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horizontal gene transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473528/novel-genetic-tool-to-study-the-stability-of-genomic-islands
#1
Ashok Kumar, Satyabrata Bag, Bhabatosh Das
BACKGROUND: Genomic islands (GIs) are discrete segments of mobile DNA with defined boundaries, acquired in the bacterial genome from another organism by horizontal gene transfer during the course of evolution. GIs contribute significantly in virulence, disease development, antimicrobial resistance and metabolic process. OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on the development of a vector based genetic tool carrying selectable and counter-selectable markers, in order to flag the GIs in the bacterial chromosome and monitor their stability in laboratory growth conditions...
February 22, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471872/a-reservoir-of-historical-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-remote-pristine-antarctic-soils
#2
Marc W Van Goethem, Rian Pierneef, Oliver K I Bezuidt, Yves Van De Peer, Don A Cowan, Thulani P Makhalanyane
BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria naturally produce antibiotics as a competitive mechanism, with a concomitant evolution, and exchange by horizontal gene transfer, of a range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Surveys of bacterial resistance elements in edaphic systems have originated primarily from human-impacted environments, with relatively little information from remote and pristine environments, where the resistome may comprise the ancestral gene diversity. METHODS: We used shotgun metagenomics to assess antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) distribution in 17 pristine and remote Antarctic surface soils within the undisturbed Mackay Glacier region...
February 23, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471690/genetic-support-of-carbapenemases-in-double-carbapenemase-producer-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-in-the-arabian-peninsula
#3
Amna E Al-Baloushi, Tibor Pál, Akela Ghazawi, Agnes Sonnevend
Enterobacteriaceae co-producing NDM- and OXA-48-type carbapenemases were encountered in higher frequency in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) than in the neighboring countries in our earlier study. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the seven double carbapenemase producer Klebsiella pneumoniae found in the region to assess factors contributing to their emergence. Three K. pneumoniae ST14 isolated in the UAE harboring blaNDM-1 on IncHI1b and blaOXA-232 on IncColE plasmids were clonally related. Furthermore, two K...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469609/diversity-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-encoding-ribosomal-protection-proteins-gene-in-livestock-waste-polluted-environment
#4
Chunyan Li, Cheng Jiang, Zhiyang Wu, Binglin Cheng, Xuejiao An, Hailan Wang, Yueling Sun, Mingyan Huang, Xi Chen, Jinming Wang
The rapid development and increase of antibiotic resistance are global phenomena resulting from the extensive use of antibiotics in human clinics and animal feeding operations. Antibiotics can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can be transferred horizontally to humans and animals through water and the food chain. In this study, the presence and abundance of ARGs in livestock waste was monitored by quantitative PCR. A diverse set of bacteria and tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) from three livestock farms and a river were analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463055/antibiotic-resistance-genetic-markers-and-integrons-in-white-soft-cheese-aspects-of-clinical-resistome-and-potentiality-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#5
Ana Caroline L de Paula, Julliane D Medeiros, Analice C de Azevedo, Jéssica M de Assis Chagas, Vânia L da Silva, Cláudio G Diniz
Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC)-a typical Brazilian white soft cheese-and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes) were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches...
