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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639235/biofluid-lipidome-a-source-for-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Arkasubhra Ghosh, Krishnatej Nishtala
Lipidomics is the identification and quantitation of changes in the lipidome of a cell, tissue, organ or biofluid in health and disease using high resolution mass spectrometry. Lipidome of a particular organism has relevance to the disease manifestation as it reflects the metabolic changes which can be a consequence of the disease. Hence these changes in the molecules can be considered as potential markers for screening and early detection of the disease. Biological fluids as blood/serum/plasma, urine, saliva, tear and cerebrospinal fluid, due to their accessibility, offer ease of collection with minimal or no discomfort to the patient and provide a ready footprint of the metabolic changes occurring during disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627836/dna-based-identification-of-a-carbonized-victim-by-kinship-analysis
#2
Raluca Dumache, Alexandru F Rogobete, Veronica Ciocan, Camelia O Muresan, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Our study will present the DNA identification of a carbonized victim using the DNA genotyping and by comparing the victim's DNA genotype with his parents' genotypes. METHODS: Blood obtained from the heart chambers was used for the identification of the carbonized body's genotype. Biological samples were also obtained by buccal swabs from his biological parents. We used an ABI 7500 real-time PCR system for quantification and a ProFlex PCR System to amplify...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615158/somatosensory-modulation-of-salivary-gene-expression-and-oral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Steven Michael Barlow, Jill Lamanna Maron, Gil Alterovitz, Dongli Song, Bernard Joseph Wilson, Priya Jegatheesan, Balaji Govindaswami, Jaehoon Lee, Austin Oder Rosner
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors...
June 14, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613833/pt-decorated-mwcnts-ionic-liquid-composite-based-hydrogen-peroxide-sensor-to-study-microbial-metabolism-using-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#4
Vrushali Subhash Joshi, Jens Kreth, Dipankar Koley
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a highly relevant metabolite in many biological processes, including oral microbiome. To study this metabolite, we developed a 25 μm diameter, highly sensitive, non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor with a detection limit of 250 nM and a broad linear range of 250 nM to 7 mM. The sensor used the synergistic activity of the catalytically active Pt nanoparticles on a high surface area multiwall carbon nanotube and conducting ionic liquid matrix to achieve high sensitivity (2.4 ± 0.24 mA cm(-2) mM(-1)) for H2O2 oxidation...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612506/synergistic-interactions-between-corrosion-and-wear-at-titanium-based-dental-implant-connections-a-scoping-review
#5
REVIEW
K Apaza-Bedoya, M Tarce, C A M Benfatti, B Henriques, M T Mathew, W Teughels, J C M Souza
Two-piece implant systems are mainly used in oral implantology involving an osseointegrated implant connected to an abutment, which supports prosthetic structures. It is well documented that the presence of microgaps, biofilms and oral fluids at the implant-abutment connection can cause mechanical and biological complications. The aim of this review paper was to report the degradation at the implant-abutment connection by wear and corrosion processes taking place in the oral cavity. Most of the retrieved studies evaluated the wear and corrosion (tribocorrosion) of titanium-based materials used for implants and abutments in artificial saliva...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606329/the-adaptation-of-a-360%C3%A2-camera-utilising-an-alternate-light-source-als-for-the-detection-of-biological-fluids-at-crime-scenes
#6
Kayleigh Sheppard, John P Cassella, Sarah Fieldhouse, Roberto King
One of the most important and commonly encountered evidence types that can be recovered at crime scenes are biological fluids. Due to the ephemeral nature of biological fluids and the valuable DNA that they can contain, it is fundamental that these are documented extensively and recovered rapidly. Locating and identifying biological fluids can prove a challenging task but can aid in reconstructing a sequence of events. Alternate light sources (ALS) offer powerful non-invasive methods for locating and enhancing biological fluids utilising different wavelengths of light...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605650/body-fluid-prediction-from-microbial-patterns-for-forensic-application
#7
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Ekaterina Avershina, Knut Rudi, Peter Gill, Lars Snipen
The association of a DNA profile with a certain body fluid can be of essential importance in the evaluation of biological evidence. Several alternative methods for body fluid prediction have been proposed to improve the currently used presumptive tests. Most of them measure gene expression. Here we present a novel approach based on microbial taxonomic profiles obtained by standard 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We used saliva deposited on skin as a forensically relevant study model, but the same principle can be applied for predicting other bacteria rich body fluids...
