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Universal health insurance

Laura R Daily, Britt K Erickson, Daniel N Pasko, J Michael Straughn, Warner K Huh, Charles A Leath
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater in high-risk, racially diverse, young women with low-grade cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After institutional review board approval, a cross-sectional study of 21- to 24-year-old women with low-grade cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, high-risk human papillomavirus+, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, or human papillomavirus+ only) managed with colposcopy at our university-based clinic between May 2011 and April 2013 were identified...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Jian Zhao, Chang Su, Huijun Wang, Zhihong Wang, Bing Zhan
The obesity rate in China has risen significantly in the past few decades. While a number of causes for the rise in obesity have been explored, little attention has been paid to the role of health insurance per se. This study aims to investigate the impact of health insurance on the risk of obesity in rural China using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We employed pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), probit estimation, and pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS) for an instrumental variable (IV)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maia Sieverding, Cynthia Onyango, Lauren Suchman
BACKGROUND: Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Albrecht Waschke, Habibollah Arefian, Jan Walter, Michael Hartmann, Jens Maschmann, Rolf Kalff
Concomitant radiochemotherapy followed by six cycles of temozolomide (= short term) is considered as standard therapy for adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. In contrast, open-end administration of temozolomide until progression (= long-term) is proposed by some authors as a viable alternative. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of long-term temozolomide therapy for patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma compared to standard therapy. A Markov model was constructed to compare medical costs and clinical outcomes for both therapy types over a time horizon of 60 months...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Donghoon Lee, Hyun-Young Shin, Sang Min Park
Background: In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65-75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Gabrielle Davie, Ari Samaranayaka, Sarah Derrett
Understanding the role of comorbidity in recovery following injury is an important challenge given the increasing prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more comorbidities) in many countries. The Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study recruited 2856 injured 18-64 year olds that had registered for entitlements with New Zealand's universal no-fault injury insurer. Recovery, or lack of, in this longitudinal cohort was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule at 3, 12 and 24 months post-injury...
2018: PloS One
Waranya Rattanavipapong, Thunyarat Anothaisintawee, Yot Teerawattananon
Thailand is encountering challenges to introduce the high-cost sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C treatment as part of the Universal Health Care's benefit package. This study was conducted in respond to policy demand from the Thai government to assess the value for money and budget impact of introducing sofosbuvir-based regimens in the tax-based health insurance scheme. The Markov model was constructed to assess costs and benefits of the four treatment options that include: (i) current practice-peginterferon alfa (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) for 24 weeks in genotype 3 and 48 weeks for other genotypes; (ii) Sofosbuvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin (SOF+PEG-RBV) for 12 weeks; (iii) Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) for 12 weeks; (iv) Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF+LDV) for 12 weeks for non-3 genotypes and SOF+PEG-RBV for 12 weeks for genotype 3 infection...
2018: PloS One
Konrad Obermann, Tata Chanturidze, Bernd Glazinski, Karin Dobberschuetz, Heiko Steinhauer, Jean-Olivier Schmidt
Managers and administrators in charge of social protection and health financing, service purchasing and provision play a crucial role in harnessing the potential advantage of prudent organization, management and purchasing of health services, thereby supporting the attainment of Universal Health Coverage. However, very little is known about the needed quantity and quality of such staff, in particular when it comes to those institutions managing mandatory health insurance schemes and purchasing services. As many health care systems in low- and middle-income countries move towards independent institutions (both purchasers and providers) there is a clear need to have good data on staff and administrative cost in different social health protection schemes as a basis for investing in the development of a cadre of health managers and administrators for such schemes...
February 20, 2018: Health Economics Review
I-Lin Hsu, Chia-Ming Chang, Deng-Chi Yang, Ya-Hui Chang, Chia-Chun Li, Susan C Hu, Chung-Yi Li
Hip fracture commonly results in considerable consequences in terms of disability, mortality, long-term institutional care and cost. Taiwan launched its universal health insurance coverage in 1995, which largely removes financial barriers to health care. This study aims to investigate whether socioeconomic inequality in one-year mortality exists among Taiwanese elderly people. This population-based cohort study included 193,158 elderly patients (≥65 years) admitted for hip fracture between 2000 and 2012. With over a one-year follow-up, 10...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jing Sun, Cecile Jia Hu, Mark Stuntz, Hans Hogerzeil, Yuanli Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite recent reforms, distorting funding mechanisms and over-prescribing still maintain severe financial barriers to medicines access in China. Complicated and interrelated problems in the pharmaceutical sector require a common framework to be resolved as fragmented solutions do not work. We present a preliminary assessment of the impact of the national healthcare reforms on access to medicines, and propose policy recommendations for promoting universal access to medicines in China...
