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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#1
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912882/young-children-fail-to-generate-an-additive-ratchet-effect-in-an-open-ended-construction-task
#2
Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie
The ratchet effect-the gradual accumulation of changes within a cultural trait beyond a level that individuals can achieve on their own-arguably rests on two key cognitive abilities: high-fidelity social learning and innovation. Researchers have started to simulate the ratchet effect in the laboratory to identify its underlying social learning mechanisms, but studies on the developmental origins of the ratchet effect remain sparse. We used the transmission chain method and a tower construction task that had previously been used with adults to investigate whether "generations" of children between 4 and 6 years were able to make a technological product that individual children could not yet achieve...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912630/less-is-more-effects-of-exhaustive-vs-minimal-emotion-labelling-on-emotion-regulation-strategy-planning
#3
Vera Vine, Emily E Bernstein, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Previous research suggests that labelling emotions, or describing affective states using emotion words, facilitates emotion regulation. But how much labelling promotes emotion regulation? And which emotion regulation strategies does emotion labelling promote? Drawing on cognitive theories of emotion, we predicted that labelling emotions using fewer words would be less confusing and would facilitate forms of emotion regulation requiring more cognitively demanding processing of context. Participants (N = 82) mentally immersed themselves in an emotional vignette, were randomly assigned to an exhaustive or minimal emotion labelling manipulation, and then completed an emotion regulation strategy planning task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912435/functional-segregation-of-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-evidence-from-coactivation-based-parcellation
#4
Gesa Hartwigsen, Nicole E Neef, Julia A Camilleri, Daniel S Margulies, Simon B Eickhoff
Previous studies helped unraveling the functional architecture of the human cerebral cortex. However, a comprehensive functional segregation of right lateral prefrontal cortex is missing. Here, we delineated cortical clusters in right area 44 and 45 based on their task-constrained whole-brain activation patterns across neuroimaging experiments obtained from a large database. We identified 5 clusters that differed with respect to their coactivation patterns, which were consistent with resting-state functional connectivity patterns of an independent dataset...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912031/canine-outreach-promoting-engagement-the-effect-of-meaningful-activities-on-students-attitudes-toward-cognitively-impaired-older-adults
#5
B Morgan Yordy, W Stuart Pope, Chih-Hsuan Wang
Animal-assisted activities (AAAs) show promise in providing emotional and social benefits to older adults and may be used as a tool to promote therapeutic communication between students and cognitively impaired older adults. The purpose was to develop a program incorporating AAAs to enhance social engagement of cognitively impaired older adults in a community respite program and in turn enhance student comfort when caring for this vulnerable population. The Dementia Attitudes Scale, a validated tool, was used to measure students' attitudes before and after AAA intervention...
June 14, 2018: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911891/involvement-of-the-amygdala-in-memory-and-psychosocial-functioning-in-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Rivka Green, Ayala Adler, Brenda L Banwell, Tracy L Fabri, E Ann Yeh, D Louis Collins, John G Sled, Sridar Narayanan, Christine Till
Youth with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience cognitive impairment and psychosocial disturbances. We describe the relationship between memory function, psychosocial skills, and brain volume in 32 patients with pediatric-onset MS and 30 controls. Amygdala volume was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. In general, poorer memory was associated with reduced functional communication skills and reduced amygdala volume. Greater amygdala volume in patients correlated with parent-reported functional communication and social skills...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911881/who-s-to-blame-dissimilarity-as-a-cue-in-moral-judgments-of-observed-ostracism-episodes
#7
Selma Carolin Rudert, Daniela Sutter, Veronique Charlotte Corrodi, Rainer Greifeneder
When observing an ostracism episode, observers may wish to know whether ostracism is justified or not. If ostracism appears unjustified, observers will likely blame the sources and sympathize with the target; if it appears justified, observers will likely blame and devalue the target. Here we introduce the "social dissimilarity rule," which holds that observers base their moral judgments on dissimilarities between the members of the observed group. In five studies, participants either recalled observed ostracism episodes or observed group interactions in which one group member was ostracized (e...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911679/local-connectome-phenotypes-predict-social-health-and-cognitive-factors
#8
Michael A Powell, Javier O Garcia, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain...
2018: Network neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911493/normative-data-for-the-digit-symbol-substitution-test-in-a-population-based-sample-aged-65-79-years-results-from-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-for-adults-degs1
#9
Beate Gaertner, Michael Wagner, Tobias Luck, Amanda K Buttery, Judith Fuchs, Markus A Busch
OBJECTIVE: To provide normative data for the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III) in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults in Germany according to age, sex, and level of education. METHOD: The sample comprised 1385 participants aged 65-79 years from the nationwide representative 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults' (DEGS1, 2008-2011). Participants with known cognitive impairment or dementia, other medical conditions affecting cognition, or currently using psychotropic drugs were excluded...
June 17, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911404/scors-g-and-card-pull-effect-of-tat-stories-a-study-with-a-nonclinical-sample-of-children
#10
Andrea F Auletta, Simone Cupellaro, Luigi Abbate, Elena Aiello, Pamela Cornacchia, Claudia Norcia, Carla Sogos
Previous research has shown that stimulus pull is one of the contributory factors influencing Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) responses. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of studies examining this. In particular, the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) has been employed to examine stimulus pull in adult clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study is the first attempt to examine this issue in a nonclinical sample of children. Ninety-eight children from Italian elementary (1st to 5th grade) and middle (6th to 8th grade) schools provided narratives to six TAT cards (1, 2, 3BM, 4, 8BM, and 16)...
