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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054881/ablation-of-tfr1-in-purkinje-cells-inhibits-mglu1-trafficking-and-impairs-motor-coordination-but-not-autistic-like-behaviors
#1
Jia-Huan Zhou, Xin-Tai Wang, Liang Zhou, Lin Zhou, Fang-Xiao Xu, Li-Da Su, Hao Wang, Fan Jia, Fu-Qiang Xu, Gui-Quan Chen, Chris De Zeeuw, Ying Shen
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) are critical to synapse formation and participate in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the brain. mGlu1/5 signaling alterations have been documented in cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric diseases, but underlying mechanisms for its modulation are not clear. Here, we report that transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), a trans-membrane protein of clathrin complex, modulates the trafficking of mGlu1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) from male mice...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054552/cross-talk-among-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptors-relevance-for-basic-and-clinical-studies-of-the-brain-and-periphery
#2
REVIEW
Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in the brain to regulate social cognition/social behavior and in the periphery to influence a variety of physiological processes. Although the chemical structures of OT and AVP as well as their receptors are quite similar, OT and AVP can have distinct or even opposing actions. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence that exogenously administered and endogenously released OT and AVP can activate each other's canonical receptors (i.e., cross-talk) and examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk following the synaptic and non-synaptic release of OT and AVP contributes to their distinct roles in the brain and periphery...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054333/developmental-trend-of-children-with-down-s-syndrome-how-do-sex-and-neonatal-conditions-influence-their-developmental-patterns
#3
Sayaka Aoki, Yuko Yamauchi, Keiji Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated factors that would influence developmental trend of children with Down's syndrome (DS) in three different domains (motor, cognitive, language), specifically focusing on the effect of sex and neonatal conditions, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The participants were 158 children with DS (mean age at the initial test = 25.5 months) receiving clinical service at a rehabilitation center in Yokohama, Japan...
October 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054290/addictive-behaviors-why-and-how-impaired-mental-time-matters
#4
Xavier Noël, Nematollah Jaafari, Antoine Bechara
Mental time travel (MTT) allows navigation into the past, the future, and the minds of others, and it subserves future-oriented decision-making. Impaired MTT has been associated with a tendency to over-rely on the present, which is a characteristic of addictive behaviors. We here discuss the possible relationship between impaired autographical memory, future-oriented MTT, shortened time horizons, suboptimal social cognition, and poor decision-making in individuals with drug and gambling use disorders. We elaborate on how impaired MTT could compromise the process of change in addiction recovery and the effectiveness of psychotherapy...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053891/look-beyond-the-door-not-through-the-keyhole-evidence-from-a-cognitive-assessment-including-social-cognition-evaluation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
EDITORIAL
Antonio Carotenuto
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder leading to both physical and cognitive disability in young adults. These limitations harshly impact the overall subject's habits and are predictive of poor social integration, resulting in reduced working activity and limited social network [1]. To this point, among the cognitive domains that could be impaired in MS, Social Cognition (SC) can have a direct impact on this outcome, due to its involvement in social interactions. This article is protected by copyright...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053121/-possibilities-of-cavinton-therapy-regimen-for-infusions-and-cavinton-comforte-in-acute-and-early-recovery-periods-after-ischemic-stroke
#6
L A Belova, V V Mashin, A N Proshin, A N Ovsyannicova, B B Kostishko
AIM: To study the efficacy of a current regimen of treatment with cavinton for infusions and cavinton comforte in patients with ischemic stroke in acute and early recovery periods and to evaluate an impact of treatment on erythrocyte deformity using atomic power microscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four patients with hemispheric ischemic stroke, aged from 30 to 79 years, were randomized into main (n=100) and control (n=64) groups. Patients of the main group received complex treatment (basic therapy and cavinton R for drop infusions (10 intravenously during 10 days) followed by cavinton R comforte in dose 10 mg, 1 tablet 3 times a day during 90 days)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052307/instrumental-learning-and-cognitive-flexibility-processes-are-impaired-in-children-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#7
Madeline B Harms, Katherine E Shannon Bowen, Jamie L Hanson, Seth D Pollak
Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings...
October 19, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051684/a-tripartite-taxonomy-of-character-evidence-for-intrapersonal-interpersonal-and-intellectual-competencies-in-children
#8
Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L Duckworth
Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities...
January 2017: Contemporary Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#9
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049935/intranasal-oxytocin-in-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-randomized-controlled-trial-during-re-feeding
#10
Janice Russell, Sarah Maguire, Glenn E Hunt, Alice Kesby, Anastasia Suraev, Jordyn Stuart, Jessica Booth, Iain S McGregor
BACKGROUND: Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa (AN) is impeded by fear of food, eating and change leading to treatment resistance. Oxytocin (OT) exerts prosocial effects and modulates trust, fear, anxiety and neuroplasticity. The current placebo-controlled RCT examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) in AN. The aim was to ascertain whether repeated doses of IN-OT enhance treatment outcomes in AN. METHODS: AN patients self-administered 36 IU IN-OT or placebo daily for 4-6 weeks during hospital treatment...
