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Abdalla Ahmed, Paul Delgado-Olguin
Isolation of highly purified populations of embryonic cardiomyocytes enables the study of congenital cardiac phenotypes at the cellular level. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is normally used to isolate fluorescently tagged cells. Here we describe the isolation of differentiating mouse embryonic cardiac progenitors and cardiomyocytes at embryonic day (E) 9.5 and E13.5, respectively by FACS. Over 50,000 differentiating cardiac progenitors and 200,000 cardiomyocytes can be obtained in a single prep using the methods described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Takeo Fujino, Shujiro Inoue, Shunsuke Katsuki, Taiki Higo, Tomomi Ide, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with atrial tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. He had been diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) during childhood, but he never received any red blood cell transfusions. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed multiple myocardial hemosiderin deposits, and he was diagnosed with cardiac hemochromatosis. In addition to the iron deposition in the heart, the loss of myocyte and severe interstitial fibrosis were present. His cardiac function did not improve even after the cardioversion for atrial tachycardia, and he suffered from recurrent heart failure...
March 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Judit Balog, Remko Goossens, Richard J L F Lemmers, Kirsten R Straasheijm, Patrick J van der Vliet, Anita van den Heuvel, Chiara Cambieri, Nicolas Capet, Léonard Feasson, Veronique Manel, Julian Contet, Marjolein Kriek, Colleen M Donlin-Smith, Claudia A L Ruivenkamp, Patricia Heard, Stephen J Tapscott, Jannine D Cody, Rabi Tawil, Sabrina Sacconi, Silvère M van der Maarel
BACKGROUND: 18p deletion syndrome is a rare disorder caused by partial or full monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18. Clinical symptoms caused by 18p hemizygosity include cognitive impairment, mild facial dysmorphism, strabismus and ptosis. Among other genes, structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 ( SMCHD1 ) is hemizygous in most patients with 18p deletions. Digenic inheritance of a SMCHD1 mutation and a moderately sized D4Z4 repeat on a facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) permissive genetic background of chromosome 4 can cause FSHD type 2 (FSHD2)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Shengbing Wang, Vidya Venkatraman, Erin L Crowgey, Ting Liu, Zongming Fu, Ronald J Holewinski, Mark J J Ranek, David A Kass, Brian O'Rourke, Jennifer E Van Eyk
<u>Rationale:</u> Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a multifunctional and constitutively active kinase known to regulate a myriad of cellular processes. The primary mechanism to regulate its function is through phosphorylation-dependent inhibition at serine-9 residue. Emerging evidence indicates that there may be alternative mechanisms that control GSK3β for certain functions. <u>Objective:</u> Here we sought to understand the role of protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) on the function of GSK3β...
March 21, 2018: Circulation Research
Geoffrey D Abrams, David Feldman, Marc R Safran
Vitamin D is known to be important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor (ie, vitamin D receptor) located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including myocyte proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Leandra Linhares-Lacerda, Alessandra Granato, João Francisco Gomes-Neto, Luciana Conde, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Elisangela O de Freitas, Celio G Freire-de-Lima, Shana P Coutinho Barroso, Rodrigo Jorge de Alcântara Guerra, Roberto C Pedrosa, Wilson Savino, Alexandre Morrot
Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most severe clinical manifestation of chronic Chagas disease. The disease affects most of the Latin American countries, being considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in the continent. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is very complex, with mechanisms involving parasite-dependent cytopathy, immune-mediated myocardial damage and neurogenic disturbances. These pathological changes eventually result in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure and stroke during chronic infection phase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benjamin L Viglianti, Daniel J Wale, Ka Kit Wong, Timothy D Johnson, Christy Ky, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
Purpose To examine the effect metabolic burden (tumor and/or cardiac myocyte uptake) has on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in organs and tissues of interest. Materials and Methods Positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) scans at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs hospital from January to July 2015 were reviewed. A total of 107 scans (50 patients; mean age, 64.3 years ± 13.2 [standard deviation]) had metabolic tissue burden assessed by using total lesion glycolysis (TLG) obtained from autosegmentation of the tumor and/or cardiac tissue...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Ge Li-Sha, Liu Li, Zhou De-Pu, Shi Zhe-Wei, Gu Xiaohong, Chen Guang-Yi, Li Jia, Lin Jia-Feng, Chu Maoping, Li Yue-Chun
This study was designed to explore the effects of ivabradine on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a murine model of chronic viral myocarditis (CVMC). Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Coxsackievirus B3 at days 1, 14, and 28, respectively. On day 42, the mice were gavaged with ivabradine for 30 days until the 72nd day. The heart of infected mice was dilated and a large number of interstitial fibroblasts infiltrated into the myocardium on day 42. Compared with the untreated CVMC mice, mice treated with ivabradine showed a significant reduction in heart rate and less impairment of left ventricular function on day 72...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
J Montag, B Petersen, A K Flögel, E Becker, A Lucas-Hahn, G J Cost, C Mühlfeld, T Kraft, H Niemann, B Brenner
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. About 30% of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding the ß-myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Hallmarks of HCM are cardiomyocyte disarray and hypertrophy of the left ventricle, the symptoms range from slight arrhythmias to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the diseases' etiology we aimed to generate genome edited pigs with an HCM-mutation. We used TALEN-mediated genome editing and successfully introduced the HCM-point mutation R723G into the MYH7 gene of porcine fibroblasts and subsequently cloned pigs that were heterozygous for the HCM-mutation R723G...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaofei Zhang, Huaibin Mabel Ko, Joana Torres, Hinaben J Panchal, Zhenjian Cai, Mathilde Wagner, Bruce E Sands, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Judy Cho, Bachir Taouli, Noam Harpaz
