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Saliva biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808178/metabolomic-profiles-of-plasma-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-saliva-are-correlated-with-potential-for-air-toxics-detection
#1
Chandresh Nanji Ladva, Rachel Golan, Roby Greenwald, Tianwei Yu, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, W Dana Flanders, Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, ViLinh Tran, Donghai Liang, Dean P Jones, Jeremy Sarnat
Advances in the development of high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) have provided new opportunities for their use in characterizing exposures to environmental air pollutants and air pollution-related disease etiologies. Exposure assessment studies have considered blood, breath, and saliva as biological matrices suitable for measuring responses to air pollution exposures. The current study examines comparability among these three matrices using HRM and explored their potential for measuring mobile source air toxics...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803416/rapid-screening-method-for-male-dna-by-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#2
Masashi Kitamura, Seiji Kubo, Jin Tanaka, Tatsushi Adachi
Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798904/tick-borne-viruses-and-biological-processes-at-the-tick-host-virus-interface
#3
REVIEW
Mária Kazimírová, Saravanan Thangamani, Pavlína Bartíková, Meghan Hermance, Viera Holíková, Iveta Štibrániová, Patricia A Nuttall
Ticks are efficient vectors of arboviruses, although less than 10% of tick species are known to be virus vectors. Most tick-borne viruses (TBV) are RNA viruses some of which cause serious diseases in humans and animals world-wide. Several TBV impacting human or domesticated animal health have been found to emerge or re-emerge recently. In order to survive in nature, TBV must infect and replicate in both vertebrate and tick cells, representing very different physiological environments. Information on molecular mechanisms that allow TBV to switch between infecting and replicating in tick and vertebrate cells is scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790976/factors-affecting-measurement-of-salivary-cortisol-and-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-in-field-studies-of-athletes
#4
Barry Thomas Pritchard, Warren Stanton, Roger Lord, Peter Petocz, Gert-Jan Pepping
AIMS: Biological and lifestyle factors, such as daily rhythm, caffeine ingestion, recent infection, and antibiotic intake, have been shown to influence measurements of salivary cortisol (SC) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Current methodology in unsynchronized, field-based biomarker studies does not take these effects into account. Moreover, very little is known about the combined effects of biological and lifestyle factors on SC and sIgA. This study supports development of a protocol for measuring biomarkers from saliva collected in field studies by examining the individual and combined effects of these factors on SC and sIgA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777039/alarm-anti-protease-trappin-2-negatively-correlates-with-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-patients-with-periodontitis
#5
Beral Afacan, Veli Özgen Öztürk, Gülnur Emingil, Timur Köse, Nagihan Bostanci
BACKGROUND: Trappin-2 is one of the potent biologically active serine protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties that has also been characterized as an "alarm anti-protease". Despite the importance of Trappin-2 in several chronic infections has been demonstrated, its potential involvement in periodontitis remains undefined. This study aimed to investigate the salivary level of Trappin-2 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in periodontally healthy indivudals and patients with gingivitis or generalized chronic periodontitis (CP) or aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#6
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744188/circadian-metabolomics-in-time-and-space
#7
REVIEW
Kenneth A Dyar, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan
Circadian rhythms are widely known to govern human health and disease, but specific pathogenic mechanisms linking circadian disruption to metabolic diseases are just beginning to come to light. This is thanks in part to the development and application of various "omics"-based tools in biology and medicine. Current high-throughput technologies allow for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple dynamic cellular events over time, ranging from gene expression to metabolite abundance and sub-cellular localization...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741172/glass-ionomer-cement-inhibits-secondary-caries-in-an-in-vitro-biofilm-model
#8
Norbert Krämer, Miriam Schmidt, Susanne Lücker, Eugen Domann, Roland Frankenberger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different glass ionomer cements on secondary caries inhibition in a fully automated in vitro biofilm model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four extracted third molars received class V cavities and were filled with one conventional (Ketac Molar/KM), and two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Photac Fil/PF, Ketac N100/KN, 3M Espe). A bonded resin composite (Single Bond Plus/Filtek Supreme XTE) served as control...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738774/advanced-methods-for-analysis-of-testosterone
#9
Livia Alexandra Gugoasa, Raluca Ioana Stefan-van Staden
Testosterone is the principal endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid in humans. The levels of testosterone in the human body are correlated with many hormonal disorders (hypogonadism, impotence, etc) mostly in men, and with many types of diseases such as: prostate cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and so on. Testosterone is extensively used among sportsmen willing to increase strength, aggressiveness, and recovery; making it the most commonly reported substance in steroid abuse. Fast, easy and cheap methods for the evaluation of testosterone are extremely needed in clinics and hospitals...
