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chloroplast genome

Björn Grübler, Livia Merendino, Sven O Twardziok, Morgane Mininno, Guillaume Allorent, Fabien Chevalier, Monique Liebers, Robert Blanvillain, Klaus Mayer, Silva Lerbs-Mache, Stephane Ravanel, Thomas Pfannschmidt
Plants possessing dysfunctional plastids due to defects in pigment biosynthesis or translation are known to repress photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) via retrograde signals from the disturbed organelles towards the nucleus. These signals are thought to be essential for proper biogenesis and function of the plastid. Mutants lacking plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-associated proteins (PAPs) display a genetic arrest in eoplast-chloroplast transition leading to an albino phenotype in the light. Retrograde signaling in these mutants, thus, could be expected to be similar as under conditions inducing plastid dysfunction...
September 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
Tanvi Kaila, Pavan K Chaduvla, Hukam C Rawal, Swati Saxena, Anshika Tyagi, S V Amitha Mithra, Amolkumar U Solanke, Pritam Kalia, T R Sharma, N K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad
Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.), also known as guar, belongs to the family Leguminosae, and is an annual herbaceous legume. Guar is the main source of galactomannan for gas mining industries. In the present study, the draft chloroplast genome of clusterbean was generated and compared to some of the previously reported legume chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome of clusterbean is 152,530 bp in length, with a quadripartite structure consisting of large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) of 83,025 bp and 17,879 bp in size, respectively, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,790 bp in size...
September 19, 2017: Genes
Ming-Rui Li, Feng-Xue Shi, Ya-Ling Li, Peng Jiang, Lili Jiao, Bao Liu, Lin-Feng Li
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Dongmei Yin, Yun Wang, Xingguo Zhang, Xingli Ma, Xiaoyan He, Jianhang Zhang
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed and cash crop worldwide. Wild Arachis spp. are potental sources of novel genes for the genetic improvement of cultivated peanut. Understanding the genetic relationships with cultivated peanut is important for the efficient use of wild species in breeding programmes. However, for this genus, only a few genetic resources have been explored so far. In this study, new chloroplast genomic resources have been developed for the genus Arachis based on whole chloroplast genomes from seven species that were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amparo López-Carrasco, Cristina Ballesteros, Vicente Sentandreu, Sonia Delgado, Selma Gago-Zachert, Ricardo Flores, Rafael Sanjuán
Mutation rates vary by orders of magnitude across biological systems, being higher for simpler genomes. The simplest known genomes correspond to viroids, subviral plant replicons constituted by circular non-coding RNAs of few hundred bases. Previous work has revealed an extremely high mutation rate for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid, a chloroplast-replicating viroid. However, whether this is a general feature of viroids remains unclear. Here, we have used high-fidelity ultra-deep sequencing to determine the mutation rate in a common host (eggplant) of two viroids, each representative of one family: the chloroplastic eggplant latent viroid (ELVd, Avsunviroidae) and the nuclear potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd, Pospiviroidae)...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Yingang Li, Wuqin Xu, Wentao Zou, Dongyue Jiang, Xinhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Phoebe (Lauraceae) comprises of evergreen trees or shrubs with approximately 100 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and Neotropical America. A total of 34 species and three varieties occur in China. Despite of economic and ecological value, only limited genomic resources are available for this genus. RESULTS: We sequenced the two complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of Phoebe chekiangensis and P. bournei using Illumina sequencing technology via a combined strategy of de novo and reference-guided assembly...
September 13, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Dan Jiang, Zhenyu Zhao, Teng Zhang, Wenhao Zhong, Chunsheng Liu, Qingjun Yuan, Luqi Huang
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) is the source of the well-known traditional Chinese medicine "HuangQin" (Radix Scutellariae). Natural sources of S. baicalensis are rapidly declining due to high market demand and overexploitation. Moreover, the commercial products of Radix Scutellariae have often been found to contain adulterants in recent years, which may give rise to issues regarding drug efficacy and safety. In this study, we developed valuable chloroplast molecular resources by comparing intraspecific and interspecific chloroplast genome...
September 13, 2017: Genes
Henry N Taunt, Laura Stoffels, Saul Purton
Most commercial production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins involves the use of mammalian cell lines, E. coli or yeast as the expression host. However, recent work has demonstrated the potential of eukaryotic microalgae as platforms for light-driven synthesis of such proteins. Expression in the algal chloroplast is particularly attractive since this organelle contains a minimal genome suitable for rapid engineering using synthetic biology approaches; with transgenes precisely targeted to specific genomic loci and amenable to high-level, regulated and stable expression...
