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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088331/eicosapentaenoic-acid-ameliorates-palmitate-induced-lipotoxicity-via-the-amp-kinase-dynamin-related-protein-1-signaling-pathway-in-differentiated-h9c2-myocytes
#1
Atsushi Sakamoto, Masao Saotome, Prottoy Hasan, Terumori Satoh, Hayato Ohtani, Tsuyoshi Urushida, Hideki Katoh, Hiroshi Satoh, Hideharu Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggested the preferable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) against cardiac lipotoxicity, which worsens cardiac function by means of excessive serum free fatty acids due to chronic adrenergic stimulation under heart failure. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we focused on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) as a possible modulator of the EPA-mediated cardiac protection against cardiac lipotoxicity, and investigated the causal relation between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Drp1...
January 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088328/altered-myocyte-contractility-and-calcium-homeostasis-in-alpha-myosin-heavy-chain-point-mutations-linked-to-familial-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
Matthew Klos, Lakshmi Mundada, Indroneal Banerjee, Sherry Morgenstern, Stephanie Myers, Michael Leone, Mark Kleid, Todd Herron, Eric Devaney
Mutations in the human cardiac motor protein beta-myosin heavy chain (βMHC) have been long recognized as a cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recently, mutations (P830L and A1004S) in the less abundant but faster isoform alpha-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) have been linked to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, we sought to determine the cellular contractile phenotype associated with these point mutations. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from 2 month male Sprague Dawley rats. Cells were cultured in M199 media and infected with recombinant adenovirus containing the P830L or the A1004S mutant human αMHC at a MOI of 500 for 18 h...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087623/a-p53-based-genetic-tracing-system-to-follow-postnatal-cardiomyocyte-expansion-in-heart-regeneration
#3
Qi Xiao, Guoxin Zhang, Huijuan Wang, Lai Chen, Shuangshuang Lu, Dejing Pan, Geng Liu, Zhongzhou Yang
For heart regeneration, the proliferative potential of cardiomyocytes in postnatal mice is under intense investigations. However, solely relying on immunostaining of proliferation markers, the long term proliferation dynamics and potential of the cardiomyocytes cannot be readily addressed. Previously, we found that a p53 promoter driving reporter predominantly marked the proliferating lineages in mice. Here, we established a p53 based genetic tracing system to investigate postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081170/an-alpha-1a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-prevents-acute-doxorubicin-cardiomyopathy-in-male-mice
#4
Megan D Montgomery, Trevor Chan, Philip M Swigart, Bat-Erdene Myagmar, Rajesh Dash, Paul C Simpson
Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078759/bufalin-a-bufanolide-steroid-from-the-parotoid-glands-of-the-chinese-toad-inhibits-l-type-ca-2-channels-and-contractility-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#5
Tao Song, Xi Chu, Xuan Zhang, Qiong Tao Song, Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xue Han, Jianping Zhang, Li Chu
Bufalin is a bufanolide steroid compound in Chan Su. Chan Su is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of toads, and has been used as an Oriental drug. However, the effect of bufalin on cardiac function and its underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we explore the cellular mechanisms of bufalin on myocardial protection via the whole-cell patch-clamp recording and video-based edge detection system. Exposure to bufalin resulted in a concentrated-dependent blockade of ICa-L , with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 60 μM and the maximal inhibitory effect of 71...
January 11, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077321/camkii%C3%AE-subtypes-differentially-regulate-infarct-formation-following-ex-vivo-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tnf-%C3%AE
#6
Charles B B Gray, Takeshi Suetomi, Sunny Xiang, Erik A Blackwood, Christopher C Glembotski, Shigeki Miyamoto, B Daan Westenbrink, Joan Heller Brown
Deletion of Ca(2+/)calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CaMKIIδ) has been shown to protect against in vivo ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It remains unclear which CaMKIIδ isoforms and downstream mechanisms are responsible for the salutary effects of CaMKIIδ gene deletion. In this study we sought to compare the roles of the CaMKIIδB and CaMKIIδC subtypes and the mechanisms by which they contribute to ex vivo I/R damage. WT, CaMKIIδKO, and mice expressing only CaMKIIδB or δC were subjected to ex vivo global ischemia for 25min followed by reperfusion...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073805/sheet-like-remodeling-of-the-transverse-tubular-system-in-human-heart-failure-impairs-excitation-contraction-coupling-and-functional-recovery-by-mechanical-unloading
#7
Thomas Seidel, Sutip Navankasattusas, Azmi A Ahmad, Nikolaos A Diakos, Weining D Xu, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Michael Bonios, Iosif Taleb, Dean Y Li, Craig H Selzman, Stavros G Drakos, Frank B Sachse
BACKGROUND: -Cardiac recovery in response to mechanical unloading by left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has been demonstrated in subgroups of chronic heart failure (HF) patients. Hallmarks of HF are depletion and disorganization of the transverse tubular system (t-system) in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated remodeling of the t-system in human end-stage HF and its role in cardiac recovery. METHODS: -Left ventricular biopsies were obtained from 5 donors (CTRL) and 26 chronic HF patients undergoing implantation of LVADs...
