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chloroplast genome

Dinakar Challabathula, Qingwei Zhang, Dorothea Bartels
Inhibition of photosynthesis is a central, primary response that is observed in both desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive plants affected by drought stress. Decreased photosynthesis during drought stress can either be due to the limitation of carbon dioxide entry through the stomata and the mesophyll cells, due to increased oxidative stress or due to decreased activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the photosynthetic rates decrease in both desiccation-tolerant and sensitive plants during drought, the remarkable difference lies in the complete recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in desiccation-tolerant plants...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhichao Xu, Tianyi Xin, Dorothea Bartels, Ying Li, Wei Gu, Hui Yao, Sai Liu, Haoying Yu, Xiangdong Pu, Jianguo Zhou, Jiang Xu, Caicai Xi, Hetian Lei, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen
Resurrection plants, which are the "gifts" of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27,761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive S...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant
Cornelius M Kyalo, Andrew W Gichira, Zhi-Zhong Li, Josphat K Saina, Itambo Malombe, Guang-Wan Hu, Qing-Feng Wang
Streptocarpus teitensis (Gesneriaceae) is an endemic species listed as critically endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of threatened species. However, the sequence and genome information of this species remains to be limited. In this article, we present the complete chloroplast genome structure of Streptocarpus teitensis and its evolution inferred through comparative studies with other related species. S. teitensis displayed a chloroplast genome size of 153,207 bp, sheltering a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,402 bp each split by small and large single-copy (SSC and LSC) regions of 18,300 and 84,103 bp, respectively...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rachel S Jabaily, Kelly A Shepherd, Pryce S Michener, Caroline J Bush, Rodrigo Rivero, Andrew G Gardner, Emily B Sessa
Goodeniaceae is a primarily Australian flowering plant family with a complex taxonomy and evolutionary history. Previous phylogenetic analyses have successfully resolved the backbone topology of the largest clade in the family, Goodenia s.l., but have failed to clarify relationships within the species-rich and enigmatic Goodenia clade C, a prerequisite for taxonomic revision of the group. We used genome skimming to retrieve sequences for chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear markers for 24 taxa representing Goodenia s...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ali Mohammad Moner, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry
Whole chloroplast genome sequence analysis of 58 wild and domesticated rice samples was used to investigate their phylogeny providing more detail on the biogeography of the major groups of wild A genome rices globally. An optimized chloroplast assembly method was developed and applied to extracting high quality whole chloroplast genome sequences from shot gun whole DNA sequencing data. Forty complete high quality chloroplast genome sequences were assembled (including; temperate japonica, tropical japonica and aus)...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Chang-Kug Kim, Young-Joo Seol, Sampath Perumal, Jonghoon Lee, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Seungwoo Jin, Beom-Soon Choi, Yeisoo Yu, Ho-Cheol Ko, Ji-Weon Choi, Kyoung-Yul Ryu, Seong-Han Sohn, Isobel Parkin, Tae-Jin Yang
The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jia Li, Yingjuan Su, Ting Wang
The plastid accD gene encodes a subunit of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) enzyme. The length of accD gene has been supposed to expand in Cryptomeria japonica , Taiwania cryptomerioides , Cephalotaxus , Taxus chinensis , and Podocarpus lambertii , and the main reason for this phenomenon was the existence of tandemly repeated sequences. However, it is still unknown whether the accD gene length in other cupressophytes has expanded. Here, in order to investigate how widespread this phenomenon was, 18 accD sequences and its surrounding regions of cupressophyte were sequenced and analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junling Cao, Dan Jiang, Zhenyu Zhao, Subo Yuan, Yujun Zhang, Teng Zhang, Wenhao Zhong, Qingjun Yuan, Luqi Huang
Chinese yam has been used both as a food and in traditional herbal medicine. Developing more effective genetic markers in this species is necessary to assess its genetic diversity and perform cultivar identification. In this study, new chloroplast genomic resources were developed using whole chloroplast genomes from six genotypes originating from different geographical locations. The Dioscorea polystachya chloroplast genome is a circular molecule consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ali M Moner, Agnelo Furtado, Ian Chivers, Glen Fox, Darren Crayn, Robert J Henry
In the thousands of years of rice domestication in Asia, many useful genes have been lost from the gene pool. Wild rice is a key source of diversity for domesticated rice. Genome sequencing has suggested that the wild rice populations in northern Australia may include novel taxa, within the AA genome group of close (interfertile) wild relatives of domesticated rice that have evolved independently due to geographic separation and been isolated from the loss of diversity associated with gene flow from the large populations of domesticated rice in Asia...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mark Hughes, Ching-I Peng, Che-Wei Lin, Rosario Rivera Rubite, Patrick Blanc, Kuo-Fang Chung
The Philippine island of Palawan is highly biodiverse. During fieldwork there in 2011 & 2014 we found five unknown species in the large genus Begonia. The species are similar in their rhizomatous stems, four-tepaled flowers, inferior two- or three-locular ovaries with bilamellate placentas, and are assignable to Begonia sect. Baryandra. Our observations support the recognition of these as five new species endemic to Palawan: B. elnidoensis, B. gironellae, B. quinquealata, B. tabonensis and B. tenuibracteata which are described here...