February 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Suzanne Martin, Echo L Warner, Anne C Kirchhoff, Ryan Mooney, Laura Martel, Deanna Kepka
This pilot study aims to improve HPV vaccination for college aged males at a student health center. The first part of the study consisted of a focus group that assessed the barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and clinic staff (N = 16). Providers reported missed opportunities for HPV vaccination. For the second part of the study, providers and staff reviewed medical records of patients ages 18-26 with student health insurance and with < 3 doses of the HPV vaccine at baseline (12/1/2014 to 7/31/2015) and follow-up (12/1/2015 to 7/31/2016)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Shaun Ossei-Owusu
The United States' health care system is mired in uncertainty. Public opinion on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") is undeniably mixed and politicized. The individual mandate, tax subsidies, and Medicaid expansion dominate the discussion. This Article argues that the ACA and reform discourse have given short shrift to a more static problem: the law of emergency care. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1986 ("EMTALA") requires most hospitals to screen patients for emergency medical conditions and provide stabilizing treatment regardless of patients' insurance status or ability to pay...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Dee Jones, Beth Horner
The North Carolina State Health Plan provides health care coverage to more than 700,000 members, including teachers, state employees, retirees, current and former lawmakers, state university and community college personnel, and their dependents. The State Health Plan is a division of the North Carolina Department of State Treasurer, self-insured, and exempt from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as a government-sponsored plan. With health care costs rising at rates greater than funding, the Plan must take measures to stem cost growth while ensuring access to quality health care...
January 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
Asena Caner, Deniz Karaoğlan, Gülbiye Yaşar
The Turkish Health Transformation Program, initiated in 2003, has identified achieving universal access to health care as 1 of its main tenets. To date, substantial progress has been made toward universal health coverage. Service utilization statistics display an upward trend. In this study, we use official and nationally representative microdata collected by the Turkish Health Research Surveys to examine young children's (ages 0-5) utilization of health services. Children in this age group deserve special attention because adverse health conditions in early childhood are known to have long-time consequences...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
C-H Ma, S-S Chang, H-J Tsai, S S-F Gau, I-M Chen, S-C Liao, Y-L Chien, M H Hsieh, C-S Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of different antipsychotic treatments with hospitalization due to self-harm among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study was based on Taiwan's universal health insurance database. Patients aged 15-45 years with a newly diagnosed schizophrenic disorder in 2001-2012 were included. The study outcome was the first hospitalization due to self-harm or undetermined injury after the diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders...
February 11, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Chia-Hung Yo, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee, Lorenzo Porta, Po-Yang Tsou, Yu-Hsun Wang, Wan-Chien Lee, Szu-Ta Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of incidence and outcome of paediatric sepsis in a population-based database. METHODS: Children with sepsis were identified from the 23 million nationwide health insurance claims database of Taiwan. Sepsis was defined by the presence of single ICD-9 code for severe sepsis or septic shock or a combination of ICD-9 codes for infection and organ dysfunction. We analysed the trend of incidence, mortality and source of infection in three age groups: infant (28 days to 1 year), child (1-9 years) and adolescent (10-18 years)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Canan Karatekin, Brandon Almy, Susan Marshall Mason, Iris Borowsky, Andrew Barnes
To examine in detail the health-care utilization patterns of maltreated children, we studied electronic health records (EHRs) of children assigned maltreatment-related codes in a large medical system. We compared youth with maltreatment-related diagnoses (N = 406) with those of well-matched youth (N = 406). Data were based on EHRs during a 4-year period from the University of Minnesota's Clinical Data Repository, which covers eight hospitals and over 40 clinics across Minnesota. A primary care provider (PCP) was assigned to over 80% of youth in both groups...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Cheryl L Amoroso, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Dominique Rouleau, Dana R Thomson, Daniel M Kagabo, Tatien Bucyana, Peter Drobac, Fidele Ngabo
BACKGROUND: Sustained investments in Rwanda's health system have led to historic reductions in under five (U5) mortality. Although Rwanda achieved an estimated 68% decrease in the national under U5 mortality rate between 2002 and 2012, according to the national census, 5.8% of children still do not reach their fifth birthday, requiring the next wave of child mortality prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9002 births to 6328 women age 15-49 in the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Bruce Rosen
In Canada, there is an ongoing debate about whether to expand Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit on a universal basis. The potential health benefits are understood to be significant, but there are ongoing concerns about affordability. In Israel, the National Health Insurance benefits package includes a comprehensive pharmaceutical benefit. Nonetheless, per capita pharmaceutical spending is well below that of Canada and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development average. This paper highlights seven strategies that Israel has employed to constrain pharmaceutical spending: (1) prioritizing new technologies, subject to a global budget constraint; (2) using regulations and market power to secure fair and reasonable prices; (3) establishing an efficient pharmaceutical distribution system; (4) promoting effective prescribing behavior; (5) avoiding artificial inflation of consumer demand; (6) striking an appropriate balance between respect for IP rights, access and cost containment; and (7) developing a shared societal understanding about the value and limits of pharmaceutical spending...
February 5, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
Eirini Stafyla, Mary Geitona, Theodora Kerenidi, Athina Economou, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) places a major burden on health care systems and has substantial economic effects; however, the cost of stable disease in Greece has never been thoroughly explored. The objective of the study was to estimate the annual COPD patient cost during the maintenance phase and explore the relationships between the cost and disease severity. Methods: Data were collected from 245 COPD patients (male: 231, mean age: 69...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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