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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928825/drug-resistance-and-gene-transfer-mechanisms-in-respiratory-oral-bacteria
#1
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927707/interspecific-gene-exchange-as-a-driver-of-adaptive-evolution-in-fungi
#2
Alice Feurtey, Eva H Stukenbrock
Throughout evolutionary history in the kingdom Fungi, taxa have exchanged genetic information among species, as revealed in particular by analyses of genome sequences. In fungi, hybridization can occur by sexual mating or by fusion of vegetative structures giving rise to new species or leaving traces of introgression in the genome. Furthermore, gene exchange can occur by horizontal gene transfer between species and can even include organisms outside the kingdom Fungi. In several cases, interspecific gene exchange has been instrumental in rapid adaptive evolution of fungal species and has notably played a role in the emergence of new pathogens...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922518/horizontally-transferred-genes-in-the-ctenophore-mnemiopsis-leidyi
#3
Alexandra M Hernandez, Joseph F Ryan
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has had major impacts on the biology of a wide range of organisms from antibiotic resistance in bacteria to adaptations to herbivory in arthropods. A growing body of literature shows that HGT between non-animals and animals is more commonplace than previously thought. In this study, we present a thorough investigation of HGT in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi . We applied tests of phylogenetic incongruence to identify nine genes that were likely transferred horizontally early in ctenophore evolution from bacteria and non-metazoan eukaryotes...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922255/adaptation-of-the-freshwater-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-aeruginosa-to-brackish-water-is-driven-by-recent-horizontal-transfer-of-sucrose-genes
#4
Yuuhiko Tanabe, Yoshikuni Hodoki, Tomoharu Sano, Kiyoshi Tada, Makoto M Watanabe
Microcystis aeruginosa is a bloom-forming cyanobacterium found in eutrophic water bodies worldwide. M. aeruginosa blooms usually occur in freshwater; however, they have also been reported to occur in brackish water. Because M. aeruginosa often produces the cyanotoxin microcystin, they are a major concern to public health and environment. Despite this, the ecology, genomic basis, and evolutionary process underlying the M. aeruginosa bloom invasion from fresh to brackish water have been poorly investigated. Hence, in the present study, we have sequenced and characterized genomes of two newly discovered salt-tolerant M...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920267/microsporidia-a-single-horizontal-gene-transfer-drives-a-great-leap-forward
#5
Julius Lukeš, Filip Husník
Horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes is the subject of much debate. A recent study reveals the instrumental role that the acquisition of bacterial nucleotide transporters played in the evolution of the ubiquitous, intracellular eukaryotic parasites, the microsporidia.
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916797/clermontyping-an-easy-to-use-and-accurate-in-silico-method-for-escherichia-genus-strain-phylotyping
#6
Johann Beghain, Antoine Bridier-Nahmias, Hervé Le Nagard, Erick Denamur, Olivier Clermont
The genus Escherichia is composed of Escherichia albertii, E. fergusonii, five cryptic Escherichia clades and E. coli sensu stricto. Furthermore, the E. coli species can be divided into seven main phylogroups termed A, B1, B2, C, D, E and F. As specific lifestyles and/or hosts can be attributed to these species/phylogroups, their identification is meaningful for epidemiological studies. Classical phenotypic tests fail to identify non-sensu stricto E. coli as well as phylogroups. Clermont and colleagues have developed PCR assays that allow the identification of most of these species/phylogroups, the triplex/quadruplex PCR for E...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915048/genomic-organization-underlying-deletional-robustness-in-bacterial-metabolic-systems
#7
Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini, Andreas Wagner
Large-scale DNA deletions and gene loss are pervasive in bacterial genomes. This observation raises the possibility that evolutionary adaptation has altered bacterial genome organization to increase its robustness to large-scale tandem gene deletions. To find out, we systematically analyzed 55 bacterial genome-scale metabolisms and showed that metabolic gene ordering renders an organism's viability in multiple nutrient environments significantly more robust against tandem multigene deletions than expected by chance...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914658/biofilm-a-hotspot-for-emerging-bacterial-genotypes
#8
Live L Nesse, Roger Simm
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914363/grafting-or-pruning-in-the-animal-tree-lateral-gene-transfer-and-gene-loss
#9
Julie C Dunning Hotopp
BACKGROUND: Lateral gene transfer (LGT), also known as horizontal gene transfer, into multicellular eukaryotes with differentiated tissues, particularly gonads, continues to be met with skepticism by many prominent evolutionary and genomic biologists. A detailed examination of 26 animal genomes identified putative LGTs in invertebrate and vertebrate genomes, concluding that there are fewer predicted LGTs in vertebrates/chordates than invertebrates, but there is still evidence of LGT into chordates, including humans...
