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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822898/beyond-dichotomies-m-others-structuring-and-the-development-of-toddlers-prosocial-behavior-across-cultures
#1
REVIEW
Joscha Kärtner
Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring...
August 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822299/avoidance-and-depression-vulnerability-an-examination-of-avoidance-in-remitted-and-currently-depressed-individuals
#2
Leanne Quigley, Alainna Wen, Keith S Dobson
Behavioral theories posit that depression is characterized by heightened levels of avoidance, and recent research has supported this notion. Whether avoidance persists after remission from depression is unknown, however. In this study, we investigated levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance in remitted, currently, and never depressed individuals. We also examined relationships among avoidance and purported adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Remitted depressed individuals exhibited levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, in social and nonsocial domains, that were greater than nonclinical control individuals but lower than currently depressed individuals...
July 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821967/effects-of-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-a-serotonergic-cell-line
#3
Zoya Marinova, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
The neuropeptides oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the regulation of social behavior and cognition. The current study analyzed the effect of oxytocin and AVP on proliferation and differentiation of serotonergic neurons (RN46A cells). Oxytocin did not affect, while 5-10 μM AVP decreased RN46A proliferation. Oxytocin did not significantly alter, while 10 μM AVP decreased the number of cells extending neurites. We found divergent effects of oxytocin and AVP in serotonergic neurons, underscoring their functional differences...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821408/is-late-life-dependency-increasing-or-not-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-function-and-ageing-studies-cfas
#4
Andrew Kingston, Pia Wohland, Raphael Wittenberg, Louise Robinson, Carol Brayne, Fiona E Matthews, Carol Jagger
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the proportions of dependency states have changed between generational cohorts of older people. We aimed to estimate years lived in different dependency states at age 65 years in 1991 and 2011, and new projections of future demand for care. METHODS: In this population-based study, we compared two Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and CFAS II) of older people (aged ≥65 years) who were permanently registered with a general practice in three defined geographical areas (Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham; UK)...
August 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820860/not-extent-of-telecommuting-but-job-characteristics-as-proximal-predictors-of-work-related-well-being
#5
Tinne Vander Elst, Ronny Verhoogen, Maarten Sercu, Anja Van den Broeck, Elfi Baillien, Lode Godderis
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the curvilinear relationship between extent of telecommuting and work-related well-being (ie, burnout, work engagement, and cognitive stress complaints), as well as to test whether job characteristics act as explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship. METHODS: A sample of 878 employees from an international telecommunication company with a long history of telecommuting participated in a survey on psychosocial risk factors and well-being at work...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820525/the-content-validity-of-a-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-patient-reported-outcome-measure
#6
Ellen M Lavoie Smith, Rylie Haupt, James P Kelly, Deborah Lee, Grace Kanzawa-Lee, Robert Knoerl, Celia Bridges, Paola Alberti, Nusara Prasertsri, Clare Donohoe
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test the content validity of a 16-item version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (QLQ-CIPN20). 
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Cross-sectional, prospective, qualitative design. 
. SETTING: Six outpatient oncology clinics within the University of Michigan Health System's comprehensive cancer center in Ann Arbor. 
...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#7
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819263/children-chimpanzees-and-bonobos-adjust-the-visibility-of-their-actions-for-cooperators-and-competitors
#8
Sebastian Grueneisen, Shona Duguid, Heiko Saur, Michael Tomasello
Chimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this in competitive interactions but this has rarely been directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the social context. In the cooperation condition, players' interests were matched: they had to make corresponding choices to be mutually rewarded...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819243/temporal-profiling-of-depression-vulnerability-in-a-preclinical-model-of-sustained-depression
#9
D Riga, L J M Schmitz, W J G Hoogendijk, A B Smit, S Spijker
Major Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is characterized by negative mood and reduced motivation, and frequently results in social withdrawal and memory-related deficits. Repeated stressors, such as adverse life events, increase the risk for development of the disorder. Consequently, individual variability in stress response greatly weighs on depression-vulnerability and -resilience. Here, we employed the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) paradigm to identify depression-prone individuals and to examine the temporal development of depression in the months following exposure to brief defeat stress...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819207/long-term-consistency-in-chimpanzee-consolation-behaviour-reflects-empathetic-personalities
#10
Christine E Webb, Teresa Romero, Becca Franks, Frans B M de Waal
In contrast to a wealth of human studies, little is known about the ontogeny and consistency of empathy-related capacities in other species. Consolation-post-conflict affiliation from uninvolved bystanders to distressed others-is a suggested marker of empathetic concern in non-human animals. Using longitudinal data comprising nearly a decade of observations on over 3000 conflict interactions in 44 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we provide evidence for relatively stable individual differences in consolation behaviour...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818708/non-technical-skills-assessment-for-prelicensure-nursing-students-an-integrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Sara Pires, Sara Monteiro, Anabela Pereira, Daniela Chaló, Elsa Melo, Alexandre Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: In nursing, non-technical skills are recognized as playing an important role to increase patient safety and successful clinical outcomes (Pearson and McLafferty, 2011). Non-technical skills are cognitive and social resource skills that complement technical skills and contribute to safe and efficient task performance (Flin et al., 2008). In order to effectively provide non-technical skills training, it is essential to have an instrument to measure these skills. METHODOLOGY: An online search was conducted...
