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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911168/effectiveness-of-communication-specific-coping-intervention-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-results
#1
Jacinta M Douglas, Lucy Knox, Carren De Maio, Helen Bridge, Melanie Drummond, Joanne Whiteoak
People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) describe everyday interactions as a long-term challenge frequently associated with ongoing stress. Communication-specific Coping Intervention (CommCope-I) is a new treatment developed to target coping in the context of communication breakdown. The intervention incorporates principles of cognitive behavioural therapy, self-coaching and context-sensitive social communication therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of CommCope-I in a group of adults with severe TBI and ongoing functional communication difficulties...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911014/the-effectiveness-of-an-outdoor-adventure-programme-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-controlled-study
#2
Ditza A Zachor, Shira Vardi, Shani Baron-Eitan, Inbal Brodai-Meir, Noa Ginossar, Esther Ben-Itzchak
AIM: Outdoor adventure programmes aim to improve interpersonal relationships using adventurous activities. The current study examined the effectiveness of an outdoor adventure programme in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: The study included 51 participants (40 males, 11 females; age 3y 4mo-7y 4mo) enrolled in ASD special education kindergartens. Only the intervention group (n=30) participated in the outdoor adventure programme for 13 weeks, completing challenging physical activities that required cooperation and communication with peers and instructors...
December 2, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910724/attentional-networks-and-visuospatial-working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety
#3
Jun Moriya
Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#4
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#5
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909161/test-of-a-social-cognitive-model-of-well-being-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#6
Trisha L Raque-Bogdan, Robert W Lent, Brooke Lamphere
Given the potentially long-standing emotional impact of breast cancer, theoretical models are needed to identify critical resources and coping strategies that optimize survivors' long-term adjustment. This study tested a model of well-being recovery with breast cancer survivors at 4 years post-treatment. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between affect, loneliness, self-compassion, self-efficacy for coping with cancer, well-being, and life satisfaction. Two model variations offered good fit to the data, accounting for large portions of the variance in well-being and life satisfaction...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909047/exercise-in-patients-on-dialysis-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Fabio Manfredini, Francesca Mallamaci, Graziella D'Arrigo, Rossella Baggetta, Davide Bolignano, Claudia Torino, Nicola Lamberti, Silvio Bertoli, Daniele Ciurlino, Lisa Rocca-Rey, Antonio Barillà, Yuri Battaglia, Renato Mario Rapanà, Alessandro Zuccalà, Graziella Bonanno, Pasquale Fatuzzo, Francesco Rapisarda, Stefania Rastelli, Fabrizio Fabrizi, Piergiorgio Messa, Luciano De Paola, Luigi Lombardi, Adamasco Cupisti, Giorgio Fuiano, Gaetano Lucisano, Chiara Summaria, Michele Felisatti, Enrico Pozzato, Anna Maria Malagoni, Pietro Castellino, Filippo Aucella, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Pasquale Fabio Provenzano, Giovanni Tripepi, Luigi Catizone, Carmine Zoccali
Previous studies have suggested the benefits of physical exercise for patients on dialysis. We conducted the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis trial, a 6-month randomized, multicenter trial to test whether a simple, personalized walking exercise program at home, managed by dialysis staff, improves functional status in adult patients on dialysis. The main study outcomes included change in physical performance at 6 months, assessed by the 6-minute walking test and the five times sit-to-stand test, and in quality of life, assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909039/algorithm-for-predicting-death-among-older-adults-in-the-home-care-setting-study-protocol-for-the-risk-evaluation-for-support-predictions-for-elder-life-in-the-community-tool-respect
#8
Amy T Hsu, Douglas G Manuel, Monica Taljaard, Mathieu Chalifoux, Carol Bennett, Andrew P Costa, Susan Bronskill, Daniel Kobewka, Peter Tanuseputro
INTRODUCTION: Older adults living in the community often have multiple, chronic conditions and functional impairments. A challenge for healthcare providers working in the community is the lack of a predictive tool that can be applied to the broad spectrum of mortality risks observed and may be used to inform care planning. OBJECTIVE: To predict survival time for older adults in the home care setting. The final mortality risk algorithm will be implemented as a web-based calculator that can be used by older adults needing care and by their caregivers...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909017/early-environmental-field-research-career-exploration-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-precollege-apprentices
#9
Susan K Flowers, Katherine M Beyer, Maria Pérez, Donna B Jeffe
Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station-based research teams...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#10
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#11
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
November 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#12
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907279/development-of-norms-for-executive-functions-in-typically-developing-indian-urban-preschool-children-and-its-association-with-nutritional-status
#13
Sumithra Selvam, Tinku Thomas, Priya Shetty, K Thennarasu, Vijaya Raman, Deepti Khanna, Ruchika Mehra, Anura V Kurpad, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
Executive functions (EFs) are essential and important for achieving success in children's everyday lives and play a fundamental role in children's cognitive, academic, social, emotional and behavioral functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried out to develop age- and sex-specific norms for EFs using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) among 2- to 5-year-olds from urban Bangalore, India. In addition, the association between EFs and anthropometric measures, a marker of nutritional status, is also examined...
December 1, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#14
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#15
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906517/the-development-of-motor-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Karen E Adolph, John M Franchak
This article reviews research on the development of motor behavior from a developmental systems perspective. We focus on infancy when basic action systems are acquired. Posture provides a stable base for locomotion, manual actions, and facial actions. Experience facilitates improvements in motor behavior and infants accumulate immense amounts of experience with all of their basic action systems. At every point in development, perception guides motor behavior by providing feedback about the results of just prior movements and information about what to do next...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#17
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905975/health-profile-of-centenarians-in-portugal-a-census-based-approach
#18
Oscar Ribeiro, Laetitia Teixeira, Lia Araújo, Constança Paúl
BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians is rapidly increasing in Europe. In Portugal, it has almost tripled over the last 10 years and constitutes one of the fastest-growing segments of the population. This paper aims to describe the health and sociodemographic characteristics of Portuguese centenarians as given in the 2011 census and to identify sex differences. METHODS: All persons living in Portugal mainland and Madeira and Azores islands aged 100 years old at the time of the 2011 census (N = 1,526) were considered...
April 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905966/rapid-assessment-of-disability-in-the-philippines-understanding-prevalence-well-being-and-access-to-the-community-for-people-with-disabilities-to-inform-the-w-dare-project
#19
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#20
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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