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Saliva biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027940/zika-virus-persistently-and-productively-infects-primary-adult-sensory-neurons-in-vitro
#1
Brianna K Swartwout, Marta G Zlotnick, Ashley E Saver, Caroline M McKenna, Andrea S Bertke
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently surged in human populations, causing an increase in congenital and Guillain-Barré syndromes. While sexual transmission and presence of ZIKV in urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva have been established, the origin of persistent virus shedding into biological secretions is not clear. Using a primary adult murine neuronal culture model, we have determined that ZIKV persistently and productively infects sensory neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, which innervate glands and mucosa of the face and the genitourinary tract, respectively, without apparent injury...
October 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027680/determination-of-thiocyanate-as-a-biomarker-of-tobacco-smoke-constituents-in-selected-biological-materials-of-human-origin
#2
Sylwia Narkowicz, Ewa Jaszczak, Żaneta Polkowska, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska, Alicja Kotłowska, Jacek Namieśnik
In order to protect human health, it is necessary to biomonitor toxic substances originating from tobacco smoke in biological materials sampled from the persons with different exposures to tobacco smoke constituents. Thiocyanate anion is a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke components which is characterized by a relatively long half-life in the human body, i.e. 6 days. In this work, we present the results of thiocyanate determinations performed on the samples of placenta, meconium, saliva, breast milk, sweat and blood...
October 13, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992005/characterization-of-exosomes-from-body-fluids-of-dairy-cows
#3
Y Q Koh, H N Peiris, K Vaswani, S Meier, C R Burke, K A Macdonald, J R Roche, F Almughlliq, B J Arachchige, S Reed, M D Mitchell
Exosomes are a specific subpopulation of extracellular vesicles that are widely released by cells of different origins with divergent functions that make their way into body fluids that can be conveniently sampled. In the current study, we isolated and evaluated exosomes from concurrently collected samples of milk, plasma, saliva, and urine from a group of 6 pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (aged 7 mo, 174 to 203 d of gestation). The cows had BCS of 3.5 to 5.25 (on a scale of 1 to 10), and the milk production for the season to the time of sampling ranged between 5,118 and 6,959 kg...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985745/mucus-and-mucins-do-they-have-a-role-in-the-inhibition-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#4
REVIEW
Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke, Corena de Beer
BACKGROUND: Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin proteolysis in the stomach lumen, the movement of hard faecal pellets in the colon at high pressure, the effects of shear against the vaginal epithelium during intercourse and the presence of foreign substances in the respiratory airways...
October 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981705/correlation-of-electropenetrography-waveforms-from-lygus-lineolaris-hemiptera-miridae-feeding-on-cotton-squares-with-chemical-evidence-of-inducible-tannins
#5
Felix A Cervantes, Elaine A Backus, Larry Godfrey, Christopher Wallis, Waseem Akbar, Thomas L Clark, Maria G Rojas
Probing behavior of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) has previously been characterized with electropenetrography (EPG). Cell rupturing (CR) and ingestion (I) EPG waveforms were identified as the two main stylet-probing behaviors by adult L. lineolaris. However, characterization and identification of EPG waveforms are not complete until specific events of a particular waveform are correlated to insect probing. With the use of EPG, histology, microscopy, and chemical analysis, probing behavior of L. lineolaris on pin-head cotton squares was studied...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974115/application-of-proteomics-to-graft-versus-host-disease-from-biomarker-discovery-to-potential-clinical-applications
#6
Richard B Presland
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication that occurs in many patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In an effort to develop blood and tissue-based biochemical assays for GVHD diagnosis, high throughput proteomic platforms have been widely utilized for the identification and validation of disease biomarkers for both acute and chronic GVHD. Areas covered: This article reviews biomarker research findings on acute and chronic GVHD ascertained by studying peripheral blood, urine and saliva that gives biological information on systemic or localized disease...
October 4, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968794/replication-and-excretion-of-the-live-attenuated-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-cyd-tdv-in-a-flavivirus-naive-adult-population-assessment-of-vaccine-viremia-and-virus-shedding
#7
Joseph Torresi, Peter C Richmond, Leon G Heron, Ming Qiao, Joanne Marjason, Linda Starr-Spires, Diane van der Vliet, Jing Jin, T Anh Wartel, Alain Bouckenooghe
Background: We assessed replication and excretion of the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) into biological fluids following vaccination in dengue-naive adults in Australia. Methods: Vaccinal viremia/shedding was assessed in a subset of participants enrolled in a lot-to-lot consistency study; 95 participants received 3 subcutaneous doses of CYD-TDV from phase 2/3 lots of the vaccine, and 8 received placebo; doses were administered 6 months apart...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931470/free-light-chains-eclectic-multipurpose-biomarker
#8
REVIEW
Umberto Basile, Francesca Gulli, Laura Gragnani, Cecilia Napodano, Krizia Pocino, Gian Ludovico Rapaccini, Michele Mussap, Anna Linda Zignego
The production of antibodies is accompanied by a slight excess of synthesis of κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains; small amounts of them are released in the peripheral blood and can also be found in various body fluids, such as synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and saliva. They are rapidly filtered by the glomerulus and >99% are reabsorbed from the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, making them present in the urine in only trace amounts. The production of an excess of protein without a reason or a specific function in a biological system is rare...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#9
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930546/tick-host-pathogen-systems-immunobiology-an-interactive-trio
#10
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921685/four-year-incidence-rate-and-predictors-of-root-caries-among-community-dwelling-south-brazilian-older-adults
#11
Augusto B Bidinotto, Aline B Martins, Camila M Dos Santos, Fernando N Hugo, Juliana B Hilgert, Roger Keller Celeste, Dalva Maria Padilha, Renato José De Marchi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence density (ID) of new root caries lesions and restorations among community-living south Brazilian older adults and to assess its association with predictor variables. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort with a random sample of elders from the municipality of Carlos Barbosa, in south Brazil. Trained dentists performed interviews and oral examinations in 388 individuals at baseline, of which 273 were retained at follow-up 4 years later...