June 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914351/single-strand-dna-processing-phylogenomics-and-sequence-diversity-of-a-superfamily-of-potential-prokaryotic-huh-endonucleases
#10
Yves Quentin, Patricia Siguier, Mick Chandler, Gwennaele Fichant
BACKGROUND: Some mobile genetic elements target the lagging strand template during DNA replication. Bacterial examples are insertion sequences IS608 and ISDra2 (IS200/IS605 family members). They use obligatory single-stranded circular DNA intermediates for excision and insertion and encode a transposase, TnpAIS200 , which recognizes subterminal secondary structures at the insertion sequence ends. Similar secondary structures, Repeated Extragenic Palindromes (REP), are present in many bacterial genomes...
June 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912320/bioplastic-reservoir-of-diverse-bacterial-communities-revealed-along-altitude-gradient-of-pangi-chamba-trans-himalayan-region
#11
Vijay Kumar, Vikas Thakur, Sanjay Kumar, Dharam Singh
Himalaya hosts a unique environment for microbial ecology. The present study aimed to explore the bioplastic producing bacterial communities along altitude gradient of Pangi-Chamba trans-Himalayan (PCH) region. A total of four hundred eleven bacteria were isolated and seventy characterized at the molecular level for potential polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers. The most abundant phylum for PHA synthesis was Proteobacteria (73%), followed by Actinobacteria (11%), Firmicutes (10%), and Bacteroidetes (6%). However, at the genus level, Pseudomonas and Janthinobacterium were dominantly reported...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910775/variability-of-bacterial-essential-genes-among-closely-related-bacteria-the-case-of-escherichia-coli
#12
REVIEW
Enrique Martínez-Carranza, Hugo Barajas, Luis-David Alcaraz, Luis Servín-González, Gabriel-Yaxal Ponce-Soto, Gloria Soberón-Chávez
The definition of bacterial essential genes has been widely pursued using different approaches. Their study has impacted several fields of research such as synthetic biology, the construction of bacteria with minimal chromosomes, the search for new antibiotic targets, or the design of strains with biotechnological applications. Bacterial genomes are mosaics that only share a small subset of gene-sequences (core genome) even among members of the same species. It has been reported that the presence of essential genes is highly variable between closely related bacteria and even among members of the same species, due to the phenomenon known as "non-orthologous gene displacement" that refers to the coding for an essential function by genes with no sequence homology due to horizontal gene transfer (HGT)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909525/detection-of-different-%C3%AE-lactamases-encoding-genes-including-bla-ndm-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-different-water-sources-from-brazil
#13
Danilo Garcia Sanchez, Fernanda Maciel de Melo, Eduardo Angelino Savazzi, Eliana Guedes Stehling
Bacterial resistance occurs by spontaneous mutations or horizontal gene transfer mediated by mobile genetic elements, which represents a great concern. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to the production of β-lactamases, and an important mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance is the acquisition plasmid determinants. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in different water samples obtained from São Paulo state, Brazil...
June 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909361/deciphering-the-factors-influencing-the-discrepant-fate-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-sludge-and-water-phases-during-municipal-wastewater-treatment
#14
Junya Zhang, Min Yang, Hui Zhong, Mengmeng Liu, Qianwen Sui, Libing Zheng, Juan Tong, Yuansong Wei
The discrepant fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sludge and water phases was investigated in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, and a lab-scale A2 O-MBR was operated to provide background value of ARGs. The influencing factors of ARGs including microbial community, co-selection from heavy metals, biomass and horizontal gene transfer were concerned. Results showed that iA2 O (inversed A2 O) showed better ARGs reduction, and longer SRT (sludge retention time) increased ARGs relative abundance while reduced the gene copies of ARGs in the effluent, but significantly increased the ARGs in sludge phase...
