L Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A case-control (sibling) study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's disease (CD), six children with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008842/-microbiota-and-representations-of-the-human-body
#16
Betty Dodet
Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008835/-microbiotes-and-metabolic-diseases-the-bases-for-therapeutic-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Rémy Burcelin, Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque
After more than one and a half century, i.e. since Louis Pasteur work on microbes, fermentation, and diseases, biological science has made a giant step in bacteria knowledge. Thanks to an ultra-powerful "microscope", i.e. ultra-fast DNA sequencing, scientists have been able to read and group within a catalog over the last decade, the gene code of bacteria, i.e. the metagenome at the surface of our epithelia. More recently, live bacteria within adipose tissue, defining a tissue microbiota, as well as bacterial fragments such as DNA within the liver, the brain and the blood have been identified...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008833/-microbiotes-and-metagenomics
#18
REVIEW
Jean Weissenbach, Abdelghani Sghir
Major technical advances were introduced in the study of microflora and microbial communities in the nineties. These are essentially analytical approaches conducted as frequently by brute force. What conclusions can be drawn from these analyses twenty years later? In terms of microbial compositions, monitoring and diagnosis, the results are impressive. But what do all these microorganisms do? What are the factors behind their associations and their maintenance? Gene inventories are approaching completion; they allow us to deepen some physiological processes but do not say much more...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992199/contribution-of-shape-and-charge-to-the-inhibition-of-a-family-gh99-endo-%C3%AE-1-2-mannanase
#19
Marija Petricevic, Lukasz F Sobala, Pearl Z Fernandes, Lluís Raich, Andrew J Thompson, Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Oscar Millet, Sha Zhu, Matthieu Sollogoub, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Carme Rovira, Gideon J Davies, Spencer J Williams
Inhibitor design incorporating features of the reaction coordinate and transition-state structure has emerged as a powerful approach for the development of enzyme inhibitors. Such inhibitors find use as mechanistic probes, chemical biology tools, and therapeutics. Endo-α-1,2-mannosidases and endo-α-1,2-mannanases, members of glycoside hydrolase family 99 (GH99), are interesting targets for inhibitor development as they play key roles in N-glycan maturation and microbiotal yeast mannan degradation, respectively...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861126/gut-microbiota-influences-pathological-angiogenesis-in-obesity-driven-choroidal-neovascularization
#20
Elisabeth Mma Andriessen, Ariel M Wilson, Gaelle Mawambo, Agnieszka Dejda, Khalil Miloudi, Florian Sennlaub, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Age-related macular degeneration in its neovascular form (NV AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among adults above the age of 60. Epidemiological data suggest that in men, overall abdominal obesity is the second most important environmental risk factor after smoking for progression to late-stage NV AMD To date, the mechanisms that underscore this observation remain ill-defined. Given the impact of high-fat diets on gut microbiota, we investigated whether commensal microbes influence the evolution of AMD Using mouse models of NV AMD, microbiotal transplants, and other paradigms that modify the gut microbiome, we uncoupled weight gain from confounding factors and demonstrate that high-fat diets exacerbate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by altering gut microbiota...
December 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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