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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453633/comparative-analysis-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-fungus-colletotrichum-lindemuthianum-the-causal-agent-of-anthracnose-in-common-beans
#1
Casley Borges de Queiroz, Mateus Ferreira Santana, Pedro M Pereira Vidigal, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz
Fungi of the genus Colletotrichum are economically important and are used as models in plant-pathogen interaction studies. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Colletotrichum. The mitochondrial genome of C. lindemuthianum is a typical circular molecule 37,446 bp (isolate 89 A 2 2-3) and 37,440 bp (isolate 83.501) in length. The difference of six nucleotides between the two genomes is the result of a deletion in the ribosomal protein S3 (rps3) gene in the 83...
February 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439501/the-roles-of-mitochondrion-in-intergenomic-gene-transfer-in-plants-a-source-and-a-pool
#2
Nan Zhao, Yumei Wang, Jinping Hua
Intergenomic gene transfer (IGT) is continuous in the evolutionary history of plants. In this field, most studies concentrate on a few related species. Here, we look at IGT from a broader evolutionary perspective, using 24 plants. We discover many IGT events by assessing the data from nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Thus, we summarize the two roles of the mitochondrion: a source and a pool. That is, the mitochondrion gives massive sequences and integrates nuclear transposons and chloroplast tRNA genes...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423233/organellar-genome-assembly-methods-and-comparative-analysis-of-horticultural-plants
#3
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420807/transoceanic-dispersal-and-plate-tectonics-shaped-global-cockroach-distributions-evidence-from-mitochondrial-phylogenomics
#4
Thomas Bourguignon, Tang Qian, Simon Y W Ho, Frantisek Juna, Zongqing Wang, Daej A Arab, Stephen L Cameron, James Walker, David Rentz, Theodore A Evans, Nathan Lo
Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 million years, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics vs transoceanic dispersal...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417579/two-pivotal-rna-editing-sites-in-the-mitochondrial-atp1mrna-are-required-for-atp-synthase-to-produce-sufficient-atp-for-cotton-fiber-cell-elongation
#5
Peng He, Guanghui Xiao, Hao Liu, Lihua Zhang, Li Zhao, Meiju Tang, Sheng Huang, Yingjie An, Jianing Yu
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional maturation process affecting organelle transcripts in land plants. However, the molecular functions and physiological roles of RNA editing are still poorly understood. Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 692 RNA editing sites in the Gossypium hirsutum mitochondrial genome. A total of 422 editing sites were found in the coding regions and all the edits are cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions. Comparative analysis showed that two editing sites in Ghatp1, C1292 and C1415, had a prominent difference in editing efficiency between fiber and ovule...
February 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393558/the-virome-of-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-gigaspora-margarita-reveals-the-first-report-of-dna-fragments-corresponding-to-replicating-non-retroviral-rna-viruses-in-fungi
#6
Massimo Turina, Stefano Ghignone, Nausicaa Astolfi, Alessandro Silvestri, Paola Bonfante, Luisa Lanfranco
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are key components of the plant microbiota. AMF genetic complexity is increased by the presence of endobacteria, which live inside many species. A further component of such complexity is the virome associated to AMF, whose knowledge is still very limited. Here, by exploiting transcriptomic data we describe the virome of Gigaspora margarita. A BLAST search for viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases sequences allowed the identification of four mitoviruses, one Ourmia-like narnavirus, one Giardia-like virus, and two sequences related to Fusarium graminearum mycoviruses...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382740/a-plastidial-pantoate-transporter-with-a-potential-role-in-pantothenate-synthesis
#7
Lili Huang, Michal Pyc, Saleh Alseekh, Donald R McCarty, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Jesse F Gregory, Christopher S Henry, Alisdair R Fernie, Robert T Mullen, Andrew D Hanson
