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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742072/phaeoviruses-discovered-in-kelp-laminariales
#1
Dean A McKeown, Kim Stevens, Akira F Peters, Peter Bond, Glenn M Harper, Colin Brownlee, Murray T Brown, Declan C Schroeder
Phaeoviruses are latent double-stranded DNA viruses that insert their genomes into those of their brown algal (Phaeophyceae) hosts. So far these viruses are known only from members of the Ectocarpales, which are small and short-lived macroalgae. Here we report molecular and morphological evidence for a new Phaeovirus cluster, referred to as sub-group C, infecting kelps (Laminariales) of the genera Laminaria and Saccharina, which are ecologically and commercially important seaweeds. Epifluorescence and TEM observations indicate that the Laminaria digitata Virus (LdigV), the type species of sub-group C, targets the host nucleus for its genome replication, followed by gradual degradation of the chloroplast and assembly of virions in the cytoplasm of both vegetative and reproductive cells...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738208/plastid-transformation-and-its-application-in-metabolic-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Paulina Fuentes, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Ralph Bock
Metabolic pathway engineering by transgene expression from the plastid (chloroplast) genome offers significant attractions, including straightforward multigene engineering by pathway expression from operons, high transgene expression levels, and increased transgene containment due to maternal inheritance of plastids in most crops. In addition, it provides direct access to the large and diverse metabolite pools in chloroplasts and non-green plastid types. Here, we review recent progress with extending the toolbox for plastid engineering and highlight selected applications in the area of metabolic engineering, including the combined engineering of nuclear and plastid genomes for the production of artemisinic acid, the direct harness of chloroplast reducing power for the synthesis of dhurrin and the use of an edible host for the production of astaxanthin...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736679/chloroplast-genome-sequence-annotation-of-i-dendrobium-nobile-i-asparagales-orchidaceae-an-endangered-medicinal-orchid-from-northeast-india
#3
Devendra Biswal, Ruchishree Konhar, Manish Debnath, Sriram Parameswaran, Durai Sundar, Pramod Tandon
Orchidaceae constitutes one of the largest families of angiosperms. Owing to the significance of orchids in plant biology, market needs and current sustainable technology levels, basic research on the biology of orchids and their applications in the orchid industry is increasing. Although chloroplast (cp) genomes continue to be evolutionarily informative, there is very limited information available on orchid chloroplast genomes in public repositories. Here, we report the complete cp genome sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeast India (Orchidaceae, Asparagales), bearing the GenBank accession number KX377961, which will provide valuable information for future research on orchid genomics and evolution, as well as the medicinal value of orchids...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725231/chloroplast-redox-status-modulates-genome-wide-plant-responses-during-the-non-host-interaction-of-tobacco-with-the-hemibiotrophic-bacterium-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria
#4
Juan J Pierella Karlusich, Matias D Zurbriggen, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Sophia Sonnewald, Uwe Sonnewald, Seyed A Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei, Néstor Carrillo
Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD) at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723946/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-terrestrial-carnivorous-plant-utricularia-reniformis-lentibulariaceae-structure-comparative-analysis-and-evolutionary-landmarks
#5
Saura R Silva, Danillo O Alvarenga, Yani Aranguren, Helen A Penha, Camila C Fernandes, Daniel G Pinheiro, Marcos T Oliveira, Todd P Michael, Vitor F O Miranda, Alessandro M Varani
The carnivorous plants of the family Lentibulariaceae have attained recent attention not only because of their interesting lifestyle, but also because of their dynamic nuclear genome size. Lentibulariaceae genomes span an order of magnitude and include species with the smallest genomes in angiosperms, making them a powerful system to study the mechanisms of genome expansion and contraction. However, little is known about mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of this family, and the evolutionary forces that shape this organellar genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720853/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences-of-lilium-insights-into-evolutionary-dynamics-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#6