January 10, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068381/impairment-of-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-right-ventricular-hypertrophied-muscle-with-fibrosis-induced-by-pulmonary-artery-banding
#8
Yoichiro Kusakari, Takashi Urashima, Daisuke Shimura, Erika Amemiya, Genki Miyasaka, Shunsuke Yokota, Yoshitaka Fujimoto, Toru Akaike, Takahiro Inoue, Susumu Minamisawa
Interstitial myocardial fibrosis is one of the factors responsible for dysfunction of the heart. However, how interstitial fibrosis affects cardiac function and excitation-contraction coupling (E-C coupling) has not yet been clarified. We developed an animal model of right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy with fibrosis by pulmonary artery (PA) banding in rats. Two, four, and six weeks after the PA-banding operation, the tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration of RV papillary muscles were simultaneously measured (n = 33)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067668/adaptor-proteins-numb-and-numbl-promote-cell-cycle-withdrawal-by-targeting-erbb2-for-degradation
#9
Maretoshi Hirai, Yoh Arita, C Jane McGlade, Kuo-Fen Lee, Ju Chen, Sylvia M Evans
Failure of trabecular myocytes to undergo appropriate cell cycle withdrawal leads to ventricular noncompaction and heart failure. Signaling of growth factor receptor ERBB2 is critical for myocyte proliferation and trabeculation. However, the mechanisms underlying appropriate downregulation of trabecular ERBB2 signaling are little understood. Here, we have found that the endocytic adaptor proteins NUMB and NUMBL were required for downregulation of ERBB2 signaling in maturing trabeculae. Loss of NUMB and NUMBL resulted in a partial block of late endosome formation, resulting in sustained ERBB2 signaling and STAT5 activation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063219/microrna-1-overexpression-blunts-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-elicited-by-thyroid-hormone
#10
Gabriela Placoná Diniz, Caroline Antunes Lino, Camila Rodrigues Moreno, Nathalia Senger, Maria Luiza Morais Barreto-Chaves
It is well known that increased thyroid hormone (TH) levels induce cardiomyocyte growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key players in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which is associated with increased risk of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the miR-1 expression in TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the potential involvement of miR-1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by TH in vitro. The possible role of Type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) in the effect promoted by TH in miR-1 expression was also evaluated...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058990/restoration-of-the-response-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery-of-the-rat-to-acidosis-in-hyposmotic-hyponatremia-by-the-opener-of-large-conductance-calcium-sensitive-potassium-channels-bkca
#11
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Beata Dworakowska, Krzysztof Dolowy, Ewa Kozniewska
Hyposmotic hyponatremia (the decrease of extracellular concentration of sodium ions from 145 to 121 mM and the decrease of hyposmolality from 300 to 250 mOsm/kg H2O) impairs response of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to acetylcholine and NO donor (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine). Since acidosis activates a similar intracellular signaling pathway, the present study was designed to verify the hypothesis that the response of the MCA to acidosis is impaired during acute hyposmotic hyponatremia due to abnormal NO-related signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057842/cyclic-amp-reverses-the-effects-of-aging-on-pacemaker-activity-and-if-in-sinoatrial-node-myocytes
#12
Emily J Sharpe, Eric D Larson, Catherine Proenza
Aerobic capacity decreases with age, in part because of an age-dependent decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) and a reduction in the intrinsic pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node of the heart. Isolated sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) from aged mice have slower spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rates and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation of the "funny current," If Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a critical modulator of both AP firing rate and If in SAMs. Here, we test the ability of endogenous and exogenous cAMP to overcome age-dependent changes in acutely isolated murine SAMs...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056022/l-type-calcium-channel-inhibition-contributes-to-the-proarrhythmic-effects-of-aconitine-in-human-cardiomyocytes
#13
Jianjun Wu, Xiangchong Wang, Ying Ying Chung, Cai Hong Koh, Zhenfeng Liu, Huicai Guo, Qiang Yuan, Chuan Wang, Suwen Su, Heming Wei