Intestinal stricture, a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD), results from fibromuscular remodeling and expansion of the intestinal wall. The corresponding microanatomical alterations have not been fully described, hindering progress toward understanding their pathogenesis and devising appropriate treatments. We used tissue-specific staining and quantitative digital histomorphometry for this purpose. Serial histological sections from 37 surgically-resected ileal strictures and adjacent non-strictured controls from patients with CD were evaluated after staining for smooth muscle actin, collagen (Sirius red) and collagen types I, III and V...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Briony D Smith, Krystal J Vail, Gwendolyn L Carroll, Maggie C Taylor, Nicholas D Jeffery, Tracy H Vemulapalli, James J Elliott
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the 'gold standard,' tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Hironori Sagawa, Shinsuke Hoshino, Kengo Yoshioka, Wei-Guang Ding, Mariko Omatsu-Kanbe, Masao Nakagawa, Yoshihiro Maruo, Hiroshi Matsuura
BACKGROUND: In the clinical setting, verapamil is contraindicated in neonates and infants because of the perceived risk of hypotension or bradyarrhythmia. However, it remains unclear whether there is an age-dependent difference in the sensitivity of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa,L ) to inhibition by verapamil. METHODS: Ventricular myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from the hearts of 6 different age groups (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days and 10-15 weeks) of mice using a similar Langendorff-perfusion method...
March 19, 2018: Pediatric Research
Richard R Kew, Tahmineh Tabrizian, James A Vosswinkel, James E Davis, Randeep S Jawa
BACKGROUND: Severe acute muscle injury results in massive cell damage, causing the release of actin into extracellular fluids where it complexes with the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). We hypothesized that a systemic Vitamin D deficiency would result in a less pro-inflammatory phenotype. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type and DBP deficient (DBP-/-) mice received intramuscular injections of either 50% glycerol or phosphate-buffered saline into thigh muscles. Muscle injury was assessed by histology...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ayako Uchinaka, Maho Yoshida, Kiyoka Tanaka, Yoshinosuke Hamada, Seiji Mori, Yoshitaka Maeno, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Kohzo Nagata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Naomasa Kawaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling alters the contractile and relaxation properties and induces myocardial stiffness. As LV remodeling progresses, the amount of collagen type III (Col3) is gradually decreased, being replaced by collagen type I (Col1). We evaluated whether Col3 overexpression improved cardiac function and remodeling in a rat with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). We also investigated the functional motif and mechanism of thrombin-cleaved N-terminal osteopontin (N-OPN) on cardiac remodeling...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Muhammad Naveed, Lei Han, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sufia Yasmeen, Reyaj Mikrani, Muhammad Abbas, Li Cunyu, Zhou Xiaohui
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jaana Rysä, Heikki Tokola, Heikki Ruskoaho
Mechanical forces are able to activate hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in the overloaded myocardium. However, the transcriptional profiles triggered by mechanical stretch in cardiac myocytes are not fully understood. Here, we performed the first genome-wide time series study of gene expression changes in stretched cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM)s, resulting in 205, 579, 737, 621, and 1542 differentially expressed (>2-fold, P < 0.05) genes in response to 1, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taishi Nakamura, Guangshuo Zhu, Mark J Ranek, Kristen Kokkonen-Simon, Manling Zhang, Grace E Kim, Kenichi Tsujita, David A Kass
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) or inhibition of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) activates PKG (protein kinase G)-1α to counteract cardiac hypertrophy and failure. PKG1α acts within localized intracellular domains; however, its oxidation at cysteine 42, linking homomonomers, alters this localization, impairing suppression of pathological cardiac stress. Because PDE5 and sGC reside in separate microdomains, we speculated that PKG1α oxidation might also differentially influence the effects from their pharmacological modulation...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Xiang Li, Yanping Liu, Xueqin Feng, Xueyi Chen, Xiaorong Fan, Yingying Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Jiaqi Tang, Xiuwen Zhou, Na Li, Xiyuan Lu, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal hypoxia is suggested to be associated with increased risks of hypertension in offspring. This study tested whether prenatal hypoxia resulted in salt-sensitive offspring and its related mechanisms of vascular ion channel remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats were housed in a normoxic (21% O2 ) or hypoxic (10.5% O2 ) chamber from gestation days 5 to 21. A subset of male offspring received a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) from 4 to 12 weeks after birth...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Kexin Wang, Yang Xu, Qiong Sun, Jiangang Long, Jiankang Liu, Jian Ding
The multipurpose organelle mitochondria play an essential role(s) in controlling cardiac muscle contraction. Mitochondria, not only function as the powerhouses and the energy source of myocytes, but also modulate intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, the production of intermediary metabolites/reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other cellular processes. Those molecular events can substantially influence myocardial contraction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with cardiac remodeling, and is the causal factor of heart contraction defects in many cases...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
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