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Saliva biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445881/study-of-salivary-and-serum-vaspin-and-total-antioxidants-in-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Elzbieta Paszynska, Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Agnieszka Slopien, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Agata Dutkiewicz, Teresa Grzelak
OBJECTIVES: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are primarily at high risk of multiple somatic complications, including oral diseases. In recent years, a number of new molecules that may play a potentially important role in AN progress and prognosis have been identified in saliva, but their exact roles are still poorly understood. Two such group of substances are antioxidants and vaspin. The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to measure both the salivary and serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and vaspin (VASP) concentrations of patients with AN in comparison to an average population...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442082/comparative-analysis-of-salivary-sialic-acid-levels-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-chronic-periodontitis-patients-a-biochemical-study
#2
Surekha Rathod, Tony Shori, Trupti Satish Sarda, Anubha Raj, Padmaja Jadhav
Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell-cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427076/giant-fish-killing-water-bug-reveals-ancient-and-dynamic-venom-evolution-in-heteroptera
#3
Andrew A Walker, Maria José Hernández-Vargas, Gerardo Corzo, Bryan G Fry, Glenn F King
True Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) produce venom or saliva with diverse bioactivities depending on their feeding strategies. However, little is known about the molecular evolution of the venom toxins underlying these biological activities. We examined venom of the giant fish-killing water bug Lethocerus distinctifemur (Insecta: Belostomatidae) using infrared spectroscopy, transcriptomics, and proteomics. We report 132 venom proteins including putative enzymes, cytolytic toxins, and antimicrobial peptides. Over 73% (96 proteins) showed homology to venom proteins from assassin bugs (Reduviidae), including 21% (28 proteins from seven families) not known from other sources...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423533/biologically-validating-the-measurement-of-oxytocin-in-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-urine-and-saliva-using-a-commercial-enzyme-immunoassay
#4
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. However, no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla, even though the members of this genus are of great interest to researchers due to their close genetic relatedness to humans and their tolerance-based social system. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior in this subspecies...
February 8, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409364/graphene-onto-medical-grade-titanium-an-atom-thick-multimodal-coating-that-promotes-osteoblast-maturation-and-inhibits-biofilm-formation-from-distinct-species
#5
Nileshkumar Dubey, Kassapa Ellepola, Fanny E D Decroix, Julien L P Morin, A H Castro Neto, Chaminda J Seneviratne, Vinicius Rosa
The time needed for the osseointegration of titanium implants is deemed too long. Moreover, the bacterial colonization of their surfaces is a major cause of failure. Graphene can overcome these issues but its wet transfer onto substrates employs hazardous chemicals limiting the clinical applications. Alternatively, dry transfer technique has been developed, but the biological properties of this technique remain unexplored. Here, a dry transfer technique based on a hot-pressing method allowed to coat titanium substrates with high-quality graphene and coverage area >90% with a single transfer...
February 6, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402161/the-relationship-between-type-d-personality-and-physical-health-complaints-is-mediated-by-perceived-stress-and-anxiety-but-not-diurnal-cortisol-secretion
#6
Michael A Smith, Victoria C Riccalton, Denise H Kelly-Hughes, Olivia A Craw, Sarah F Allen, Daryl B O'Connor, Mark A Wetherell
Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group...
February 5, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395487/co-variation-of-fatigue-and-psychobiological-stress-in-couples-everyday-life
#7
Johanna M Doerr, Urs M Nater, Ulrike Ehlert, Beate Ditzen
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge about how fatigue develops and worsens and what influences fluctuations in daily fatigue. Stress was found to influence fatigue, and being in a relationship seems to either increase or decrease stress depending on the couple interaction. In this study, co-variation of fatigue, self-reported stress, and biological stress markers in couples' everyday lives was investigated. Specifically, we examined a) whether momentary couple interactions moderated dyadic outcomes and b) whether and how stress and relationship measures influenced individual momentary fatigue...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391713/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-markers-in-oral-lichen-planus
#8
V R Rekha, S Sunil, R Rathy
Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic, inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membrane, scalp and nails that frequently involves the oral mucosa. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or repair the resulting damage. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of LP. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of oxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of oral LP, estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and uric acid (UA) in saliva of oral LP patients and to compare the levels of SOD, MDA, GP and UA in oral LP patients with healthy controls...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385886/during-stress-heart-rate-variability-moderates-the-impact-of-childhood-adversity-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#9
Dina Tell, Herbert L Mathews, Robert L Burr, Linda Witek Janusek
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST)...
February 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377955/the-mexican-bean-beetle-epilachna-varivestis-regurgitome-and-insights-into-beetle-borne-virus-specificity
#10
Cassidy R Gedling, Charlotte M Smith, Christophe M R LeMoine, Bryan J Cassone
For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376505/ascent-of-atomic-force-microscopy-as-a-nanoanalytical-tool-for-exosomes-and-other-extracellular-vesicles
#11
Shivani Sharma, Michael Leclaire, James K Gimzewski
Over the last 30 years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has made several significant contributions to the field of biology and medicine. In this review, we draw our attention to the recent applications and promise of AFM as a high-resolution imaging and force sensing technology for probing subcellular vesicles: exosomes and other extracellular vesicles. Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles found in several body fluids such as blood, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid and urine. Exosomes mediate cell-cell communication, transport proteins and genetic content between distant cells, and are now known to play important roles in progression of diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative disorders and infectious diseases...