June 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909325/a-novel-microfluidic-system-enables-visualization-and-analysis-of-antibiotic-resistance-gene-transfer-to-activated-sludge-bacteria-in-biofilm
#15
Yong Qiu, Jing Zhang, Bing Li, Xianghua Wen, Peng Liang, Xia Huang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment have become a growing public concern, due to their potential to be obtained by pathogens and their duplication along cell division. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was reported to be responsible for ARGs dissemination in microbes, but the HGT feature in environmental biofilm was still unclear due to insufficient assay tools. To address this challenge, we applied a novel microfluidic system to cultivate thin biofilm by continuous supply of nutrients and close contact between cells...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908366/g-d3-ganglioside-enriched-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-melanocyte-migration
#16
Andreia Hanada Otake, Renata de Freitas Saito, Ana Paula Marques Duarte, Alexandre Ferreira Ramos, Roger Chammas
Melanomas often accumulate gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids found in the outer leaflet of plasma membranes, as disialoganglioside GD3 and its derivatives. Here, we have transfected the GD3 synthase gene (ST8Sia I) in a normal melanocyte cell line in order to evaluate changes in the biological behavior of non-transformed cells. GD3 -synthase expressing cells converted GM3 into GD3 and accumulated both GD3 and its acetylated form, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 . Melanocytes were rendered more migratory on laminin-1 surfaces...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907766/efficient-rna-drug-delivery-using-red-blood-cell-extracellular-vesicles
#17
Waqas Muhammad Usman, Tin Chanh Pham, Yuk Yan Kwok, Luyen Tien Vu, Victor Ma, Boya Peng, Yuen San Chan, Likun Wei, Siew Mei Chin, Ajijur Azad, Alex Bai-Liang He, Anskar Y H Leung, Mengsu Yang, Ng Shyh-Chang, William C Cho, Jiahai Shi, Minh T N Le
Most of the current methods for programmable RNA drug therapies are unsuitable for the clinic due to low uptake efficiency and high cytotoxicity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) could solve these problems because they represent a natural mode of intercellular communication. However, current cellular sources for EV production are limited in availability and safety in terms of horizontal gene transfer. One potentially ideal source could be human red blood cells (RBCs). Group O-RBCs can be used as universal donors for large-scale EV production since they are readily available in blood banks and they are devoid of DNA...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905872/host-range-and-genetic-plasticity-explain-the-co-existence-of-integrative-and-extrachromosomal-mobile-genetic-elements
#18
Jean Cury, Pedro H Oliveira, Fernando de la Cruz, Eduardo P C Rocha
Self-transmissible mobile genetic elements drive horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes. Some of these elements integrate in the chromosome, whereas others replicate autonomously as plasmids. Recent works showed the existence of few differences, and occasional interconversion, between the two types of elements. Here, we enquired on why evolutionary processes have maintained the two types of mobile genetic elements by comparing integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) with extrachromosomal ones (conjugative plasmids) of the highly abundant MPFT conjugative type...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905149/group-ii-intron-inhibits-conjugative-relaxase-expression-in-bacteria-by-mrna-targeting
#19
Guosheng Qu, Carol Lyn Piazza, Dorie Smith, Marlene Belfort
Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis , inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA...
June 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904377/enrichment-of-the-antibiotic-resistance-gene-tet-l-in-an-alkaline-soil-fertilized-with-plant-derived-organic-manure
#20
Shuang Peng, Jan Dolfing, Youzhi Feng, Yiming Wang, Xiangui Lin
Fifteen antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and intI1 , a gene involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, were quantified in three different soil samples from a 22 year old field experiment that had received inorganic fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM; a mixture of wheat straw, soybean oil cake and cotton cake), and control fields that had received no fertilizer and manure (CK). Tet (L) was the most abundant ARG in OM, which also contained considerable levels of intI1 . Molecular analysis of yearly collected archived soils over the past 22 years showed that tet (L) and intI1 were higher in OM soils than in NPK soils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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