The pantothenate (vitamin B5) synthesis pathway in plants is not fully defined because the sub-cell-ular site of its ketopantoate → pantoate reduction step is unclear. However, the pathway is known to be split between cytosol, mit-o-chondria, and potentially plastids, and inferred to involve mitochondrial or plast-idial transport of ketopantoate or pantoate. No proteins that mediate these transport steps have been identified. Compar-at-ive genomic and transcriptomic analyses identified Arabidopsis thal-iana BASS1 (At1g78560) and its maize ( Zea mays ) ortholog as candidates for such a transport role...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364919/genome-wide-analyses-of-the-bemisia-tabaci-species-complex-reveal-contrasting-patterns-of-admixture-and-complex-demographic-histories
#8
S Elfekih, P Etter, W T Tay, M Fumagalli, K Gordon, E Johnson, P De Barro
Once considered a single species, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a complex of numerous morphologically indistinguishable species. Within the last three decades, two of its members (MED and MEAM1) have become some of the world's most damaging agricultural pests invading countries across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas and affecting a vast range of agriculturally important food and fiber crops through both feeding-related damage and the transmission of numerous plant viruses. For some time now, researchers have relied on a single mitochondrial gene and/or a handful of nuclear markers to study this species complex...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364229/isolation-and-respiratory-measurements-of-mitochondria-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Wenhui Lyu, Jennifer Selinski, Lu Li, David A Day, Monika W Murcha, James Whelan, Yan Wang
Mitochondria are essential organelles involved in numerous metabolic pathways in plants, most notably the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of reduced compounds such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2). The complete annotation of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome has established it as the most widely used plant model system, and thus the need to purify mitochondria from a variety of organs (leaf, root, or flower) is necessary to fully utilize the tools that are now available for Arabidopsis to study mitochondrial biology...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358189/cms-g-from-beta-vulgaris-ssp-maritima-is-maintained-in-natural-populations-despite-containing-an-atypical-cytochrome-c-oxidase
#10
Etienne H Meyer, Caroline Lehmann, Stéphane Boivin, Lea Brings, Isabelle De Cauwer, Ralph Bock, Kristina Kühn, Pascal Touzet
While mitochondrial mutants of the respiratory machinery are rare and often lethal, Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS), a mitochondrially inherited trait that results in pollen abortion is frequently encountered in wild populations. It generates a breeding system called gynodioecy. In Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima , a gynodioecious species, we found CMS-G to be widespread across the distribution range of the species. Despite the sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of CMS-G, the mitochondrial sterilizing factor causing CMS-G is still unknown...
January 22, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332167/non-coding-rnas-and-plant-male-sterility-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Ankita Mishra, Abhishek Bohra
Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident...
January 13, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330162/transcriptome-analyses-of-mosaic-msc-mitochondrial-mutants-of-cucumber-in-a-highly-inbred-nuclear-background
#12
Tomasz L Mróz, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Agata Bernat, Agnieszka Skarzyńska, Leszek Pryszcz, Madeline Olberg, Michael J Havey, Grzegorz Bartoszewski
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly-inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs...
January 12, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297348/comparative-analysis-of-inverted-repeats-of-polypod-fern-polypodiales-plastomes-reveals-two-hypervariable-regions
#13
Maria D Logacheva, Anastasiya A Krinitsina, Maxim S Belenikin, Kamil Khafizov, Evgenii A Konorov, Sergey V Kuptsov, Anna S Speranskaya
BACKGROUND: Ferns are large and underexplored group of vascular plants (~ 11 thousands species). The genomic data available by now include low coverage nuclear genomes sequences and partial sequences of mitochondrial genomes for six species and several plastid genomes. RESULTS: We characterized plastid genomes of three species of Dryopteris, which is one of the largest fern genera, using sequencing of chloroplast DNA enriched samples and performed comparative analysis with available plastomes of Polypodiales, the most species-rich group of ferns...
