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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098503/relationship-between-perceived-competence-and-performance-during-real-and-virtual-motor-tasks-by-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#1
Batya Engel-Yeger, Rotem Sido, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Patrice L Weiss
PURPOSE: (i) To compare children with DCD and typically developing participants via standard motor assessments, two interactive virtual games, measures of physical, social and cognitive self-competence and feedback while playing the virtual games and (ii) To examine the contribution of age and each motor assessment to predict self-competence. METHODS: Participants were 25 boys with DCD and 25 typically developing boys, aged 5-9 years. They completed the M-ABC-2, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence, the 6-Minute Walk Test, and then played the two Kinect games and completed the Short Feedback Questionnaire for Children...
January 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098153/mecp2-regulates-cortical-plasticity-underlying-a-learned-behaviour-in-adult-female-mice
#2
Keerthi Krishnan, Billy Y B Lau, Gabrielle Ewall, Z Josh Huang, Stephen D Shea
Neurodevelopmental disorders are marked by inappropriate synaptic connectivity early in life, but how disruption of experience-dependent plasticity contributes to cognitive and behavioural decline in adulthood is unclear. Here we show that pup gathering behaviour and associated auditory cortical plasticity are impaired in female Mecp2(het) mice, a model of Rett syndrome. In response to learned maternal experience, Mecp2(het) females exhibited transient changes to cortical inhibitory networks typically associated with limited plasticity...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097675/the-swamplands-of-reflection-using-conversation-analysis-to-reveal-the-architecture-of-group-reflection-sessions
#3
Mario Veen, Anne de la Croix
CONTEXT: Many medical schools include group reflection in their curriculum, and many researchers have considered both the concept and the outcomes of reflection. However, no research has been carried out on how 'reflective talk' is structured in the classroom. This paper describes how tutors and residents organise group reflection sessions in situ by describing an example of group reflection in medical education. Our aim is to provide an evidence base that can be used by medical educators to think about the way reflection should be included in their curriculum...
January 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#4
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096881/design-and-methodology-of-the-korean-early-psychosis-cohort-study
#5
Sung-Wan Kim, Bong Ju Lee, Jung Jin Kim, Je-Chun Yu, Kyu Young Lee, Seung-Hee Won, Seung-Hwan Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Shi Hyun Kang, Young-Chul Chung
The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096869/short-term-psychiatric-rehabilitation-in-major-depressive-and-bipolar-disorders-neuropsychological-psychosocial-outcomes
#6
Giampaolo Perna, Silvia Daccò, Ferdinando Sacco, Wilma Micieli, Paolo Cavedini, Daniela Caldirola
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. METHODS: Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096678/risperidone-improves-interpersonal-perception-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Zhenhe Zhou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jun Wang, Hongmei Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether risperidone improves social cognitive impairments and executive dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. METHODS: Fifty-six patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were allocated to a risperidone treatment group (RTG, n=28) and a typical antipsychotic treatment group (TATG, n=28). Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal control group (NCG)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095813/vocational-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-psychotic-disorders-in-a-scandinavian-welfare-society
#9
Erik Falkum, Ole Klungsøyr, June Ullevoldsæter Lystad, Helen Christine Bull, Stig Evensen, Egil W Martinsen, Svein Friis, Torill Ueland
BACKGROUND: This study examined the outcomes of a vocational rehabilitation program (The Job Management Program, JUMP) for persons with psychotic disorders based on close collaboration between health and welfare services. METHODS: Participants (N = 148) with broad schizophrenia spectrum disorders (age 18-65) were recruited from six counties in Norway. Three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), while the remaining three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive remediation (CR)...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095334/predictors-and-mediators-of-trait-anger-across-the-psychosis-continuum-the-role-of-attachment-style-paranoia-and-social-cognition
#10
Hannah Darrell-Berry, Sandra Bucci, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Richard Emsley, Richard Drake, Katherine Berry
Anger in the context of psychosis has a significant impact on treatment outcomes and serious implications for risk management. Understanding mechanisms underlying anger will improve interventions and inform strategies for prevention. This study is the first to examine the relationships between anger and key theoretical drivers across different phases of the psychosis continuum. A battery including measures of theory of mind, attachment, hostile attribution bias, paranoia and anger was administered to 174 participants (14 ultra-high risk, 20 first-episode, 20 established psychosis, 120 non-clinical participants)...