February 19, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458521/two-novel-thermally-resistant-endolysins-encoded-by-pseudo-t-even-bacteriophages-rb43-and-rb49
#6
Galina V Mikoulinskaia, Sergei V Chernyshov, Maria S Shavrina, Nikolai V Molochkov, Valentina Ya Lysanskaya, Andrei A Zimin
Identification and cloning of genes as well as biochemical characterization of the gene products were carried out for two novel endolysins of pseudo T-even lytic bacteriophages RB43 and RB49, which represent different myovirus groups of the subfamily Tevenvirinae. Genes RB43ORF159c and RB49р102 were cloned in E. coli cells, and their products were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with an up to 80 % yield of total activity. In respect to substrate specificity, both enzymes were found to be lytic l-alanoyl-d-glutamate peptidases belonging to the M15 family...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455143/the-birth-and-death-of-effectors-in-rapidly-evolving-filamentous-pathogen-genomes
#7
REVIEW
Simone Fouché, Clémence Plissonneau, Daniel Croll
Plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are major risks to food security due to their evolutionary success in overcoming plant defences. Pathogens produce effectors to interfere with host defences and metabolism. These effectors are often encoded in rapidly evolving compartments of the genome. We review how effector genes emerged and were lost in pathogen genomes drawing on the links between effector evolution and chromosomal rearrangements. Some new effectors entered pathogen genomes via horizontal transfer or introgression...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453715/the-influence-of-heavy-metals-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pollution-on-the-development-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soils
#8
Andrey Vladimirovich Gorovtsov, Ivan Sergeevich Sazykin, Marina Alexandrovna Sazykina
The minireview is devoted to the analysis of the influence of soil pollution with heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the distribution of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in soil microbiomes. It is shown that the best understanding of ARGs distribution process requires studying the influence of pollutants on this process in natural microbiocenoses. Heavy metals promote co-selection of genes determining resistance to them together with ARGs in the same mobile elements of a bacterial genome, but the majority of studies focus on agricultural soils enriched with ARGs originating from manure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452198/microbial-infection-pattern-pathogenic-features-and-resistance-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-during-long-term-hospitalization
#9
Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Zerong Lu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Hailing Tang, Danhong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff, Dingqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients. METHODS: To investigate the microbial infection patterns and molecular epidemiology characteristics of the carbapenem-resistant GNB isolates from a long-term hospitalized patient, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic screening test for carbapenemase production, PCR screening and DNA sequencing of carbapenemase genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR), multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and genetic environment analysis were performed...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449580/botulinum-neurotoxin-encoding-plasmids-can-be-conjugatively-transferred-to-diverse-clostridial-strains
#10
Erin M Nawrocki, Marite Bradshaw, Eric A Johnson
Most Group I Clostridium botulinum strains harbor botulinum neurotoxin (bont) genes on their chromosome, while some carry these genes (including bont/a, bont/b, and bont/f) on large plasmids. Prior work in our laboratory demonstrated that Group I BoNT plasmids were mobilized to C. botulinum recipient strains containing the Tn916 transposon. Here, we show that Tn916 is nonessential for plasmid transfer. Relying on an auxotrophic donor phenotype and a plasmid-borne selectable marker, we observed the transfer of pCLJ, a 270 kb plasmid harboring two bont genes, from its host strain to various clostridia...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449116/chronic-impacts-of-oxytetracycline-on-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-excess-sludge-inhibition-of-hydrolytic-acidification-and-enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistome
#11
Zhe Tian, Yu Zhang, Min Yang
We evaluated the chronic impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) on performance and antibiotic resistance development during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic-containing biomass. Mesophilic AD was conducted in a completely stirred tank reactor by constantly feeding municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of OTC (0-1000 mg L -1 ) under a solid retention time of 20 days over a period of 265 days. Results showed that methane generation of mesophilic AD was inhibited when the OTC concentration in digested sludge was increased to around 18,000 mg kg -1 (OTC dose, 1000 mg L -1 ), due to the inhibition of fermenting and acidogenic bacteria...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448332/looking-for-the-optimal-rate-of-recombination-for-evolutionary-dynamics
#12
David B Saakian
