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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675838/t4-like-escherichia-coli-phages-from-the-environment-carry-bla-ctx-m
#1
Juliet Roshini Mohan Raj, Rajeshwari Vittal, Prashant Huilgol, Udaya Bhat, Indrani Karunasagar
The resistance determinant blaCTX -M has many variants and has been the most commonly reported gene in clinical isolates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli. Phages have been speculated as potential reservoirs of resistance genes and efficient vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and characterize bacteriophages that harbour the resistance determinant blaCTX -M . E.coli specific bacteriophages were isolated from 15 samples including soil and water across Mangaluru, India using bacterial hosts that were sensitive to β-lactams...
April 20, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673327/assessing-the-benefits-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-laboratory-evolution-and-genome-sequencing
#2
Hoi Yee Chu, Kathleen Sprouffske, Andreas Wagner
BACKGROUND: Recombination is widespread across the tree of life, because it helps purge deleterious mutations and creates novel adaptive traits. In prokaryotes, it often takes the form of horizontal gene transfer from a donor to a recipient bacterium. While such transfer is widespread in natural communities, its immediate fitness benefits are usually unknown. We asked whether any such benefits depend on the environment, and on the identity of donor and recipient strains. To this end, we adapted Escherichia coli to two novel carbon sources over several hundred generations of laboratory evolution, exposing evolving populations to various DNA donors...
April 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671722/the-complete-replicons-of-16-ensifer-meliloti-strains-offer-insights-into-intra-and-inter-replicon-gene-transfer-transposon-associated-loci-and-repeat-elements
#3
Matthew Nelson, Joseph Guhlin, Brendan Epstein, Peter Tiffin, Michael J Sadowsky
Ensifer meliloti (formerly Rhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium meliloti) is a model bacterium for understanding legume-rhizobial symbioses. The tripartite genome of E. meliloti consists of a chromosome, pSymA and pSymB, and in some instances strain-specific accessory plasmids. The majority of previous sequencing studies have relied on the use of assemblies generated from short read sequencing, which leads to gaps and assembly errors. Here we used PacBio-based, long-read assemblies and were able to assemble, de novo, complete circular replicons...
April 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670105/viral-proteins-as-a-potential-driver-of-histone-depletion-in-dinoflagellates
#4
Nicholas A T Irwin, Benjamin J E Martin, Barry P Young, Martin J G Browne, Andrew Flaus, Christopher J R Loewen, Patrick J Keeling, LeAnn J Howe
Within canonical eukaryotic nuclei, DNA is packaged with highly conserved histone proteins into nucleosomes, which facilitate DNA condensation and contribute to genomic regulation. Yet the dinoflagellates, a group of unicellular algae, are a striking exception to this otherwise universal feature as they have largely abandoned histones and acquired apparently viral-derived substitutes termed DVNPs (dinoflagellate-viral-nucleoproteins). Despite the magnitude of this transition, its evolutionary drivers remain unknown...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669186/blending-genomes-distributive-conjugal-transfer-in-mycobacteria-a-sexier-form-of-hgt
#5
REVIEW
Todd A Gray, Keith M Derbyshire
This review discusses a novel form of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) found in mycobacteria called Distributive Conjugal Transfer (DCT). While satisfying the criteria for conjugation, DCT occurs by a mechanism so distinct from oriT-mediated conjugation that it could be considered a fourth category of HGT. DCT involves the transfer of chromosomal DNA between mycobacteria and, most significantly, generates transconjugants with mosaic genomes of the parental strains. Multiple segments of donor chromosomal DNA can be co-transferred regardless of their location or the genetic selection and, as a result, the transconjugant genome contains many donor-derived segments; hence the name DCT...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668953/evolution-of-genome-architecture-in-archaea-spontaneous-generation-of-a-new-chromosome-in-haloferax-volcanii
#6
Darya Ausiannikava, Laura Mitchell, Hannah Marriott, Victoria Smith, Michelle Hawkins, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Conrad A Nieduszynski, Thorsten Allers
The common ancestry of archaea and eukaryotes is evident in their genome architecture. All eukaryotic and several archaeal genomes consist of multiple chromosomes, each replicated from multiple origins. Three scenarios have been proposed for the evolution of this genome architecture: (1) mutational diversification of a multi-copy chromosome; (2) capture of a new chromosome by horizontal transfer; (3) acquisition of new origins and splitting into two replication-competent chromosomes. We report an example of the third scenario: the multi-origin chromosome of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii has split into two elements via homologous recombination...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666765/characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-haemophilus-parasuis-isolated-from-pigs-in-china
#7
Yongda Zhao, Lili Guo, Jie Li, Xianhui Huang, Binghu Fang
Background: Haemophilus parasuis is a common porcine respiratory pathogen that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in farmed swine. We performed a molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes harbored by H. parasuis from pig farms in China. Methods: We screened 143 H. parasuis isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility against six fluoroquinolone antibiotics testing by the broth microdilution method, and the presence of 64 antimicrobial resistance genes by PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#8
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665885/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-residual-antimicrobials-in-the-environment-in-vietnam
#9
Shinji Yamasaki, Tuyen Danh Le, Mai Quang Vien, Chinh Van Dang, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, have become serious problems worldwide. Recent studies conducted in Vietnam revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli are widely distributed in food animals and people. CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-1 are the most prevalent β-lactamases among the identified ESBLs. Furthermore, most of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were multi-drug resistant. Residual antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfadimidine, cephalexin, and sulfadiazine were also detected at a high level in both animal meats and environmental water collected from several cities, including Ho Chi Minh city and Can Tho city...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665884/factors-influencing-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-the-intestine
#10
Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is ancient. Use of antibiotics is a selective driving force that enriches AR genes and promotes the emergence of resistant pathogens. It also has been widely accepted that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs everywhere and plays a critical role in the transmission of AR genes among bacteria. However, our understanding of HGT processes primarily build on extensive in vitro studies; to date, there is still a significant knowledge gap regarding in situ HGT events as well as the factors that influence HGT in different ecological niches...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661139/genome-analysis-of-the-freshwater-planktonic-vulcanococcus-limneticus-sp-nov-reveals-horizontal-transfer-of-nitrogenase-operon-and-alternative-pathways-of-nitrogen-utilization
#11
Andrea Di Cesare, Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Nathan A M Chrismas, Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, Michaela M Salcher, Cristiana Callieri
BACKGROUND: Many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, playing a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling. Little is known about freshwater unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. at the genomic level, despite being recognised of considerable ecological importance in aquatic ecosystems. So far, it has not been shown whether these unicellular picocyanobacteria have the potential for nitrogen fixation. Here, we present the draft-genome of the new pink-pigmented Synechococcus-like strain Vulcanococcus limneticus...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660617/changes-in-bacterial-community-structure-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soil-in-the-vicinity-of-a-pharmaceutical-factory
#12
Youchao Zhu, Qi Zhang, Jiahui Xu, Qian Qu, Tao Lu, Benben Du, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, Haifeng Qian
China is the largest global producer of antibiotics. With the demand for antibiotics increasing every year, it is necessary to assess potential environmental risks and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) associated with antibiotic production. Here, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of ARGs in soil in the vicinity of a pharmaceutical factory. The results showed that antibiotic concentrations were under the detection limit; however, ARGs were present in soil and tended to be enriched near the factory...