August 12, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#12
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818417/referral-for-expert-physical-activity-counseling-a-pragmatic-rct
#13
Erica L James, Ben D Ewald, Natalie A Johnson, Fiona G Stacey, Wendy J Brown, Elizabeth G Holliday, Mark Jones, Fan Yang, Charlotte Hespe, Ronald C Plotnikoff
INTRODUCTION: Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. This trial aimed to (1) determine the efficacy of primary care physicians' referral of insufficiently active patients for counseling to increase physical activity, compared with usual care, and (2) compare the efficacy of face-to-face counseling with counseling predominantly via telephone...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818286/adding-sound-to-theory-of-mind-comparing-children-s-development-of-mental-state-understanding-in-the-auditory-and-visual-realms
#14
Anita A Hasni, Lauren B Adamson, Rebecca A Williamson, Diana L Robins
Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818053/the-impact-of-self-interviews-on-response-patterns-for-sensitive-topics-a-randomized-trial-of-electronic-delivery-methods-for-a-sexual-behaviour-questionnaire-in-rural-south-africa
#15
Guy Harling, Dumile Gumede, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Nuala McGrath, Janet Seeley, Deenan Pillay, Till W Bärnighausen, Abraham J Herbst
BACKGROUND: Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
August 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817966/attitudes-and-barriers-to-healthy-diet-and-physical-activity-a-latent-profile-analysis
#16
Christine A Vaughan, Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Tamara Dubowitz
Healthy diet and physical activity (PA) prevent and reduce chronic disease. Social cognitive theory delineates multiple attitudes and barriers that influence these behaviors. Understanding covariation in these attitudes and barriers is complex. We examined whether individuals could be grouped into a small number of categories that are easier to study. Interviews were conducted with 982 adults from two low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in the same city. Social cognitive constructs, including self-efficacy, social norms, and internal and external barriers to diet and exercise, and walking were self-reported...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817959/a-health-behavior-prediction-model-for-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Jiyoung Kim, Oksoo Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among functional status, hostility, social support, illness perceptions, and health behaviors in patients with coronary artery disease using structural equation modeling. Participants comprised 215 patients with coronary artery disease who had received percutaneous coronary artery intervention or a coronary artery bypass graft in two general hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Using structured interviews with questionnaires, data accrued from July to August, 2015...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817952/professional-socialization-a-grounded-theory-of-the-clinical-reasoning-processes-that-rns-and-lpns-use-to-recognize-delirium
#18
Mohamed El Hussein, Sandra Hirst, Joseph Osuji
Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition. It affects half of older adults in acute care settings and is a cause of increasing mortality and costs. Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) frequently fail to recognize delirium. The goals of this research were to identify the reasoning processes that RNs and LPNs use to recognize delirium, to compare their reasoning processes, and to generate a theory that explains their clinical reasoning processes. Theoretical sampling was employed to elicit data from 28 participants using grounded theory methodology...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815750/title-learning-theories-and-tools-for-the-assessment-of-core-nursing-competencies-in-simulation-a-theoretical-review
#19
REVIEW
Patrick Lavoie, Cécile Michaud, Marilou Bélisle, Louise Boyer, Émilie Gosselin, Myrian Grondin, Caroline Larue, Stéphan Lavoie, Jacinthe Pepin
AIM: To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. BACKGROUND: Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context-dependent. DESIGN: Theoretical review. DATA SOURCES: Research papers (N=182) published between 1999 - 2015 describing simulation in nursing education...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815654/early-predictors-of-psychosocial-functioning-5-years-after-paediatric-stroke
#20
Mardee Greenham, Vicki Anderson, Anna Cooper, Stephen Hearps, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Rod W Hunt, Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Anne L Gordon
AIM: Little is known about psychological and social outcomes after paediatric stroke. This study aimed to evaluate psychosocial outcomes in children 5 years after paediatric stroke and explore the contribution of early presenting factors. METHOD: Thirty-one children (19 males and 12 females) with arterial ischemic stroke were involved in this prospective, longitudinal study. Children underwent intellectual assessment at 12 months poststroke and parents completed questionnaires rating their own mental health and their child's functioning at 12 months and 5 years poststroke...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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