2018: PloS One
S Riaz, K Huerta-Acosta, A C Tenscher, M A Walker
Pierce's disease (PD) limits the cultivation of Vitis vinifera grape cultivars in California, across the southern United States and into South America. Resistance has been well characterized in V. arizonica, and one resistance locus has been identified (PdR1). However, resistance is poorly characterized in most other grape species. We tested a wide range of Vitis species from the southwestern United States for resistance to PD and used nuclear and chloroplast markers to phenotypically and genetically select a diverse set of resistant accessions...
April 30, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Jian-Qiang Zhang, Da-Lv Zhong, Wei-Jie Song, Ruo-Wei Zhu, Wei-Yue Sun
How geological events and climate oscillations in the Pleistocene glaciation shaped the geographic distribution of genetic variation of species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its adjacent areas has been extensively studied. However, little studies have investigated whether closely related species in the same genus with similar physiological and life history traits responded similarly to the glacial climatic oscillations. If this is not the case, we would expect that the population histories of studied species were not driven by extrinsic environmental changes alone...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yunxiao Liu, Xia Lan, Shiren Song, Ling Yin, Ian B Dry, Junjie Qu, Jiang Xiang, Jiang Lu
Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine, causing tremendous economic loss in the grape and wine industry. The disease agent Plasmopara viticola is an obligate biotrophic oomycete, from which over 100 candidate RXLR effectors have been identified. In this study, 83 candidate RXLR effector genes ( PvRXLRs ) were cloned from the P. viticola isolate "JL-7-2" genome. The results of the yeast signal sequence trap assay indicated that most of the candidate effectors are secretory proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wenpan Dong, Chao Xu, Ping Wu, Tao Cheng, Jing Yu, Shiliang Zhou, De-Yuan Hong
Accurately resolving the phylogeny of enigmatic taxa is always a challenge in phylogenetic inference. Such uncertainties could be due to systematic errors or model violations. Here, we provide an example demonstrating how these factors affect the positioning of Paeoniaceae within Saxifragales based on chloroplast genome data. We newly assembled 14 chloroplast genomes from Saxifragales, and by combining these genomes with those of 63 other angiosperms, three datasets were assembled to test different hypotheses proposed by recent studies...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jing Meng, Xuepei Li, Hongtao Li, Junbo Yang, Hong Wang, Jun He
Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity and detoxification properties. In southwestern China, several Aconitum species, called ‘Dula’ in the Yi Nationality, were often used to control the poisonous effects of other Aconitum plants...
April 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qinhua Gan, Jiaoyun Jiang, Xiao Han, Shifan Wang, Yandu Lu
Plastid engineering offers an important tool to fill the gap between the technical and the enormous potential of microalgal photosynthetic cell factory. However, to date, few reports on plastid engineering in industrial microalgae have been documented. This is largely due to the small cell sizes and complex cell-wall structures which make these species intractable to current plastid transformation methods (i.e., biolistic transformation and polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation). Here, employing the industrial oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica as a model, an electroporation-mediated chloroplast transformation approach was established...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaopeng Mu, Pengfei Wang, Junjie Du, Yu Gary Gao, Jiancheng Zhang
Cerasus humilis is endemic to China and is a new fruit tree species with economic and environmental benefits, with potential developmental and utilization applications. We report the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. humilis. Its genome is 158,084 bp in size, and the overall GC content is 36.8%. An inverted repeats (IR) of 52,672 bp in size is separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 86,374 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19,038 bp. The chloroplast genome of C. humilis contains 131 genes including 90 protein-coding genes, 33 transfer RNA genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes...
2018: PloS One
Ali Amiryousefi, Jaakko Hyvönen, Péter Poczai
Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) is a native Old World member of the nightshade family. This European diploid species can be found from marshlands to high mountainous regions and it is a common weed that serves as an alternative host and source of resistance genes against plant pathogens such as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of bittersweet, which is 155,580 bp in length and it is characterized by a typical quadripartite structure composed of a large (85,901 bp) and small (18,449 bp) single-copy region interspersed by two identical inverted repeats (25,615 bp)...
2018: PloS One
Wanzhen Liu, Hanghui Kong, Juan Zhou, Peter W Fritsch, Gang Hao, Wei Gong
The subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the Fabaceae has long been recognized as non-monophyletic due to its controversial phylogenetic relationships. Cercis chuniana , endemic to China, is a representative species of Cercis L. placed within Caesalpinioideae in the older sense. Here, we report the whole chloroplast (cp) genome of C. chuniana and compare it to six other species from the Caesalpinioideae. Comparative analyses of gene synteny and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), as well as estimation of nucleotide diversity, the relative ratios of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions (dn/ds), and Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) interspecific genetic distances, were all conducted...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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