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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427326/no-evidence-for-strong-cytonuclear-conflict-over-sex-allocation-in-a-simultaneously-hermaphroditic-flatworm
#1
Nikolas Vellnow, Dita B Vizoso, Gudrun Viktorin, Lukas Schärer
BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic sex allocation distorters, which arise from cytonuclear conflict over the optimal investment into male versus female reproductive function, are some of the best-researched examples for genomic conflict. Among hermaphrodites, many such distorters have been found in plants, while, to our knowledge, none have been clearly documented in animals. METHODS: Here we provide a quantitative test for cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano...
April 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420746/the-mitochondrial-dna-mtdna-associated-protein-swib5-influences-mtdna-architecture-and-homologous-recombination
#2
Jonas Blomme, Olivier Van Aken, Jelle Van Leene, Teddy Jégu, Riet Maria De Rycke, Michiel De Bruyne, Jasmien Vercruysse, Jonah Nolf, Twiggy Van Daele, Liesbeth De Milde, Mattias Vermeersch, Catherine Colas des Francs-Small, Geert De Jaeger, Moussa Benhamed, A Harvey Millar, Dirk Inzé, Nathalie Gonzalez
In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared to their animal counterparts and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408846/apoptotic-and-genomic-effects-of-corilagin-on-skov3-ovarian-cancer-cell-line
#3
Rukset Attar, Zeynep Birsu Cincin, Elif Sinem Bireller, Bedia Cakmakoglu
Corilagin is a member of the tannin family and has been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, such as Phyllanthus spp. Corilagin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiatherogenic, and antihypertensive effects in various experimental models. In this research, we aimed to investigate for the first time whether corilagin had apoptotic and genomic effects in ovarian cancer treatment in the same study. The potential apoptotic of corilagin was investigated using a WST1 cell proliferation test, caspase 3, and mitochondrial membrane potential JC1 assays in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407383/msh1-maintains-organelle-genome-stability-and-genetically-interacts-with-reca-and-recg-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#4
Masaki Odahara, Yoshihito Kishita, Yasuhiko Sekine
Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA encodes genes essential for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Thus, loss of organelle genomic DNA integrity leads to a decline in organelle function and to alteration of organelle genetic information. RECA (RECA1 and RECA2) and RECG, which are homologs of bacterial homologous recombination repair (HRR) factors RecA and RecG, respectively, play an important role in the maintenance of organelle genome integrity by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats (SDRs) in the moss Physcomitrella patens...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369520/non-coding-rna-may-be-associated-with-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-silene-vulgaris
#5
James D Stone, Pavla Koloušková, Daniel B Sloan, Helena Štorchová
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenomenon in flowering plants caused by mitochondrial (mt) genes. CMS genes typically encode novel proteins that interfere with mt functions and can be silenced by nuclear fertility-restorer genes. Although the molecular basis of CMS is well established in a number of crop systems, our understanding of it in natural populations is far more limited. To identify CMS genes in a gynodioecious plant, Silene vulgaris, we constructed mt transcriptomes and compared transcript levels and RNA editing patterns in floral bud tissue from female and hermaphrodite full siblings...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367378/assembly-and-comparative-analysis-of-complete-mitochondrial-genome-sequence-of-an-economic-plant-salix-suchowensis
#6
Ning Ye, Xuelin Wang, Juan Li, Changwei Bi, Yiqing Xu, Dongyang Wu, Qiaolin Ye
Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%), T (27.59%), C (22.34%), and G (22.64%), which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359330/evolutionarily-recent-insertional-fission-of-mitochondrial-cox2-into-complementary-genes-in-bilaterian-metazoa
#7
Przemyslaw Szafranski
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) of multicellular animals (Metazoa) with bilateral symmetry (Bilateria) are compact and usually carry 13 protein-coding genes for subunits of three respiratory complexes and ATP synthase. However, occasionally reported exceptions to this typical mtDNA organization prompted speculation that, as in protists and plants, some bilaterian mitogenomes may continue to lose their canonical genes, or may even acquire new genes. To shed more light on this phenomenon, a PCR-based screen was conducted to assess fast-evolving mtDNAs of apocritan Hymenoptera (Arthropoda, Insecta) for genomic rearrangements that might be associated with the modification of mitochondrial gene content...