September 18, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916103/controlled-synchronized-actuation-of-microdroplets-by-gravity-in-a-superhydrophobic-3d-printed-device
#12
P E Oomen, J P S H Mulder, E Verpoorte, R D Oleschuk
Droplet manipulation over open surfaces allows one to perform assays with a large degree of control and high throughput, making them appealing for applications in drug screening or (bio)analysis. However, the design, manufacturing and operation of these systems comes with high technical requirements. In this study we employ a commercial, low-friction, superhydrophobic coating, Ultra-Ever Dry(®), on a 3D-printed microfluidic device. The device features individual droplet compartments, which allow the manipulation of discrete droplets (10-50 μL) actuated by gravity alone...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916029/oral-mucosa-biology-and-salivary-biomarkers
#13
Rosie Qin, Andrea Steel, Nasim Fazel
Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894420/exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#14
REVIEW
Kha Wai Hon, Nadiah Abu, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
The number of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have increased gradually year by year. In fact, CRC is one of the most widely diagnosed cancer in men and women today. This disease is usually diagnosed at a later stage of the development, and by then, the chance of survival has declined significantly. Even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanism of CRC, there is still a lack of understanding in using the available information for diagnosing CRC effectively. Liquid biopsies are minimally invasive and have become the epitome of a good screening source for stage-specific diagnosis, measuring drug response and severity of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888992/associations-between-biological-markers-of-prenatal-stress-and-infant-negative-emotionality-are-specific-to-sex
#15
Elizabeth C Braithwaite, Susannah E Murphy, Paul G Ramchandani, Jonathan Hill
PURPOSE: Fetal programming is the idea that environmental stimuli can alter the development of the fetus, which may have a long-term effect on the child. We have recently reported that maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner: high prenatal cortisol was associated with increased negative emotionality in females, and decreased negative emotionality in males. This study aims to test for this sex-specific effect in a different cohort, and investigate whether sex differences in fetal programming may be specific to glucocorticoid mechanisms by also examining a maternal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) by sex interaction...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877240/runx1-mediates-the-development-of-the-granular-convoluted-tubules-in-the-submandibular-glands
#16
Hitomi Ono Minagi, Safiye Esra Sarper, Hiroshi Kurosaka, Koh-Ichi Kuremoto, Ichiro Taniuchi, Takayoshi Sakai, Takashi Yamashiro
The mouse granular convoluted tubules (GCTs), which are only located in the submandibular gland (SMG) are known to develop and maintain their structure in an androgen-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the GCTs are involuted by the epithelial deletion of core binding factor β (CBFβ), a transcription factor that physically interacts with any of the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) proteins (RUNX1, 2 and 3). This result clearly demonstrates that the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway is indispensable in the development of the GCTs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875411/visualizing-old-biological-traces-on-different-materials-without-using-chemicals
#17
V Sterzik, P Hinderberger, S Panzer, M Bohnert
During the investigative process that typically follows a criminal act, it may prove necessary to work with and analyze evidence that is not recent but old. This could become necessary, for example, when a crime is discovered some time after it was committed or when a cold case is reopened. Due to this need, the present study focused on the detection and visualization of 2-year-old biological traces. To do so, an alternative light source and different filters were used. The optical behavior of 2-year-old samples of blood, semen, urine, saliva, and sweat located on 19 different materials was documented, analyzed, and compared with the optical behavior of the same samples when they were recent [1]...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868757/depression-in-early-adolescence-contributions-from-relational-aggression-and-variation-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene
#18
Shauna C Kushner, Kathrin Herzhoff, Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Jennifer L Tackett
Interpersonal stress arising from relational aggression (RA)-the intentional effort to harm others via rejection and exclusion-may increase risk for depression in youth. Biological vulnerabilities related to the hormone oxytocin, which affects social behavior and stress responses, may exacerbate this risk. In a community sample of 307 youth (52% female; age range = 10-14 years), we tested whether (1) the association between RA and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated through social problems and (2) a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated this indirect association between RA and depression, where GG homozygotes are predicted to be more sensitive to the effects of social problems than A-allele carriers...
September 4, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851489/interfacial-tensiometry-and-dilational-surface-visco-elasticity-of-biological-liquids-in-medicine
#19
REVIEW
V B Fainerman, D V Trukhin, Igor I Zinkovych, R Miller
Dynamic surface tensions and dilational visco-elasticity are easy accessible parameters of liquids. For human body liquids, such as urine, blood serum, amniotic fluid, gastric juice, saliva and others, these parameters are very characteristic for the health status of people. In case of a disease the composition of certain liquids specifically changes and the measured characteristics of dynamic surface tension of the dilational surface elasticity and viscosity reflect these changes in a clear way. Thus, this kind of physico-chemical measurements represent sensitive tools for evaluating the severity of a disease and can serve as control tool for the efficiency of applied therapies...
August 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851441/parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-dna-methylation-levels-in-human-blood-and-saliva
#20
Yu-Hsuan Chuang, Kimberly C Paul, Jeff M Bronstein, Yvette Bordelon, Steve Horvath, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Several articles suggest that DNA methylation levels in blood relate to Parkinson's disease (PD) but there is a need for a large-scale study that involves suitable population based controls. The purposes of the study were: (1) to study whether PD status is associated with DNA methylation levels in blood/saliva; (2) to study whether observed associations relate to blood cell types; and (3) to characterize genome-wide significant markers ("CpGs") and clusters of CpGs (co-methylation modules) in terms of biological pathways...
August 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
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