January 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#11
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095056/correlates-of-adaptive-functioning-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Kyle M Frost, Natalie Hong, Catherine Lord
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have significant delays in adaptive functioning. In this study, the relationship between adaptive behavior and ASD symptomatology was investigated in minimally verbal, school-aged children with ASD (n = 333). Both the social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) domains from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were analyzed in relation to adaptive skills. ADOS SA scores contributed unique variance to scores in each Vineland domain, though cognitive ability and age accounted for considerably more variance across domains...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095000/the-challenge-of-abstract-concepts
#13
Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Felice Cimatti, Claudia Scorolli, Luca Tummolini
concepts ("freedom") differ from concrete ones ("cat"), as they do not have a bounded, identifiable, and clearly perceivable referent. The way in which abstract concepts are represented has recently become a topic of intense debate, especially because of the spread of the embodied approach to cognition. Within this framework concepts derive their meaning from the same perception, motor, and emotional systems that are involved in online interaction with the world. Most of the evidence in favor of this view, however, has been gathered with regard to concrete concepts...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#14
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094171/the-relationship-of-cognitive-improvement-after-cognitive-remediation-with-social-functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-severe-cognitive-deficits
#15
J P Lindenmayer, Samantha Fregenti, Guoxin Kang, Veronica Ozog, Isidora Ljuri, Anzalee Khan, A Goldring, Susan R McGurk
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the effects of change in neurocognition on functional outcomes and to examine predictors of change in social functions following a 12-week course of cognitive remediation in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with severe cognitive impairments. METHOD: Level of social functioning was assessed using a performance based measure of functional capacity (PSP) in patients prior to and after the completion of 12-week cognitive remediation treatment (CRT)...
January 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094169/a-12-week-randomized-controlled-trial-of-twice-daily-intranasal-oxytocin-for-social-cognitive-deficits-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#16
L Fredrik Jarskog, Cort A Pedersen, Jacqueline L Johnson, Robert M Hamer, Shane W Rau, Tonya Elliott, David L Penn
Social cognition is impaired in people with schizophrenia and these deficits are strongly correlated with social functioning. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic peptide that contributes to maternal infant bonding and has diverse pro-social effects in adults. This study tested the hypothesis that 12weeks of intranasal oxytocin will improve social cognitive function in outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Sixty-eight eligible participants were randomized to oxytocin (24IU twice daily) or placebo...
January 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093761/soul-in-the-world-symbolic-culture-as-the-medium-for-psyche
#17
Warren Colman
Whilst the loss of a sense of living connection with the material world is mainly associated with the scientific revolution in seventeenth century Europe, it can be traced back to Plato's introduction of a hierarchy between soul and body. Jung's attempted solution to this - esse in anima - is ingenious but maintains the Cartesian split by which the aliveness of the world is reduced to a projection of psychic forces (the archetypes). An alternative approach is proposed, rooted in the Aristotelean emphasis on practical activity that sees the soul as a function of our way of being in the world...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093278/similar-patterns-of-brain-activation-abnormalities-during-emotional-and-non-emotional-judgments-of-faces-in-a-schizophrenia-family-study
#18
Michael J Spilka, Vina M Goghari
Schizophrenia patients have impaired performance and abnormal brain activation during facial emotion recognition, which may represent a marker of genetic liability to schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment is specific to recognizing emotion from faces or is instead attributable to more generalized dysfunction. The current study aimed to distinguish between specific and generalized neural dysfunction underlying impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia and examine associations with genetic liability...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092774/the-lonely-road-to-paranoia-a-path-analytic-investigation-of-loneliness-and-paranoia
#19
Fabian Lamster, Tania M Lincoln, Clara M Nittel, Winfried Rief, Stephanie Mehl
Loneliness and paranoia are related, but the mechanisms that link them to each other remain unclear. Systematic reviews on loneliness propose a social-cognitive model in which loneliness leads to negative evaluations of other persons and a lack of interpersonal trust. However, the data discussed in these reviews are based on healthy individuals. Building on this model, the present study investigated 1) whether negative interpersonal schemata mediate the association between loneliness and paranoia and 2) whether a low level of perceived social support and less frequent social contact are related to loneliness...
January 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091349/intranasal-oxytocin-increases-facial-expressivity-but-not-ratings-of-trustworthiness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#20
J D Woolley, B Chuang, C Fussell, S Scherer, B Biagianti, D Fulford, D H Mathalon, S Vinogradov
BACKGROUND: Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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