June 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605649/direct-str-typing-from-presumptively-tested-and-untreated-body-fluids
#8
Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Krittika Raham, Jintana Pradutkanchana, Sujettana Sotthibandhu, Thitika Kitpipit
Body fluids provide key pieces of information for a forensic investigation. However, sometimes only a small amount of body fluids is found and/or DNA are also degraded by environmental factors at the crime scene. In extreme cases, a forensic analyst may have to decide whether to perform a presumptive test on the stains or proceed straightaway to DNA profiling, which could be wasteful for non-biological stains. Additionally, due to the inefficient DNA extraction process, the amount of DNA may not be enough for STR typing, especially if parts of the evidence had been subjected to presumptive testing...
June 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584784/could-salivary-cyclosporine-dosage-replace-the-whole-blood-cyclosporine-measurements-in-renal-transplant-patients
#9
Samia Aboujaoude, Marwan Masri, Sylvana Rizk, Souleima Chamat, Jad Farha, Zeina Majzoub
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporin (CsA) has been extensively used as the immunosuppressant of choice in renal transplantation. Currently available approaches to assess CsA levels, both in serum and blood, fail to accurately reflect the concentration of the pharmacologically active drug fraction. Free CsA levels in biological fluids (blood or saliva) have been advocated to play an important role. Traditional salivary CsA monitoring tests are based on available archaic salivary techniques that are nonspecific and require large amounts of saliva...
May 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582531/biomarkers-of-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-waterpipe-tobacco-venue-employees-in-istanbul-moscow-and-cairo
#10
Katherine A Moon, Ana M Rule, Hoda S Magid, Jacqueline Ferguson, Jolie Susan, Zhuolu Sun, Christine Torrey, Salahaddin Abubaker, Vladimir Levshin, Asli Çarkoglu, Ghada Nasr Radwan, Maha El-Rabbat, Joanna E Cohen, Paul Strickland, Patrick N Breysse, Ana Navas-Acien
Background: Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. Methods: We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG)...
June 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577456/dna-decontamination-of-fingerprint-brushes
#11
Bianca Szkuta, Roland A H van Oorschot, Kaye N Ballantyne
Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551570/the-wettability-and-swelling-of-selected-mucoadhesive-polymers-in-simulated-saliva-and-vaginal-fluids
#12
M Rojewska, M Olejniczak-Rabinek, A Bartkowiak, A Snela, K Prochaska, J Lulek
The surface properties play a particularly important role in the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. In these formulations, the adsorption of polymer matrix to mucous membrane is limited by the wetting and swelling process of the polymer structure. Hence, the performance of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems made of polymeric materials depends on multiple factors, such as contact angle, surface free energy and water absorption rate. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of model saliva and vaginal fluids on the wetting properties of selected mucoadhesive (Carbopol 974P NF, Noveon AA-1, HEC) and film-forming (Kollidon VA 64) polymers as well as their blends at the weight ratio 1:1 and 1:1:1, prepared in the form of discs...
May 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546084/-sex-differences-in-a-real-academic-stressor-cognitive-appraisal-and-the-cortisol-response
#13
Susanne Helbig, Jutta Backhaus
Women and men differ in their physiological and psychological stress response but only a few studies have analyzed this sex difference in a naturalistic setting and focused on cognitive stress appraisal. In the present study, the salivary cortisol concentration of 24 female and 22 male subjects was measured before and several times after an oral academic presentation given by themselves (stress condition) or given by a fellow student (control condition). Feelings of subjective stress and nervousness were assessed simultaneously to the saliva samples and a questionnaire for cognitive stress appraisal was conducted right before the oral presentation...