March 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343268/cytogenetic-comparison-of-heteromorphic-and-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-coccinia-cucurbitaceae-points-to-sex-chromosome-turnover
#8
Aretuza Sousa, Jörg Fuchs, Susanne S Renner
Our understanding of the evolution of plant sex chromosomes is increasing rapidly due to high-throughput sequencing data and phylogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic approaches that make it possible to infer the evolutionary direction and steps leading from homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Here, we focus on four species of Coccinia, a genus of 25 dioecious species, including Coccinia grandis, the species with the largest known plant Y chromosome. Based on a phylogeny for the genus, we selected three species close to C...
March 25, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338960/organellar-genomes-from-a-%C3%A2-5-000-year-old-archaeological-maize-sample-are-closely-related-to-nb-genotype
#9
Bernardo Pérez-Zamorano, Miguel Vallebueno-Estrada, Javier Martínez González, Angel García Cook, Rafael Montiel, Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada, Luis Delaye
The story of how preColumbian civilizations developed goes hand-in-hand with the process of plant domestication by Mesoamerican inhabitants. Here, we present the almost complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome and a partial chloroplast genome from an archaeological maize sample collected at the Valley of Tehuacán, México. Accelerator mass spectrometry dated the maize sample to be 5,040-5,300 years before present (95% probability). Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome shows that the archaeological sample branches basal to the other Zea mays genomes, as expected...
April 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338826/the-evolutionary-fate-of-the-chloroplast-and-nuclear-rps16-genes-as-revealed-through-the-sequencing-and-comparative-analyses-of-four-novel-legume-chloroplast-genomes-from-lupinus
#10
J Keller, M Rousseau-Gueutin, G E Martin, J Morice, J Boutte, E Coissac, M Ourari, M Aïnouche, A Salmon, F Cabello-Hurtado, A Aïnouche
The Fabaceae family is considered as a model system for understanding chloroplast genome evolution due to the presence of extensive structural rearrangements, gene losses and localized hypermutable regions. Here, we provide sequences of four chloroplast genomes from the Lupinus genus, belonging to the underinvestigated Genistoid clade. Notably, we found in Lupinus species the functional loss of the essential rps16 gene, which was most likely replaced by the nuclear rps16 gene that encodes chloroplast and mitochondrion targeted RPS16 proteins...
February 27, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306172/genetic-divergence-with-ongoing-gene-flow-is-maintained-by-the-use-of-different-hosts-in-phytophagous-ladybird-beetles-genus-henosepilachna
#11
Kei W Matsubayashi, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Norio Kobayashi, Satoko Yamasaki, Masakazu Kuwajima, Haruo Katakura
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow-a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288321/phomopsis-longicolla-rna-virus-1-novel-virus-at-the-edge-of-myco-and-plant-viruses
#12
Lenka Hrabáková, Igor Koloniuk, Karel Petrzik
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
March 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265748/identification-of-different-cytoplasms-based-on-newly-developed-mitotype-specific-markers-for-marker-assisted-selection-breeding-in-brassica-napus-l
#13
Shuangping Heng, Fengyi Chen, Chao Wei, Kaining Hu, Zonghui Yang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Ping Si, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Different mitotype-specific markers were developed to distinguish different cytoplasms in Brassica napus L. Mitotype-specific markers have been developed to distinguish different mitotypes in plant. And use of molecular markers to identify different mitotypes in Brassica napus would enhance breeding efficiency. Here, we comparatively analyzed six sequenced mitochondrial genomes in Brassica napus and identified collinear block sequences and mitotype-specific sequences (MSSs) of these mitochondrial genomes. The collinear block sequences between mitochondrial genomes of nap, cam, and pol cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines were higher than those of other lines...