We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of evolution with selection. We are looking for situations where the recombination increases the mean fitness of the population, and there is an optimal recombination rate. We found two fitness landscapes supporting such nonmonotonic behavior of the mean fitness versus the recombination rate. The first case is related to the evolution near the error threshold on a neutral-network-like fitness landscape, for moderate genome lengths and large population. The more realistic case is the second one, in which we consider the evolutionary dynamics of a finite population on a rugged fitness landscape (the smooth fitness landscape plus some random contributions to the fitness)...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445231/impact-of-nanoparticles-on-the-bacillus-subtilis-3610-competence
#13
Elise Eymard-Vernain, Sylvie Luche, Thierry Rabilloud, Cécile Lelong
Due to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, the use of nanomaterials increases every year in industrial and medical processes. At the same time, the increasing number of bacteria becoming resistant to many antibiotics, mostly by a horizontal gene transfer process, is a major public health concern. We herein report, for the first time, the role of nanoparticles in the physiological induction of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. Besides the most well-known impacts of nanoparticles on bacteria, i...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444108/distribution-of-siderophore-gene-systems-on-a-vibrionaceae-phylogeny-database-searches-phylogenetic-analyses-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#14
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442448/horizontal-gene-transfer-hgt-in-biodegradation-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#15
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441122/time-consistent-reconciliation-maps-and-forbidden-time-travel
#16
Nikolai Nøjgaard, Manuela Geiß, Daniel Merkle, Peter F Stadler, Nicolas Wieseke, Marc Hellmuth
Background: In the absence of horizontal gene transfer it is possible to reconstruct the history of gene families from empirically determined orthology relations, which are equivalent to event-labeled gene trees. Knowledge of the event labels considerably simplifies the problem of reconciling a gene tree T with a species trees S , relative to the reconciliation problem without prior knowledge of the event types. It is well-known that optimal reconciliations in the unlabeled case may violate time-consistency and thus are not biologically feasible...
2018: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440578/crispr-cas-mediated-phage-resistance-enhances-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transduction
#17
Bridget N J Watson, Raymond H J Staals, Peter C Fineran
A powerful contributor to prokaryotic evolution is horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through transformation, conjugation, and transduction, which can be advantageous, neutral, or detrimental to fitness. Bacteria and archaea control HGT and phage infection through CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) adaptive immunity. Although the benefits of resisting phage infection are evident, this can come at a cost of inhibiting the acquisition of other beneficial genes through HGT...
February 13, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435265/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-oqxab-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-companion-animals-and-humans-in-henan-province-china
#18
Baoguang Liu, Hua Wu, Yajun Zhai, Zhipei He, Huarun Sun, Tian Cai, Dandan He, Jianhua Liu, Shanmei Wang, Yushan Pan, Li Yuan, Gongzheng Hu
Background: The plasmid-encoded multidrug efflux pump oqxAB confers bacterial resistance primarily to olaquindox, quinolones, and chloramphenicol. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of oqxAB among Escherichia coli isolates from dogs, cats, and humans in Henan, China and the susceptibilities of E. coli isolates to common antibiotics. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a total of 600 samples which included 400 rectal samples and 200 clinical human specimens were tested for the presence of E...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433445/comparative-genomic-analysis-reveals-the-evolution-and-environmental-adaptation-strategies-of-vibrios
#19
Heyu Lin, Min Yu, Xiaolei Wang, Xiao-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vibrios are among the most diverse and ecologically important marine bacteria, which have evolved many characteristics and lifestyles to occupy various niches. The relationship between genome features and environmental adaptation strategies is an essential part for understanding the ecological functions of vibrios in the marine system. The advent of complete genome sequencing technology has provided an important method of examining the genetic characteristics of vibrios on the genomic level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428427/horizontal-transfer-of-class-1-integrons-from-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-to-e-coli-k12
#20
María Eloísa Poey, Magela Laviña
Class 1 integrons are genetic elements that carry a variable set of antibiotic resistance genes, being frequently found in clinical Gram-negative isolates. It is generally assumed that they easily spread horizontally among bacteria, thus contributing to the appearance of multidrug resistant clones. However, there are few experimental studies on the lateral transfer of these elements performed with bacterial collections that had been gathered following an epidemiological design. In this work, a collection with these characteristics, comprising uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates bearing class 1 integrons, was employed to study the horizontal transfer of the integron to an E...
February 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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