April 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659762/activation-of-%C3%AF-20-dependent-recombination-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-mycoplasma-genitalium
#13
Sergi Torres-Puig, Carlos Martínez-Torró, Ignasi Granero-Moya, Enrique Querol, Jaume Piñol, Oscar Q Pich
In the human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, homologous recombination is under the control of σ20, an alternative sigma factor that boosts the generation of genetic and antigenic diversity in the population. Under laboratory growth conditions, σ20 activation is rare and the factors governing its intermittent activity are unknown. Two σ20-regulated genes, rrlA and rrlB, showed to be important for recombination of homologous DNA sequences in this bacterium. Herein, we demonstrate that rrlA and rrlB code for two small proteins that participate in a feed-forward loop essential for σ20 function...
April 11, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658073/comparative-characteristics-of-discrimination-of-s-enterica-isolates-by-phagotyping-test-and-dienes-test
#14
V N Afonyushkin, Yu N Kozlova, I N Tromenshleger, M L Filipenko, O B Novikova
We propose an original methodological approach to discrimination of newly isolated Salmonella enterica strains with the use of Dienes test. Dienes test is used for identification of P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis strains. It consists in growth suppression by mobile bacterial strain cultures and the formation of a demarcation line (Dienes line) between the strains growing towards each other. Similarities and differences between salmonella phagotyping method and Dienes test-based discrimination of the strains are detected...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651978/tracking-the-rules-of-transmission-and-introgression-with-networks
#15
Chloé Vigliotti, Cédric Bicep, Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Eduardo Corel
Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651277/new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-south-korea-between-2010-and-2015
#16
Eun-Jeong Yoon, Da Young Kang, Ji Woo Yang, Dokyun Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Kwang Jun Lee, Seok Hoon Jeong
This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiological time-course of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase- (NDM-) mediated carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in South Korea. A total of 146 non-duplicate NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered between 2010 and 2015 were voluntarily collected from 33 general hospitals and confirmed by PCR. The species were identified by sequences of the 16S rDNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined either by the disk diffusion method or by broth microdilution, and the carbapenem MICs were determined by agar dilution...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651164/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-transition-to-pathogenic-lifestyles-in-magnaporthales-fungi
#17
Ning Zhang, Guohong Cai, Dana C Price, Jo Anne Crouch, Pierre Gladieux, Bradley Hillman, Chang Hyun Khang, Marc-Henri LeBrun, Yong-Hwan Lee, Jing Luo, Huan Qiu, Daniel Veltri, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Jie Zhu, Debashish Bhattacharya
The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae, Magnaporthe grisea), a member of the order Magnaporthales in the class Sordariomycetes, is an important plant pathogen and a model species for studying pathogen infection and plant-fungal interaction. In this study, we generated genome sequence data from five additional Magnaporthales fungi including non-pathogenic species, and performed comparative genome analysis of a total of 13 fungal species in the class Sordariomycetes to understand the evolutionary history of the Magnaporthales and of fungal pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648541/horizontal-gene-transfers-in-mycoplasmas-mollicutes
#18
C Citti, E Dordet-Frisoni, L X Nouvel, C H Kuo, E Baranowski
The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648539/horizontal-gene-transfer-in-thermus-spp
#19
Alba Blesa, Beate Averhoff, José Berenguer
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather particular and highly efficient DNA transport apparatus (DTA) is at the center of this HGT-mediated enhanced adaptability. The function of the DTA is dependent on the integrity and longevity of the extracellular DNA (eDNA) being transformed, which can be improved by the production of extracellular vesicles (EV) through lysis of a fraction of the population...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642965/host-symbiont-pathogen-interactions-in-blood-feeding-parasites-nutrition-immune-cross-talk-and-gene-exchange
#20
Filip Husnik
Animals are common hosts of mutualistic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. Blood-feeding parasites feed on a diet that is nutritionally unbalanced and thus often rely on symbionts to supplement essential nutrients. However, they are also of medical importance as they can be infected by pathogens such as bacteria, protists or viruses that take advantage of the blood-feeding nutritional strategy for own transmission. Since blood-feeding evolved multiple times independently in diverse animals, it showcases a gradient of host-microbe interactions...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
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