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Patricia L Newton, Darren R Fry
Case summary: A 15-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented with a recent history of seizures, diarrhoea, lethargy, fever and jaundice. Marked elevation of liver enzyme activity was present and ultrasound examination was suggestive of cholecystitis and hepatitis. Neutrophilic cholangitis was confirmed on histopathology of liver biopsies. Bile culture identified a monomicrobial infection with Providencia rettgeri , which was resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
A Cepiel, A Noszczyk-Nowak, A Cekiera, J Popiel, U Pasławska
The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of enrofloxacin and pradofloxacin administered orally for 14 days on the ECG in dogs. The ECG was performed before and after a 14 day period of quinolone administration. There was an increase in the QTc and the TpTe interval in the group treated with quinolones. QTc was prolonged by 24 ms (p=0.001). The TpTe interval was shortened, on average, by 6.55 ms (p=0.048). In the group treated with enrofloxacin, QTc was prolonged by 16.27 ms (p=0.006) and the TpTe interval was shortened by 9...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Anja Ewringmann
OBJECTIVE: Bacteria involved in purulent tooth disease and the most effective antibiotics were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Swab samples were taken from 126 rabbits with facial abscesses or purulent periapical inflammation during surgical treatment. Bacteriological examination and susceptibility testing were performed. RESULTS: A wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were detected. The most commonly isolated anaerobes were gram-negative rods (Prevotella sp...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Magdalena Rzewuska, Marian Binek
We investigated in vitro activity of a novel veterinary fluoroquinolone, pradofloxacin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates and compared with other fluoroquinolones. A total of 38 MRSP isolates were subjected to agar disk diffusion tests for sensitivity to pradofloxacin, orbifloxacin, marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin were determined. Mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (GrlA) proteins associated with fluoroquinolone resistance were studied by an analysis of partial sequences of the genes encoding these proteins...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ian Morrissey, Hilde Moyaert, Anno de Jong, Farid El Garch, Ulrich Klein, Carolin Ludwig, Julien Thiry, Myriam Youala
ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Joseph M Blondeau, Shantelle D Shebelski
BACKGROUND: Bacterial eradication is necessary for clinical cure of infections and antimicrobial agents are important adjunctive therapies for inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria. Pre-existing skin diseases predispose animals to infection by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and, more rarely, by Gram-negative bacilli. The property of rapid killing of bacteria may influence drug selection and duration of therapy in the setting of infection. OBJECTIVES: To test the killing of canine isolates of S...
August 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Haixia Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Yinqian Li, Caiju Hao
In this study, a total of 78 Escherichia coli clinical isolates were isolated from canines diagnosed with urinary tract infections. 23/78 isolates (29.5 %) showed multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, including the isolates both susceptible to fluoroquinolones (FQs) (FQ(S)-MDR, n = 12) and resistant to FQs (FQ(R)-MDR, n = 11). For these MDR isolates, mutations within quinolone-resistance determining region of gyrA and parC were determined by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The relative quantification of emrE, acrB, macB, and mdfA genes expression in MDR isolates was determined by quantitative real-time PCR before and after exposure to the FQs (10 µg/ml)...
July 2015: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xiaoqiang Liu, Caterina Lazzaroni, Sherine A Aly, Kamoltip Thungrat, Dawn M Boothe
This study explored and compared the mechanisms and selective concentration of resistance between a 3rd (pradofloxacin) and 2nd (ciprofloxacin) generation fluoroquinolone. Pradofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to escalating concentrations of pradofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The sequence of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) and the transcriptional regulator soxS were analyzed, and efflux pump AcrAB-TolC activity was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
December 5, 2014: Veterinary Microbiology
Linda L Marcusson, Patricia Komp Lindgren, Sara K Olofsson, Diarmaid Hughes, Otto Cars
Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug...
October 2014: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Jane E Sykes, Joseph M Blondeau
Pradofloxacin is a novel third-generation oral veterinary fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobes (lower minimum inhibitory concentrations in vitro). It also has activity against other bacterial species, including Bartonella henselae, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, extra-intestinal Escherichia coli, and some mycobacterial species. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanism of action, adverse effects, clinical applications, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of pradofloxacin in cats...
August 2014: Veterinary Journal
R P Maluping, N C Paul, A Moodley
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period...
2014: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Gregor Hauschild, Karl Rohn, Eva Engelhardt, Martin Sager, Jendrik Hardes, Georg Gosheger
BACKGROUND: Pradofloxacin, a newly developed 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone, show enhanced activity against Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes to treat canine and feline bacterial infections. The purpose of this cross-over study was to measure the unbound drug concentration of pradofloxacin in the interstitial fluid (ISF) using ultrafiltration and to compare the kinetics of pradofloxacin in serum, ISF and tissue using enrofloxacin as reference. RESULTS: After oral administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively), serum collection and ultrafiltration in regular intervals over a period of 24 h were performed, followed by tissue sampling at the end of the third dosing protocol (pradofloxacin 6 mg/kg)...