March 6, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262720/foreign-plastid-sequences-in-plant-mitochondria-are-frequently-acquired-via-mitochondrion-to-mitochondrion-horizontal-transfer
#14
C L Gandini, M V Sanchez-Puerta
Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) exhibit variable quantities of alien sequences. Many of these sequences are acquired by intracellular gene transfer (IGT) from the plastid. In addition, frequent events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between mitochondria of different species also contribute to their expanded genomes. In contrast, alien sequences are rarely found in plastid genomes. Most of the plant-to-plant HGT events involve mitochondrion-to-mitochondrion transfers. Occasionally, foreign sequences in mtDNAs are plastid-derived (MTPT), raising questions about their origin, frequency, and mechanism of transfer...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256554/genetic-variation-architecture-of-mitochondrial-genome-reveals-the-differentiation-in-korean-landrace-and-weedy-rice
#15
Wei Tong, Qiang He, Yong-Jin Park
Mitochondrial genome variations have been detected despite the overall conservation of this gene content, which has been valuable for plant population genetics and evolutionary studies. Here, we describe mitochondrial variation architecture and our performance of a phylogenetic dissection of Korean landrace and weedy rice. A total of 4,717 variations across the mitochondrial genome were identified adjunct with 10 wild rice. Genetic diversity assessment revealed that wild rice has higher nucleotide diversity than landrace and/or weedy, and landrace rice has higher diversity than weedy rice...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230734/deep%C3%A2-transcriptome%C3%A2-sequencing%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-two%C3%A2-green%C3%A2-algae-chara%C3%A2-vulgaris%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-chlamydomonas%C3%A2-reinhardtii-%C3%A2-provides%C3%A2-no%C3%A2-evidence%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-organellar%C3%A2-rna%C3%A2-editing
#16
A Bruce Cahoon, John A Nauss, Conner D Stanley, Ali Qureshi
Nearly all land plants post-transcriptionally modify specific nucleotides within RNAs, a process known as RNA editing. This adaptation allows the correction of deleterious mutations within the asexually reproducing and presumably non-recombinant chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. There are no reports of RNA editing in any of the green algae so this phenomenon is presumed to have originated in embryophytes either after the invasion of land or in the now extinct algal ancestor of all land plants. This was challenged when a recent in silico screen for RNA edit sites based on genomic sequence homology predicted edit sites in the green alga Chara vulgaris, a multicellular alga found within the Streptophyta clade and one of the closest extant algal relatives of land plants...
February 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228607/analysis-of-nuclear-mitochondrial-dnas-and-factors-affecting-patterns-of-integration-in-plant-species
#17
Takanori Yoshida, Hazuka Y Furihata, Akira Kawabe
Sequences homologous to organellar DNA that have been integrated into nuclear genomes are referred to as nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs) and nuclear plastid DNAs (NUPTs). NUMTs in nine plant species were analyzed to reveal the integration patterns and possible factors involved. The cumulative lengths of NUMTs in two-thirds of species analyzed were greater than those of NUPTs observed in a previous study. The age distribution of NUMTs was similar to that of NUPTs, suggesting similar mechanisms for integration and degradation of both NUPTs and NUMTs...
February 22, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226235/plant-mitochondrial-genomes-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-mutation
#18
José M Gualberto, Kathleen J Newton
The large mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are unusually dynamic because of recombination activities involving repeated sequences. These activities generate subgenomic forms and extensive genomic variation even within the same species. Such changes in genome structure are responsible for the rapid evolution of plant mitochondrial DNA and for the variants associated with cytoplasmic male sterility and abnormal growth phenotypes. Nuclear genes modulate these processes, and over the past decade, several of these genes have been identified...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222679/comparative-mitogenomics-indicates-respiratory-competence-in%C3%A2-parasitic-viscum-despite%C3%A2-loss-of-complex-i%C3%A2-and-extreme-sequence%C3%A2-divergence-and-reveals-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-remarkable%C3%A2-variation-in-genome-size
#19
Elizabeth Skippington, Todd J Barkman, Danny W Rice, Jeffrey D Palmer
BACKGROUND: Aerobically respiring eukaryotes usually contain four respiratory-chain complexes (complexes I-IV) and an ATP synthase (complex V). In several lineages of aerobic microbial eukaryotes, complex I has been lost, with an alternative, nuclear-encoded NADH dehydrogenase shown in certain cases to bypass complex I and oxidize NADH without proton translocation. The first loss of complex I in any multicellular eukaryote was recently reported in two studies; one sequenced the complete mitogenome of the hemiparasitic aerial mistletoe, Viscum scurruloideum, and the other sequenced the V...
February 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219335/stress-responsive-pathways-and-small-rna-changes-distinguish-variable-developmental-phenotypes-caused-by-msh1-loss
#20
Mon-Ray Shao, Sunil Kumar Kenchanmane Raju, John D Laurie, Robersy Sanchez, Sally A Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: Proper regulation of nuclear-encoded, organelle-targeted genes is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial function. Among these genes, MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) is notable for generating an assortment of mutant phenotypes with varying degrees of penetrance and pleiotropy. Stronger phenotypes have been connected to stress tolerance and epigenetic changes, and in Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants, two generations of homozygosity with the msh1 insertion are required before severe phenotypes begin to emerge...
February 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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