January 29, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374668/healthy-foundations-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-biological-embedding-of-early-life-experiences
#12
Andrea Gonzalez, Nicole Catherine, Michael Boyle, Susan M Jack, Leslie Atkinson, Michael Kobor, Debbie Sheehan, Lil Tonmyr, Charlotte Waddell, Harriet L MacMillan
INTRODUCTION: Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370812/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-patient-with-zika-virus-infection
#13
Ligia Fernandes Abdalla, João Hugo Abdalla Santos, Renata Teodora Jales Barreto, Erick Martins E Souza, Fabrício Fonseca D'Assunção, Márcio Aurélio Borges, Valdinete Alves Nascimento, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Victor Costa de Souza, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Jordana Graziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Felipe Gomes Naveca
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus that until 2007 was restricted to a few cases of mild illness in Africa and Asia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of atrial fibrillation disclosed during an acute Zika virus infection in a 49-year-old man. Different biological samples were analyzed for the molecular diagnosis of Zika by real-time PCR, however only the saliva specimen was positive. The patient's wife tested positive in the serum sample, although she was an asymptomatic carrier...
January 25, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368454/motion-induced-change-in-emission-as-an-effective-strategy-for-ratiometric-probing-of-human-serum-albumin-and-trypsin-in-biological-fluids
#14
Nilanjan Dey, Basudeb Maji, Santanu Bhattacharya
We report a highly luminescent pH sensitive, thermo-reversible nanoaggregate material in pure aqueous medium via self-agglomeration of carbazole-based amphiphiles. The self-assembly process restricts the intramolecular motions of the molecules and induces a change in emission signal from blue to cyan (AIE effect). A similar kind of ratiometric response is also observed in presence of human serum albumin (HSA). However, here the molecular motion of the flexible fluorescnce probe is restricted by its embdding microenvironment, not aggregation (MICE effect)...
January 24, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352310/leishmania-proteophosphoglycans-regurgitated-from-infected-sand-flies-accelerate-dermal-wound-repair-and-exacerbate-leishmaniasis-via-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-dependent-signalling
#15
Emilie Giraud, Tereza Lěstinová, Tamsyn Derrick, Oihane Martin, Rod J Dillon, Petr Volf, Ingrid Műller, Paul A Bates, Matthew E Rogers
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by female phlebotomine sand flies as they bloodfeed by lacerating the upper capillaries of the dermis with their barbed mouthparts. In the sand fly midgut secreted proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania form a biological plug known as the promastigote secretory gel (PSG), which blocks the gut and facilitates the regurgitation of infective parasites. The interaction between the wound created by the sand fly bite and PSG is not known. Here we nanoinjected a sand fly egested dose of PSG into BALB/c mouse skin that lead to the differential expression of 7,907 transcripts...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351798/comparative-salivary-proteomics-analysis-of-children-with-and-without-dental-caries-using-the-itraq-mrm-approach
#16
Kun Wang, Yufei Wang, Xiuqing Wang, Qian Ren, Sili Han, Longjiang Ding, Zhongcheng Li, Xuedong Zhou, Wei Li, Linglin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease afflicting a large proportion of children. As an important host factor of caries susceptibility, saliva plays a significant role in the occurrence and development of caries. The aim of the present study was to characterize the healthy and cariogenic salivary proteome and determine the changes in salivary protein expression of children with varying degrees of active caries, also to establish salivary proteome profiles with a potential therapeutic use against dental caries...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346517/does-telomere-length-indicate-biological-physical-and-cognitive-health-among-older-adults-evidence-from-the-health-and-retirement-study
#17
Lauren Brown, Yuan Zhang, Colter Mitchel, Jennifer Ailshire
Telomere length (TL) has been suggested as a biomarker that can indicate individual variability in the rate of aging. Yet, it remains unclear whether TL is related to recognized indicators of health in an aging, older nationally representative sample. We examine whether TL is associated with 15 biological, physical and cognitive markers of health among older adults ages 54+. TL was assayed from saliva using quantitative PCR (T/S ratio) in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (n=4,074). We estimated probability of high risk levels across indictors of health by TL and age-singly and jointly...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332424/salivary-metabolomics-profile-of-patients-with-recurrent-aphthous-ulcer-as-revealed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Yantao Li, Daoming Wang, Chunwei Zeng, Yichen Liu, Guangyuan Huang, Zhanlong Mei
Objective We compared the salivary nontargeted metabolite profiles between patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) and healthy individuals to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with RAU. Methods Saliva samples were collected from 45 patients with RAU and 49 healthy individuals, and the salivary metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolomic profiles were then analyzed using multivariate and univariate statistical methods, and enrichment of the metabolites in various biological pathways was assessed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330771/inhibition-of-human%C3%A2-immunodeficiency-type-1-virus-hiv-1-life-cycle-by-different-egg-white-lysozymes
#19
Mandana Behbahani, Mokhtar Nosrati, Hassan Mohabatkar
Lysozyme is a relatively small enzyme with different biological activities, which is found in tears, saliva, egg white, and human milk. In the study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of lysozymes purified from quail, Meleagris, and hen egg white has been determined. For this end, a time-of-drug-addition assay was performed to identify the target of anti-HIV-1 agents and for determination of probable anti HIV-1 mechanism of the studied lysozyme, the binding affinity of the lysozymes to the human CD4 receptor was studied by molecular docking method...
January 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317682/piperonylic-acid-stimulates-keratinocyte-growth-and-survival-by-activating-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr
#20
Dohyun Lee, Jinsun Lim, Kyung-Chul Woo, Kyong-Tai Kim
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The biological benefits of EGF have been utilized in medical uses for improving wound healing as well as in today's skin cosmetics. EGF has been found in urine, saliva, milk, and plasma, but its efficient isolation remains a difficult task. With technical advances, recombinant protein purification technique has been used for EGF production. However, the recombinant EGF is still expensive and keeping it with stable activity is difficult to be used widely...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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