2013: BMC Veterinary Research
P Lees
Pradofloxacin is a third-generation fluoroquinolone, licensed in the EU for use in a range of indications in the dog and cat and authorized more recently in the USA for one therapeutic indication (skin infections) in the cat. This review summarizes and appraises current knowledge on the physico-chemical, pharmacological [pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD)], safety and therapeutic properties of pradofloxacin in the target species. Pradofloxacin contains two centres of asymmetry and is the pure SS enantiomer...
June 2013: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Richard Malik, Bronwyn Smits, George Reppas, Caroline Laprie, Carolyn O'Brien, Janet Fyfe
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterial granulomas of the skin and subcutis can be caused by one of a number of pathogens. This review concentrates on noncultivable species that cause diseases characterized by focal granuloma(s), namely leproid granuloma (in dogs) and feline leprosy (in cats). Clinically indistinguishable lesions can be caused by tuberculous organisms (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti) and members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Rapidly growing mycobacterial species that cause infection of the subcutaneous panniculus associated with draining tracts are not discussed...
February 2013: Veterinary Dermatology
Xiaoqiang Liu, Dawn M Boothe, Yaping Jin, Kamoltip Thungrat
Information regarding in vitro activity of newer fluoroquinolones (FQs) is limited despite increasing resistance in canine or feline pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study describes in vitro potency and efficacy toward E. coli of seven FQs grouped according to similarities in chemical structure: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, orbifloxacin (first-group), levofloxacin, marbofloxacin (second-group) and pradofloxacin, moxifloxacin (third-group; latest S, S-pyrrolidino-piperidine at C-7). Potency measures included minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (geometric mean MIC, MIC(50), MIC(90)); and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for FQ susceptible isolates only...
February 2013: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
I U Emmerich
In 2011, nine active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals. Those are the cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitor Cimicoxib (Cimalgex®), the opium-derived analgesic Methadone (Comfortan®), the antiemetic Metoclopramide (Emeprid®), the corticosteroid Mometasone furoate in combination with the antifungal agent Posaconazole (Posatex®), the fluorchinolone-antibiotic Pradofloxacin (Veraflox®), the insecticide Spinosad (Comfortis®), the cytostatic Toceranib (Palladia®) and the vitamin Phytomenadione (Vitamin K1 Laboratoire TVM)...
October 17, 2012: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Anne-Kathrin Schink, Kristina Kadlec, Tomasz Hauschild, Geovana Brenner Michael, Julia C Dörner, Carolin Ludwig, Christiane Werckenthin, Hans-Robert Hehnen, Bernd Stephan, Stefan Schwarz
In this study, 908 bacterial pathogens from defined infections of dogs and cats were tested for their susceptibility to the novel fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin, which was approved in 2011 for use in cats and dogs. Most of the bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli, β-haemolytic streptococci, Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica) exhibited low pradofloxacin MIC(90) values of ≤ 0.25 μg/ml. Solely Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had higher MIC(90) values of ≥ 4 μg/ml...
February 22, 2013: Veterinary Microbiology
Jennifer F Summers, David C Brodbelt, Peter J Forsythe, Anette Loeffler, Anke Hendricks
AIM: To identify and evaluate existing evidence for the effectiveness of systemic antimicrobial treatments for naturally occurring superficial and deep canine pyoderma. METHOD: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE and CAB Direct were carried out (25 May 2011) without date or language restrictions. Proceedings of ESVD/ECVD, AAVD/ACVD, NAVDF and WCVD annual congresses were searched. Unpublished studies were sought via the Veterinary Dermatology discussion list and Veterinary Information Network...
August 2012: Veterinary Dermatology
B Körber-Irrgang, H-G Wetzstein, S Bagel-Trah, D Hafner, M Kresken
Pradofloxacin (PRA), a novel veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone (FQ), is active against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, the primary cause of canine pyoderma. An in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was used to compare the activities of PRA and marbofloxacin (MAR) against three clinical isolates of S. pseudintermedius and reference strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Experiments were performed involving populations of 10(10) CFU corresponding to an inoculum density of approximately 5 × 10(7) CFU/mL...
December 2012: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Heinz-Georg Wetzstein, Josef Schneider, Wolfgang Karl
Liquid cultures of the basidiomycetous fungus Gloeophyllum striatum were employed to study the biodegradation of pradofloxacin, a new veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic carrying a CN group at position C-8. After 16 days of incubation, metabolites were purified by micro-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Four metabolites could be identified by co-chromatography with chemically synthesized standards. The chemical structures of three compounds were resolved by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy plus infrared spectroscopy in one case...
2012: AMB Express
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