May 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545361/applying-melanopic-lux-to-measure-biological-light-effects-on-melatonin-suppression-and-subjective-sleepiness
#14
Claudia Nowozin, Amely Wahnschaffe, Andrea Rodenbeck, Jan de Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Ruslan Kozakov, Heinz Schöpp, Mirjam Münch, Dieter Kunz
In the beginning of this century a novel photopigment, melanopsin, was discovered in a sub-class of retinal ganglion cells and its action spectrum was described. Shortly after, it became clear that melanopsin is one major contributor to non-visual eye-mediated effects of light on e.g. the circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral systems. First applied studies pointed out that these non-visual effects of light are relevant for wellbeing, performance and general health. A standardized measurement quantity for these non-visual effects does not exist, but would ease application...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544936/effect-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-secreted-protein-on-gene-expression-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#15
Lin Xiang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Xiaogang Hou, Junwei Chen, Na Wei, Ping Gong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the specific roles of follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP), a protein exists in saliva, in the inhibition of calcium precipitation during periodontal regeneration, as well as affect phenotype expression of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during the differentiation process. DESIGN: To investigate this, we applied microarray technology to identify gene expression changes in hPDLCs transfected with FDC-SP and then clustered them according to their biological functions...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537228/-current-methods-of-extracellular-dna-methylation-analysis
#16
O E Bryzgunova, P P Laktionov
The discovery of the enormous role methylated cytosine plays in regulating gene expression has led to the development of a variety of techniques for detecting cytosine modification. A majority of these techniques are geared towards analyzing genomic DNA, which is typically available in large quantities. The concentration of cell-free DNAs (cfDNA) extracted from biological fluids including plasma, saliva, tears, or urine is relatively low and their degree of the fragmentation is high. Moreover, for noninvasive diagnostics of cancer, methylation patterns must be studied in minor cancer-specific fractions of DNA molecules substantially diluted by excess unmethylated molecules...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536071/analysis-of-anelloviridae-sequences-characterized-from-serial-human-and-animal-biological-samples
#17
Sandra Bédarida, Bertrand Dussol, Michel Signoli, Philippe Biagini
Rolling-circle amplification-sequence-independent single primer amplifications (RCA-SISPA) and/or RCA-PCR-based approaches were applied to serial human plasma and animal (domestic cat) saliva samples. Complete SENV-H-related and PRA4 Anelloviridae genomes were characterized and analysed over time (~16 and 6.5years for human and animal samples, respectively). Genomic sequences and deduced putative coding regions were compared. Comparable values, i.e. ~2×10(-4)subs/site/year, were obtained for estimated rates of non-synonymous substitutions...
May 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535443/independent-validation-of-body-fluid-specific-cpg-markers-and-construction-of-a-robust-multiplex-assay
#18
Hannah Holtkötter, Vanessa Beyer, Kristina Schwender, Alina Glaub, Kristina Schulze Johann, Marianne Schürenkamp, Ursula Sibbing, Sabrina Banken, Peter Wiegand, Heidi Pfeiffer, Lynn Dennany, Marielle Vennemann, Marielle Vennemann
Potential forensic use of tissue-specific DNA methylation markers has recently been discussed for the identification of the biological source of a stain. In this study 13 promising markers were evaluated to identify suitable candidate markers for the development of a robust and reliable multiplex assay. The results of this study suggest that a combination of only four highly informative markers will be enough for clear body fluid identification. A multiplex assay was developed for the identification of menstrual blood, saliva, semen, and venous blood...
May 9, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530599/a-saliva-molecular-imprinted-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensor-for-wine-astringency-estimation
#19
J Rafaela L Guerreiro, Natércia Teixeira, Victor De Freitas, M Goreti F Sales, Duncan S Sutherland
Wine astringency was evaluated based on the interaction of two complex matrices (red wine and saliva) by combining localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) at gold nanodisks as an alternative to sensorial analysis. The main objective of the work was to simulate wine astringency inside the mouth by mimicking this biological system. The LSPR/MIP sensor provided a linear response for astringency expressed in pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) units in concentrations ranging from 1 to 140μmol/L...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#20
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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