Yun-Peng Du, Yu Bi, Feng-Ping Yang, Ming-Fang Zhang, Xu-Qing Chen, Jing Xue, Xiu-Hai Zhang
Lilium is a large genus that includes approximately 110 species distributed throughout cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The species-level phylogeny of Lilium remains unclear; previous studies have found universal markers but insufficient phylogenetic signals. In this study, we present the use of complete chloroplast genomes to explore the phylogeny of this genus. We sequenced nine Lilium chloroplast genomes and retrieved seven published chloroplast genomes for comparative and phylogenetic analyses...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713409/phylogenetic-resolution-in-juglans-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genomes-and-nuclear-dna-sequences
#7
Wenpan Dong, Chao Xu, Wenqing Li, Xiaoman Xie, Yizeng Lu, Yanlei Liu, Xiaobai Jin, Zhili Suo
Walnuts (Juglans of the Juglandaceae) are well-known economically important resource plants for the edible nuts, high-quality wood, and medicinal use, with a distribution from tropical to temperate zones and from Asia to Europe and Americas. There are about 21 species in Juglans. Classification of Juglans at section level is problematic, because the phylogenetic position of Juglans cinerea is disputable. Lacking morphological and DNA markers severely inhibited the development of related researches. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes and two nuclear DNA regions (the internal transcribed spacer and ubiquitin ligase gene) of 10 representative taxa of Juglans were used for comparative genomic analyses in order to deepen the understanding on the application value of genetic information for inferring the phylogenetic relationship of the genus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713393/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-of-chinese-bayberry-morella-rubra-myricaceae-implications-for-understanding-the-evolution-of-fagales
#8
Lu-Xian Liu, Rui Li, James R P Worth, Xian Li, Pan Li, Kenneth M Cameron, Cheng-Xin Fu
Morella rubra (Myricaceae), also known as Chinese bayberry, is an economically important, subtropical, evergreen fruit tree. The phylogenetic placement of Myricaceae within Fagales and the origin of Chinese bayberry's domestication are still unresolved. In this study, we report the chloroplast (cp) genome of M. rubra and take advantage of several previously reported chloroplast genomes from related taxa to examine patterns of evolution in Fagales. The cp genomes of three M. rubra individuals were 159,478, 159,568, and 159...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712318/phylogenetic-studies-and-comparative-chloroplast-genome-analyses-elucidate-the-basal-position-of-halophyte-nitraria-sibirica-nitrariaceae-in-the-sapindales
#9
Lu Lu, Xia Li, Zhaodong Hao, Liming Yang, Jingbo Zhang, Ye Peng, Haibin Xu, Ye Lu, Jin Zhang, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen, Tielong Cheng
Nitraria sibirica is a halophyte and belongs to the family Nitrariaceae. The chloroplast genome of Nitraria sibirica (159,466 bp) has a quadripartite structure, which consists of a large single-copy (87,914 bp) region, a small single-copy (18,316 bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (26,618 bp). Sequencing analyses indicate that the chloroplast genome contains 113 distinct genes, including 79 peptide-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. We also identified 105 perfect simple sequence repeats, 12 most divergent non-coding regions, and 6 most divergent coding regions when compared to the chloroplast genomes of the Sapindales plants...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710126/incomplete-lineage-sorting-and-hybridization-in-the-evolutionary-history-of-closely-related-endemic-yellow-flowered-aechmea-species-of-subgenus-ortgiesia-bromeliaceae
#10
Márcia Goetze, Camila M Zanella, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Miriam V Büttow, Fernanda Bered
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The yellow-flowered Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia (yfAsO) (Bromeliaceae) is a group of seven morphologically similar bromeliads found mostly in the southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. The recent origin of this group probably contributes to its taxonomic complexity. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of genetic diversity and structure at the population and species levels, to gain insight into the processes behind the diversification of the group, and to contribute to the establishment of species boundaries...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700950/transcriptional-changes-of-rice-in-response-to-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus
#11
Mohamed M S Ahmed, Wen Ji, Muyue Wang, Shiquan Bian, Meng Xu, Weiyun Wang, Jiangxiang Zhang, Zhihao Xu, Meimei Yu, Qiaoquan Liu, Changquan Zhang, Honggen Zhang, Shuzhu Tang, Minghong Gu, Hengxiu Yu
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism...