July 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734369/systematic-comparison-of-exosomal-proteomes-from-human-saliva-and-serum-for-the-detection-of-lung-cancer
#10
Yan Sun, Sha Liu, Zhi Qiao, Zhi Shang, Zhijun Xia, Xiaomin Niu, Liqiang Qian, Yan Zhang, Liuyin Fan, Cheng-Xi Cao, Hua Xiao
Circulating tumor exosomes harbor plenty of cancer biological information, which have emerged as promising targets for cancer early detection and diagnosis. Human serum and saliva are unique diagnostic body fluids, which contain numerous circulating exosomes. It is necessary to establish standardized isolation method and compare their proteome profiling for translational medicine. High abundant proteins in these body fluids were removed before exosomes isolation and obtained exosomes were further confirmed by morphology analysis and surface biomarker test...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731299/human-biomonitoring-of-lead-exposure
#11
Katrin Klotz, Thomas Göen
After a chronic exposure, lead accumulates in the human body, especially in bones and teeth. Critical effects of lead affect the nervous system, reproduction, fertility as well as genotoxicity and carcinogenicity [1]. Analyses of lead concentrations in human biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, but also electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The predominant sample matrices include blood and bone, as well as urine, hair, nail, and saliva...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728040/measures-and-predictors-of-varenicline-adherence-in-the-treatment-of-nicotine-dependence
#12
Annie R Peng, Mark Morales, E Paul Wileyto, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Neal L Benowitz, Nicole L Nollen, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert Schnoll
INTRODUCTION: While adherence to medication in smoking cessation clinical trials is strongly associated with clinical outcome, very few studies have evaluated the validity of pill count as a measure of adherence relative to a biological assay, and evaluated a broad range of correlates of adherence. METHODS: In a smoking cessation clinical trial of varenicline, we compared pill counts collected over 4 different time periods to varenicline salivary levels taken after 2weeks of treatment, as well as evaluated predictors of adherence to varenicline...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726338/household-fear-of-deportation-in-mexican-origin-families-relation-to-body-mass-index-percentiles-and-salivary-uric-acid
#13
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVE: Fear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families. METHODS: Participants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723133/label-free-nanopore-biosensor-for-rapid-and-highly-sensitive-cocaine-detection-in-complex-biological-fluids
#14
Sana Rauf, Ling Zhang, Asghar Ali, Yang Liu, Jinghong Li
Detection of very low amounts of illicit drugs such as cocaine in clinical fluids like serum continues to be important for many areas in the fight against drug trafficking. Herein, we constructed a label-free nanopore biosensor for rapid and highly sensitive detection of cocaine in human serum and saliva samples based on target-induced strand release strategy. In this bioassay, an aptamer for cocaine was prehybridized with a short complementary DNA. Owing to cocaine specific binding with aptamer, the short DNA strand was displaced from aptamer and translocation of this output DNA through α-hemolysin nanopore generated distinct spike-like current blockages...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715387/a-modified-trier-social-stress-test-for-vulnerable-mexican-american-adolescents
#15
Megan M Johnson, Julianna Deardorff, Kimberly Parra, Abbey Alkon, Brenda Eskenazi, Elizabeth Shirtcliff
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well validated and widely used social stressor that has been shown to induce a 2-4 fold increase in cortisol, the biological output produced by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. While studies have explored how modifications to the TSST influence stress responsivity, few studies have created a modified TSST appropriate for vulnerable youth that elicits a significant cortisol stress response. Thus, the current study sought to modify or adjust the TSST in a culturally sensitive way for a vulnerable sample of 14 year-old adolescents...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714605/epigenetic-alterations-and-prenatal-maternal-depression
#16
REVIEW
Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf
Major depressive disorder of the mother affects 6 to 17% of pregnancies worldwide and can lead to negative outcomes, such as preterm delivery and later mental health problems of the child. It has been proposed that developmental programming has long-lasting effects in the offspring that might be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Altered stress regulation or impaired immunological function of the mother can potentially affect DNA methylation processes of the fetus, changing gene expression levels in utero...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712952/a-robust-high-throughput-fungal-biosensor-assay-for-the-detection-of-estrogen-activity
#17
Christoph Zutz, Karen Wagener, Desislava Yankova, Stefanie Eder, Erich Möstl, Marc Drillich, Kathrin Rychli, Martin Wagner, Joseph Strauss
Estrogenic active compounds are present in a variety of sources and may alter biological functions in vertebrates. Therefore, it is crucial to develop innovative analytical systems that allow us to screen a broad spectrum of matrices and deliver fast and reliable results. We present the adaptation and validation of a fungal biosensor for the detection of estrogen activity in cow derived samples and tested the clinical applicability for pregnancy diagnosis in 140 mares and 120 cows. As biosensor we used a previously engineered genetically modified strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which contains the human estrogen receptor alpha and a reporter construct, in which β-galactosidase gene expression is controlled by an estrogen-responsive-element...
July 14, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711776/sleep-wake-profiles-and-circadian-rhythms-of-core-temperature-and-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#18
Joanne S Carpenter, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Christopher Gordon, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
While disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are common in people with affective disorders, the characteristics of these disturbances differ greatly between individuals. This heterogeneity is likely to reflect multiple underlying pathophysiologies, with different perturbations in circadian systems contributing to the variation in sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Such disturbances may be particularly relevant in adolescents and young adults with affective disorders as circadian rhythms undergo considerable change during this key developmental period...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706787/effect-of-scaling-root-planing-on-the-activity-of-alp-in-gcf-serum-of-patients-with-gingivitis-chronic-and-aggressive-periodontitis-a-comparative-study
#19
Nishi Singh, Siddhartha Chandel, Harmurti Singh, Amiya Agrawal, A N Savitha
INTRODUCTION: Host response and environmental factors are known to modify periodontal status adversely. Presently serum, saliva, and GCF are being investigated for its biochemical constituents. GCF contains array of biochemical factors, offering potential use as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of the biologic state of the periodontium in health and disease. Alkaline phosphatase is produced locally in the periodontium and shows positive correlation with disease activity and PD. Present study was designed to analyze the levels of ALP in GCF and serum of patients with gingivitis, chronic & aggressive periodontitis before and after SRP & to compare the difference within the study groups...
May 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704370/insights-into-the-sand-fly-saliva-blood-feeding-and-immune-interactions-between-sand-flies-hosts-and-leishmania
#20
REVIEW
Tereza Lestinova, Iva Rohousova, Michal Sima, Camila I de Oliveira, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG) with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1) structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2) immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3) use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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