October 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049100/models-of-borderline-personality-disorder-recent-advances-and-new-perspectives
#11
Alessandra D'Agostino, Mario Rossi Monti, Vladan Starcevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant conceptual models of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with a focus on recent developments in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Several conceptual models have been proposed with the aim of better understanding BPD: the borderline personality organization, emotion dysregulation, reflective (mentalization) dysfunction, interpersonal hypersensitivity and hyperbolic temperament models. These models have all been supported to some extent and their common components include disorganized attachment and traumatic early experiences, emotion dysregulation, interpersonal sensitivity and difficulties with social cognition...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048944/risk-factors-for-social-networking-site-scam-victimization-among-malaysian-students
#12
Grainne H Kirwan, Chris Fullwood, Brendan Rooney
Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048571/pain-in-survivors-of-pediatric-cancer-applying-a-prevention-framework
#13
Amanda L Stone, Cynthia W Karlson, Lauren C Heathcote, Abby R Rosenberg, Tonya M Palermo
To apply a biopsychosocial framework to understand factors influencing pain in survivors of pediatric cancer to inform pain prevention efforts and highlight the need for interdisciplinary care. This topical review draws from both pediatric cancer survivorship research and chronic noncancer pain research to illustrate how components of a preventative model can be applied to pain in survivorship. Pain is a common experience among long-term survivors of pediatric cancer. The pain experience in survivorship can be conceptualized in terms of biological disease and treatment factors, cognitive and affective factors, and social and contextual factors...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#14
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047246/social-support-as-a-mediator-of-posttraumatic-embitterment-and-perceptions-of-meaning-in-life-among-danwon-survivors-of-the-sewol-ferry-disaster
#15
So Hee Lee, Hee Sun Nam, Hak Beom Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Sung Doo Won, Jeong Ho Chae
PURPOSE: Our research was designed to test and explore the relationships among embitterment, social support, and perceptions of meaning in life in the Danwon High School survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five Sewol ferry disaster survivors were eligible for participation, and were invited to participate in the study 28 months after the disaster. Forty-eight (64%) survivors (24 males, 24 females) completed questionnaires; the Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED) scale, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ)...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046651/robots-as-intentional-agents-using-neuroscientific-methods-to-make-robots-appear-more-social
#16
REVIEW
Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta, Agnieszka Wykowska
Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046650/alcohol-binge-drinking-and-executive-functioning-during-adolescent-brain-development
#17
Soledad Gil-Hernandez, Patricia Mateos, Claudia Porras, Raquel Garcia-Gomez, Enrique Navarro, Luis M Garcia-Moreno
Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046483/deficiency-of-shank2-causes-mania-like-behavior-that-responds-to-mood-stabilizers
#18
Andrea L Pappas, Alexandra L Bey, Xiaoming Wang, Mark Rossi, Yong Ho Kim, Haidun Yan, Fiona Porkka, Lara J Duffney, Samantha M Phillips, Xinyu Cao, Jin-Dong Ding, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Henry H Yin, Richard J Weinberg, Ru-Rong Ji, William C Wetsel, Yong-Hui Jiang
Genetic defects in the synaptic scaffolding protein gene, SHANK2, are linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and bipolar disorder, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the pleotropic effects of SHANK2 mutations are poorly understood. We generated and characterized a line of Shank2 mutant mice by deleting exon 24 (Δe24). Shank2Δe24-/- mice engage in significantly increased locomotor activity, display abnormal reward-seeking behavior, are anhedonic, have perturbations in circadian rhythms, and show deficits in social and cognitive behaviors...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046380/re-evaluating-the-link-between-brain-size-and-behavioural-ecology-in-primates
#19
Lauren E Powell, Karin Isler, Robert A Barton
Comparative studies have identified a wide range of behavioural and ecological correlates of relative brain size, with results differing between taxonomic groups, and even within them. In primates for example, recent studies contradict one another over whether social or ecological factors are critical. A basic assumption of such studies is that with sufficiently large samples and appropriate analysis, robust correlations indicative of selection pressures on cognition will emerge. We carried out a comprehensive re-examination of correlates of primate brain size using two large comparative datasets and phylogenetic comparative methods...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046041/development-and-content-validation-of-the-transition-readiness-inventory-item-pool-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer
#20
Lisa A Schwartz, Jessica L Hamilton, Lauren D Brumley, Lamia P Barakat, Janet A Deatrick, Dava E Szalda, Katherine B Bevans, Carole A Tucker, Lauren C Daniel, Eliana Butler, Anne E Kazak, Wendy L Hobbie, Jill P Ginsberg, Alexandra M Psihogios, Elizabeth Ver Hoeve, Lisa K Tuchman
Objective: The development of the Transition Readiness Inventory (TRI) item pool for adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors is described, aiming to both advance transition research and provide an example of the application of NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Information System methods. Methods: Using rigorous measurement development methods including mixed methods, patient and parent versions of the TRI item pool were created based on the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and young adult Readiness for Transition (SMART)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
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