Aconitine (ACO) is well-known for causing lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias. While cardiac Na+ channel opening during repolarization has long been documented in animal cardiac myocytes, the cellular effects and mechanism of ACO in human remain unexplored. This study aimed to assess the proarrhythmic effects of ACO in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). ACO concentration-dependently (0.3 ~ 3.0 μM) shortened the action potentials (AP) durations (APD) in ventricular-like hiPSC-CMs by > 40% and induced delayed after-depolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053881/effect-of-novel-dietary-supplement-on-metabolism-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Roger A Vaughan, Ailish C White, Jason R Beam, Nicholas P Gannon, Randi Garcia-Smith, Roy M Salgado, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina A Trujillo, Carole A Conn, Christine M Mermier
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators) on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049836/stochastic-initiation-and-termination-of-calcium-mediated-triggered-activity-in-cardiac-myocytes
#15
Zhen Song, Zhilin Qu, Alain Karma
Cardiac myocytes normally initiate action potentials in response to a current stimulus that depolarizes the membrane above an excitation threshold. Aberrant excitation can also occur due to spontaneous calcium (Ca(2+)) release (SCR) from intracellular stores after the end of a preceding action potential. SCR drives the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current inducing a "delayed afterdepolarization" that can in turn trigger an action potential if the excitation threshold is reached. This "triggered activity" is known to cause arrhythmias, but how it is initiated and terminated is not understood...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045696/sudden-death-in-a-male-infant-due-to-histiocytoid-cardiomyopathy-an-autopsy-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Hanbing Xie, Xueqin Chen, Ni Chen, Qiao Zhou
Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy (HC) is a very rare cardiac disorder that mainly affects female infants younger than 2 years. It may manifest as ventricular tachycardia or dilated cardiomyopathy and frequently causes sudden death. The most common grossly change is multifocal uneven thickening of the endocardium, presenting a yellowish color, with some area forming nodular appearance, and histologically featured by scattered clusters of histiocytoid myocytes under the endocardium. Here, we present a 19-month-old male infant who died of heart failure, and an autopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of HC...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045398/skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#17
Huaizhu Wu, Christie M Ballantyne
Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043025/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-is-cell-type-specific-in-the-heart
#18
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is common and can progress to cardiac failure. Cardiac cell pro-inflammatory responses are critical for viral clearance, however sustained inflammatory responses contribute to cardiac damage. The transcription factor NF-κB regulates expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, but basal and induced activation of NF-κB in different cardiac cell types have not been compared. Here, we used primary cultures of cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts to identify cardiac cell type-specific events...
December 30, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038344/application-based-on-the-canny-edge-detection-algorithm-for-recording-contractions-of-isolated-cardiac-myocytes
#19
Jair Trapé Goulart, Rosana Almada Bassani, José Wilson Magalhães Bassani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The isolated cardiomyocyte preparation is amenable to several experimental approaches not suitable to the myocardial tissue, which has allowed the gain of important information on the pathophysiology of the cardiac muscle. Thus, the development of techniques for functional studies in this preparation is important. The goal of the present study was to develop a computer program to extract contraction traces generated by cyclic cell shortening from cardiomyocyte video image files...
December 21, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035527/new-and-emerging-therapies-and-targets-beta-3-agonists
#20
Lauriane Y M Michel, Jean-Luc Balligand
While crucial for the acute physiologic response to stress, the adrenergic system may become maladaptive upon prolonged stimulation in the course of development of heart failure. This has been the basis for the development of beta-blocking therapies, targeting mainly beta1-2 adrenoreceptors (B1-2AR). The third isotype, B3AR, was more recently identified in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells from human (and many other animal species), where its distinctive coupling to nitric oxide and antioxidant pathways suggested potential protective properties that were unexploited so far...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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