July 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698879/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-coptis-chinensis-franch-and-its-evolutionary-history
#12
Yang He, Hongtao Xiao, Cao Deng, Gang Fan, Shishang Qin, Cheng Peng
The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694845/a-type-i-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-modulates-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-oleaginous-microalga-nannochloropsis-oceanica
#13
Hehong Wei, Ying Shi, Xiaonian Ma, Yufang Pan, Hanhua Hu, Yantao Li, Ming Luo, Henri Gerken, Jin Liu
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are considered promising feedstocks for biofuels. The marine microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica, has been attracting ever-increasing interest because of its fast growth, high triacylglycerol (TAG) content, and available genome sequence and genetic tools. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the last and committed step of TAG biosynthesis in the acyl-CoA-dependent pathway. Previous studies have identified 13 putative DGAT-encoding genes in the genome of N...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694820/white-stripe-leaf4-encodes-a-novel-p-type-ppr-protein-required-for-chloroplast-biogenesis-during-early-leaf-development
#14
Ying Wang, Yulong Ren, Kunneng Zhou, Linglong Liu, Jiulin Wang, Yang Xu, Huan Zhang, Long Zhang, Zhiming Feng, Liwei Wang, Weiwei Ma, Yunlong Wang, Xiuping Guo, Xin Zhang, Cailin Lei, Zhijun Cheng, Jianmin Wan
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins comprise a large family in higher plants and perform diverse functions in organellar RNA metabolism. Despite the rice genome encodes 477 PRR proteins, the regulatory effects of PRR proteins on chloroplast development remains unknown. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the rice white stripe leaf4 (wsl4) mutant. The wsl4 mutant develops white-striped leaves during early leaf development, characterized by decreased chlorophyll content and malformed chloroplasts...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690800/do-plant-populations-on-distinct-inselbergs-talk-to-each-other-a-case-study-of-genetic-connectivity-of-a-bromeliad-species-in-an-ocbil-landscape
#15
Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski, Alison Gonçalves Nazareno, Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza
Here, we explore the historical and contemporaneous patterns of connectivity among Encholirium horridum populations located on granitic inselbergs in an Ocbil landscape within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Beyond to assess the E. horridum population genetic structure, we built species distribution models across four periods (current conditions, mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], and Last Interglacial) and inferred putative dispersal corridors using a least-cost path analysis to elucidate biogeographic patterns...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687778/evolution-of-the-araliaceae-family-inferred-from-complete-chloroplast-genomes-and-45s-nrdnas-of-10-panax-related-species
#16
Kyunghee Kim, Van Binh Nguyen, Jingzhou Dong, Ying Wang, Jee Young Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang
We produced complete sequences and conducted comparative analysis of the maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) genomes and bi-parentally inherited 45S nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nrDNA) from ten Araliaceae species to elucidate the genetic diversity and evolution in that family. The cp genomes ranged from 155,993 bp to 156,730 bp with 97.1-99.6% similarity. Complete 45S nrDNA units were about 11 kb including a 5.8-kb 45S cistron. Among 79 cp protein-coding genes, 74 showed nucleotide variations among ten species, of which infA, rpl22, rps19 and ndhE genes showed the highest Ks values and atpF, atpE, ycf2 and rps15 genes showed the highest Ka/Ks values...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684295/on-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-a-historical-appraisal-of-lynn-margulis-endosymbiotic-theory
#17
Antonio Lazcano, Juli Peretó
Although for a long-time symbiosis was considered to be quite rare and with no role in evolutionary processes, Lynn Margulis demonstrated that endosymbiotic events played a key role in the origin and evolution of eukaryotic cells. Starting with her seminal assay in the Journal of Theoretical Biology in 1967 (authored as Lynn Sagan), her lifelong work on eukaryogenesis and the role of symbiosis in evolution stands as a valid and authoritative contribution to science. As was quick to acknowledge, she was not the first to discuss the significance of symbiosis to explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, but no one else had done it to her extent and depth, nor had anyone provided a variety of testable hypotheses...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683832/molecular-dating-of-phylogenetic-divergence-between-urochloa-species-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genomes
#18
Marco Pessoa-Filho, Alexandre Magalhães Martins, Márcio Elias Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Forage species of Urochloa are planted in millions of hectares of tropical and subtropical pastures in South America. Most of the planted area is covered with four species (U. ruziziensis, U. brizantha, U. decumbens and U. humidicola). Breeding programs rely on interspecific hybridizations to increase genetic diversity and introgress traits of agronomic importance. Knowledge of phylogenetic relationships is important to optimize compatible hybridizations in Urochloa, where phylogeny has been subject of some controversy...
July 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676809/phylogenomic-analysis-and-dynamic-evolution-of-chloroplast-genomes-in-salicaceae
#19
Yuan Huang, Jun Wang, Yongping Yang, Chuanzhu Fan, Jiahui Chen
Chloroplast genomes of plants are highly conserved in both gene order and gene content. Analysis of the whole chloroplast genome is known to provide much more informative DNA sites and thus generates high resolution for plant phylogenies. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of three Salix species in family Salicaceae. Phylogeny of Salicaceae inferred from complete chloroplast genomes is generally consistent with previous studies but resolved with higher statistical support. Incongruences of phylogeny, however, are observed in genus Populus, which most likely results from homoplasy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675462/emb2738-which-encodes-a-putative-plastid-targeted-gtp-binding-protein-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-chloroplast-development-in-higher-plants
#20
Lin-Shan Ye, Qin Zhang, Hui Pan, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang, Qing-Bo Yu
In higher plants, chloroplasts carry out many important functions, and normal chloroplast development is required for embryogenesis. Numerous chloroplast-targeted proteins involved in embryogenesis have been identified. Nevertheless, their functions remain unclear. In this study, a chloroplast-localized protein, EMB2738, was reported to be involved in Arabidopsis embryogenesis. EMB2738 knockout led to defective embryos, and the embryo development in emb2738 s was interrupted after the globular stage. Complementation experiments identified the AT3G12080 locus as EMB2738...
July 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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