June 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911318/generalized-information-theory-meets-human-cognition-introducing-a-unified-framework-to-model-uncertainty-and-information-search
#11
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911180/mammalian-trim67-functions-in-brain-development-and-behavior
#12
Nicholas P Boyer, Caroline Monkiewicz, Shalini Menon, Sheryl S Moy, Stephanie L Gupton
Class I members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases evolutionarily appeared just prior to the advent of neuronal like cells and have been implicated in neuronal development from invertebrates to mammals. The single Class I TRIM in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian Class I TRIM9 regulate axon branching and guidance in response to the guidance cue netrin, whereas mammalian TRIM46 establishes the axon initial segment. In humans, mutations in TRIM1 and TRIM18 are implicated in Opitz Syndrome, characterized by midline defects and often intellectual disability...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910769/assessment-of-perceived-attractiveness-usability-and-societal-impact-of-a-multimodal-robotic-assistant-for-aging-patients-with-memory-impairments
#13
Justyna Gerłowska, Urszula Skrobas, Katarzyna Grabowska-Aleksandrowicz, Agnieszka Korchut, Sebastian Szklener, Dorota Szczęśniak-Stańczyk, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Konrad Rejdak
The aim of the present study is to present the results of the assessment of clinical application of the robotic assistant for patients suffering from mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD). The human-robot interaction (HRI) evaluation approach taken within the study is a novelty in the field of social robotics. The proposed assessment of the robotic functionalities are based on end-user perception of attractiveness, usability and potential societal impact of the device. The methods of evaluation applied consist of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ), AttrakDiff and the societal impact inventory tailored for the project purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910759/a-pilot-study-of-the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-on-positive-affect-and-social-anxiety-symptoms
#14
Marlene V Strege, Deanna Swain, Lauren Bochicchio, Andrew Valdespino, John A Richey
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing residual depressive symptoms and preventing future depressive episodes (Kuyken et al., 2016). One potential treatment effect of MBCT may be improvement of positive affect (PA), due to improved awareness of daily positive events (Geschwind et al., 2011). Considering social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by diminished PA (Brown et al., 1998; Kashdan, 2007), we sought to determine whether MBCT would reduce social anxiety symptoms, and whether this reduction would be associated with improvement of PA deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910755/promoting-well-being-in-old-age-the-psychological-benefits-of-two-training-programs-of-adapted-physical-activity
#15
Antonella Delle Fave, Marta Bassi, Elena S Boccaletti, Carlotta Roncaglione, Giuseppina Bernardelli, Daniela Mari
In the last few decades, the relationship between physical conditions and mental health has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers and professionals across disciplines. This relationship is especially relevant in old age, as the challenges posed by aging at various levels represent crucial concerns for policy makers. Due to the remarkable increase in life expectancy across countries, sustainable prevention strategies are needed to help individuals preserve psychophysical well-being in old age. In particular, the regular practice of a moderately intense physical activity is recommended by the World Health Organization to enhance balance, prevent falls, strengthen muscles, and promote psychophysical well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910709/a-complex-relationship-between-suicide-dementia-and-amyloid-a-narrative-review
#16
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910120/does-social-cognition-training-augment-response-to-computer-assisted-cognitive-remediation-for-schizophrenia
#17
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Anzalee Khan, Susan R McGurk, Mila Kirstie C Kulsa, Isidora Ljuri, Veronica Ozog, Samantha Fregenti, Gianna Capodilupo, Kiara Buccellato, Amod Thanju, Abraham Goldring, Mohan Parak, Benedicto Parker
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has shown significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia. However, effect sizes of CRT have been reported to be modest raising the issue how to augment the effects of CRT on neurocognition and social cognition. Our aim was to examine whether the addition of computerized social cognition training would enhance the effects on neurocognition and social cognition as compared to CRT alone. METHODS: This is a 12-week, parallel group trial of 131 in- and out-patients with schizophrenia randomized to CRT (COGPACK or Brain Fitness) with computerized social cognition training (MRIGE), or CRT alone for 36 sessions...
June 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909768/-psychotherapy-of-psychotic-disorders
#18
Fabian Lamster, Matthias Jäger
Psychotherapy of psychotic disorders Abstract. The efficacy of psychotherapy for individuals with psychotic disorders is well documented and its implementation is recommended by international guidelines. Goals of psychotherapeutic interventions are reduction of symptoms, prevention of relapse, improvement of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, social integration and participation, and enhancement of quality of life as well as self-perception. Cognitive-behavioral and family interventions, cognitive and social trainings as well as psychoeducation are particularly recommended according to the literature...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909740/effects-of-social-and-affective-content-on-exogenous-attention-as-revealed-by-event-related-potentials
#19
Vladimir Kosonogov, Jose M Martinez-Selva, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Ginesa Torrente, Luis Carretié, Juan P Sanchez-Navarro
The social content of affective stimuli has been proposed as having an influence on cognitive processing and behaviour. This research was aimed, therefore, at studying whether automatic exogenous attention demanded by affective pictures was related to their social value. We hypothesised that affective social pictures would capture attention to a greater extent than non-social affective stimuli. For this purpose, we recorded event-related potentials in a sample of 24 participants engaged in a digit categorisation task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909594/the-influence-of-adolescence-on-parents-perspectives-of-testing-and-discussing-inherited-cancer-predisposition
#20
Corinna L Schultz, Melissa A Alderfer, Robert B Lindell, Zachary McClain, Kristin Zelley, Kim E Nichols, Carol A Ford
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome that may present with a first cancer before or during adolescence/young adulthood. Families offered LFS genetic testing for their children can inform our understanding of how the unique developmental context of adolescence influences parental perspectives about genetic testing and discussions of cancer risk. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 46 parents of children at risk for LFS to capture those perspectives...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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