December 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250050/anilinopyrimidine-resistance-in-botrytis-cinerea-is-linked-to-mitochondrial-function
#14
Andreas Mosbach, Dominique Edel, Andrew D Farmer, Stephanie Widdison, Thierry Barchietto, Robert A Dietrich, Andy Corran, Gabriel Scalliet
Crop protection anilinopyrimidine (AP) fungicides were introduced more than 20 years ago for the control of a range of diseases caused by ascomycete plant pathogens, and in particular for the control of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Although early mode of action studies suggested an inhibition of methionine biosynthesis, the molecular target of this class of fungicides was never fully clarified. Despite AP-specific resistance having been described in B. cinerea field isolates and in multiple other targeted species, the underlying resistance mechanisms were unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240949/nitric-oxide-production-in-plants-an-update
#15
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222463/the-genome-sequence-of-bipolaris-cookei-reveals-mechanisms-of-pathogenesis-underlying-target-leaf-spot-of-sorghum
#16
Alex Z Zaccaron, Burton H Bluhm
Bipolaris cookei (=Bipolaris sorghicola) causes target leaf spot, one of the most prevalent foliar diseases of sorghum. Little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenesis in B. cookei, in large part due to a paucity of resources for molecular genetics, such as a reference genome. Here, a draft genome sequence of B. cookei was obtained and analyzed. A hybrid assembly strategy utilizing Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing technologies produced a draft nuclear genome of 36.1 Mb, organized into 321 scaffolds with L50 of 31 and N50 of 378 kb, from which 11,189 genes were predicted...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207474/emerging-roles-of-mitochondrial-ribosomal-proteins-in-plant-development
#17
REVIEW
Pedro Robles, Víctor Quesada
Mitochondria are the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells because they are responsible for energy production through the aerobic respiration required for growth and development. These organelles harbour their own genomes and translational apparatus: mitochondrial ribosomes or mitoribosomes. Deficient mitochondrial translation would impair the activity of this organelle, and is expected to severely perturb different biological processes of eukaryotic organisms. In plants, mitoribosomes consist of three rRNA molecules, encoded by the mitochondrial genome, and an undefined set of ribosomal proteins (mitoRPs), encoded by nuclear and organelle genomes...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203807/mitochondrial-genomic-variation-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-three-groups-in-the-genus-scaphoideus-hemiptera-cicadellidae-deltocephalinae
#18
Yimin Du, Wu Dai, Christopher H Dietrich
The widespread leafhopper genus Scaphoideus Uhler is the most diverse genus in Scaphoideini and includes some species that are serious pests and vectors of plant pathogens. Here the first Scaphoideus mitogenome sequences are provided for three species, S. maai, S. nigrivalveus and S. varius, representing three main species groups in the Oriental region based on color pattern. The lengths of these three mitogenomes were 15,188, 15,235 and 15,207 bp, respectively. Gene order of three mitogenomes is highly conserved and identical to that of the putative ancestral insect...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202688/rethinking-the-evolution-of-eukaryotic-metabolism-novel-cellular-partitioning-of-enzymes-in-stramenopiles-links-serine-biosynthesis-to-glycolysis-in-mitochondria
#19
Melania Abrahamian, Meenakshi Kagda, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: An important feature of eukaryotic evolution is metabolic compartmentalization, in which certain pathways are restricted to the cytosol or specific organelles. Glycolysis in eukaryotes is described as a cytosolic process. The universality of this canon has been challenged by recent genome data that suggest that some glycolytic enzymes made by stramenopiles bear mitochondrial targeting peptides. RESULTS: Mining of oomycete, diatom, and brown algal genomes indicates that stramenopiles encode two forms of enzymes for the second half of glycolysis, one with and the other without mitochondrial targeting peptides...
December 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172252/prospects-on-the-evolutionary-mitogenomics-of-plants-a-case-study-on-the-olive-family-oleaceae
#20
Céline Van de Paer, Olivier Bouchez, Guillaume Besnard
The mitogenome is rarely used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of plants, contrary to nuclear and plastid markers. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA for molecular evolutionary studies in Oleaceae, in which cases of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and of potentially contrasted organelle inheritance are known. We compare the diversity and the evolution of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes by focusing on the olive complex and related genera. Using high-throughput techniques, we reconstructed complete mitogenomes (ca...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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