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Saliva biology

Ying Zhang, Xi Wang, Dan Cui, Jun Zhu
The human whole saliva is a vital body fluid to study the physiology and pathology of oral cavity. As a powerful technique for biomarker discovery, mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy has been introduced to saliva analysis and identified hundreds of proteins and N-glycosylation sites. However, there still lacks of quantitative analysis, which is necessary for biomarker screening and biological researches. In this study, we established an integrated workflow by the combination of stable isotope dimethyl labeling, HILIC enrichment and high resolution mass spectrometry for both quantification of global proteome and N-glycoproteome of human saliva from oral ulcer patients...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics
Theresa Pauly, Jennifer C Lay, Urs M Nater, Stacey B Scott, Christiane A Hoppmann
BACKGROUND: Spending time alone constitutes a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. As we get older, alone time increases. Less is known, however, about age differences in the experience of spending time alone (momentary solitude). OBJECTIVES: We examined time-varying associations between momentary solitude, affect quality, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity markers [salivary cortisol; dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs)] to better understand the affective and biological correlates of momentary solitude across the adult life span...
October 20, 2016: Gerontology
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
M Schönfelder, H Hofmann, T Schulz, T Engl, D Kemper, B Mayr, C Rautenberg, R Oberhoffer, D Thieme
Administration of low amounts of endogenous hormones - so called micro-dosages - are supposed to represent a major challenge in doping analysis. To model such a situation, we have studied transdermal administrations of 2.4 mg/24 h testosterone patches and examined various steroid concentrations in blood, urine and saliva of 11 volunteers. Multiple samples were collected at t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 48 and 72 h in four different phases, i.e. all combinations with/without physical exercise and with/without testosterone...
October 10, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Manatsu Kuraji, Tomonori Matsuno, Tazuko Satoh
Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Mauro Forteschi, Rhys B Murphy, David Elliot, Elisabetta Sotgiu, Gianfranco Pintus, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
A capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) has been used to make a qualitative determination of hercynine-the main precursor of l-ergothioneine biosynthesis-in some key human biological specimens, such as urine, whole blood, plasma, and saliva. From semiquantitative analysis results, the highest concentrations of hercynine were detected in saliva and whole blood, whereas much lower concentrations were measured in urine and plasma. Whole blood was the biological matrix with the highest concentration of l-ergothioneine followed by plasma, saliva, and urine...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Laura E Watkins, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Lauren M Sippel, John H Krystal, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
: Chronic disorders of aging are critical concerns for the U.S. veteran population, which is, on average, two decades older than the non-veteran population. Characterization of risk factors that may accelerate biological aging is important in identifying targets for prevention and intervention. In the current study, we analyzed data from a contemporary, and nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans to evaluate the relationship between a broad range of sociodemographic, military, and clinical variables, and peripheral telomere length, which is an indicator of biological age and linked to risk for aging-related disorders and mortality...
September 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Wenting Xu, Zhen Yang, Nonghua Lu
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular membrane vesicles that are created by the fusion of an intracellular multivesicular body with the cell membrane. They are widely distributed in serum, urine, saliva and other biological fluids. As important transfer vectors for intercellular communication and genetic material, exosomes can stimulate target cells directly via receptor-mediated interactions or via the transfer of various bioactive molecules, such as cell membrane receptors, proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs, thus exerting their biological functions...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Ioanna Katsikantami, Stavros Sifakis, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Elena Vakonaki, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Apostolos K Rizos
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which are used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics. They are classified as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, childhood obesity and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the toxicity that phthalates pose in humans based on human biomonitoring studies conducted over the last decade...
September 23, 2016: Environment International
Natalia Szczepańska, Jacek Namieśnik, Błażej Kudłak
Analysis of literature data shows that there is limited information about the harmful biological effects of mixture of compounds from the EDC group that are released from the surface of toys and objects intended for children and infants. One of the tools that can be used to obtain such information is appropriate bioanalytical tests. The aim of this research involved determining whether tests that use living organisms as an active element (Vibrio fischeri-Microtox®, Heterocypris incongruens-Ostrocodtoxkit F™ and the XenoScreen YES/YAS™ test of oestrogenic/androgenic activity) can be a tool for estimating the combined toxic effects induced by xenobiotics released from objects intended for children...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kamonwad Ngamchuea, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Richard G Compton
The kinetics and mechanisms of the copper(II)-catalyzed GSH (glutathione) oxidation are examined in the light of its biological importance and in the use of blood and/or saliva samples for GSH monitoring. The rates of the free thiol consumption were measured spectrophotometrically by reaction with DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)), showing that GSH is not auto-oxidized by oxygen in the absence of a catalyst. In the presence of Cu(2+) , reactions with two timescales were observed. The first step (short timescale) involves the fast formation of a copper-glutathione complex by the cysteine thiol...
September 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
L Maierova, A Borisuit, J-L Scartezzini, S M Jaeggi, C Schmidt, M Münch
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ewelina P Dutkiewicz, Pawel L Urban
The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Agnieszka Pietrzykowska, Anna Zalewska, Małgorzata Knaś, Irena Daniszewska
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to a family of structurally related zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that are known to play a key role in the catabolic turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Research studies to date have indicated that MMPs regulate the activity of several non-ECM bioactive substrates, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and cell receptors, which determine the tissue microenvironment. Disruption of the balance between the concentration of active matalloproteinases and their inhibitors (TIMPs) may lead to pathological changes associated with uncontrolled ECM turnover, tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, cell growth and migration...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
J Hwang, Y-L Kim, S Kang, S Kim, S-O Kim, J H Lee, D-H Han
OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to identify genetic variants associated with hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) by applying whole-exome sequencing (WES) and bioinformatics analyses such as gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and protein functional network study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two affected siblings whose grandparents and parents have normal gingiva were chosen for our investigation. Saliva collected from the patients and their parents were used for WES. GSEA and protein functional network study were performed to find gene groups in a biological coordination which are associated with HGF...
September 10, 2016: Oral Diseases
Radoslaw P Kozak, Paulina A Urbanowicz, Chamindie Punyadeera, Karli R Reiding, Bas C Jansen, Louise Royle, Daniel I Spencer, Daryl L Fernandes, Manfred Wuhrer
The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers...
2016: PloS One
David A Meekins, Michael R Kanost, Kristin Michel
Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are expressed as acute-phase serpins in insects upon infection...
September 4, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alison L Miller, Ju-Hyun Song, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Katherine Rosenblum, Niko Kaciroti, Delia M Vazquez
Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation...
September 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Cassandra L Olds, Stephen Mwaura, David O Odongo, Glen A Scoles, Richard Bishop, Claudia Daubenberger
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Chen-Zi Zhang, Xing-Qun Cheng, Ji-Yao Li, Ping Zhang, Ping Yi, Xin Xu, Xue-Dong Zhou
Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands and has multiple functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial effects and digestion. With the rapid advancement in salivaomics, saliva is well recognized as a pool of biological markers. Saliva, as a non-invasive and safe source, could be a substitute for blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancements in saliva-related studies and addresses the potential value of saliva in the early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease, as well as cancer, diabetes and other systemic disorders...
2016: International Journal of Oral Science
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