September 11, 2017: Bioengineered
Stephen A Smith, Joseph W Brown, Ya Yang, Riva Bruenn, Chloe P Drummond, Samuel F Brockington, Joseph F Walker, Noah Last, Norman A Douglas, Michael J Moore
The role played by whole genome duplication (WGD) in plant evolution is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages such as superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the potential association of WGDs and higher diversification rates. Using seven chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal genes, we constructed a phylogeny of 5036 species of Caryophyllales, representing nearly half of the extant species...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
ZhouXian Ni, YouJu Ye, Tiandao Bai, Meng Xu, Li-An Xu
The chloroplast genome (CPG) of Pinus massoniana belonging to the genus Pinus (Pinaceae), which is a primary source of turpentine, was sequenced and analyzed in terms of gene rearrangements, ndh genes loss, and the contraction and expansion of short inverted repeats (IRs). P. massoniana CPG has a typical quadripartite structure that includes large single copy (LSC) (65,563 bp), small single copy (SSC) (53,230 bp) and two IRs (IRa and IRb, 485 bp). The 108 unique genes were identified, including 73 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs...
September 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chai-Ling Ho, Wei-Kang Lee, Ee-Leen Lim
Agar and agarose have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Knowledge on the genome of red seaweeds that produce them is still lacking. To fill the gap in genome analyses of these red algae, we have sequenced the nuclear and organellar genomes of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii. The partial nuclear genome sequence of G. changii has a total length of 35.8Mb with 10,912 predicted protein coding sequences. Only 39.4% predicted proteins were found to have significant matches to protein sequences in SwissProt...
September 7, 2017: Genomics
Marie-Kristin Lehniger, Sabrina Finster, Joanna Melonek, Svenja Oetke, Karin Krupinska, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins...
September 8, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Dario Leister
The term 'experimental evolution' refers to short-term evolutionary experiments with microorganisms under controlled conditions in which selection is expected to occur. In combination with whole-genome sequencing and genetic engineering, the method has become a powerful tool to study evolutionary mechanisms and engineer new microbial variants. It has been most extensively used in the model species Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but more recently photosynthetic microorganisms have been subjected to experimental evolution...
September 7, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
Ya-Yi Huang, Shu-Ting Cho, Mindia Haryono, Chih-Horng Kuo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179055.].
2017: PloS One
Fabian Ries, Yvonne Carius, Marina Rohr, Karin Gries, Sandro Keller, C Roy D Lancaster, Felix Willmund
A considerably small fraction of approximately 60-100 proteins of all chloroplast proteins are encoded by the plastid genome. Many of these proteins are major subunits of complexes with central functions within plastids. In comparison with other subcellular compartments and bacteria, many steps of chloroplast protein biogenesis are not well understood. We report here on the first study of chloroplast-localised trigger factor. In bacteria, this molecular chaperone is known to associate with translating ribosomes to facilitate the folding of newly synthesized proteins...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chuner Cai, Lingke Wang, Lingjie Zhou, Peimin He, Binghua Jiao
Ulva flexuosa, one kind of green tide algae, has outbroken in the Yellow Sea of China during the past ten years. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of U. flexuosa followed by annotation and comparative analysis. It indicated that the chloroplast genomes had high conservation among Ulva spp., and high rearrangement outside them. Though U. flexuosa was closer to U. linza than U. fasciata in phylogenetic tree, the average Ka/Ks between U. flexuosa and U. linza assessed by 67 protein-coding genes was higher than those between U...
2017: PloS One
Inkyu Park, Wook-Jin Kim, Sungyu Yang, Sang-Min Yeo, Hulin Li, Byeong Cheol Moon
Aconitum species (belonging to the Ranunculaceae) are well known herbaceous medicinal ingredients and have great economic value in Asian countries. However, there are still limited genomic resources available for Aconitum species. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of two Aconitum species, A. coreanum and A. carmichaelii, using the MiSeq platform. The two Aconitum chloroplast genomes were 155,880 and 157,040 bp in length, respectively, and exhibited LSC and SSC regions separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions...
2017: PloS One
S Massoz, M Hanikenne, B Bailleul, N Coosemans, M Radoux, H Miranda-Astudillo, P Cardol, V Larosa, C Remacle
The qualitative screening method to select complex I mutants in the microalga Chlamydomonas, based on reduced growth under heterotrophic condition, is not suited for high throughput screening. In order to develop a fast screening method based on measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, we first demonstrated that complex I mutants displayed decreased photosystem II efficiency in the genetic background of a photosynthetic mutation leading to reduced formation of the electrochemical proton gradient in the chloroplast (pgrl1 mutation)...
August 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Bin Li, Furong Lin, Ping Huang, Wenying Guo, Yongqi Zheng
Decaisnea insignis is a wild resource plant and is used as an ornamental, medicinal, and fruit plant. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast genomes has provided insight into the overall evolutionary dynamics of chloroplast genomes and has enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within plant families. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of D. insignis and used the data to assess its genomic resources. The D. insignis chloroplast genome is 158,683 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,167 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,162 bp and 87,187 bp, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ran Wei, Yue-Hong Yan, A J Harris, Jong-Soo Kang, Hui Shen, Qiao-Ping Xiang, Xian-Chun Zhang
The eupolypods II ferns represent a classic case of evolutionary radiation and, simultaneously, exhibit high substitution rate heterogeneity. These factors have been proposed to contribute to the contentious resolutions among clades within this fern group in multilocus phylogenetic studies. We investigated the deep phylogenetic relationships of eupolypod II ferns by sampling all major families and using 40 plastid genomes, or plastomes, of which 33 were newly sequenced with next-generation sequencing technology...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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