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Stephen T Keir, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Carlee D Hemphill, Michael M Grandal, Maria Carlsen Melander, Mikkel W Pedersen, Ivan D Horak, Michael Kragh, Annick Desjardins, Henry S Friedman, Darell D Bigner
BACKGROUND: Sym004 is a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), futuximab and modotuximab, targeting non-overlapping epitopes on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previous studies have shown that Sym004 is more efficient at inducing internalization and degradation of EGFR than individual components, which translates into superior cancer cell inhibition. We investigated whether Sym004 induces removal of EGFRvIII and if this removal translates into tumor growth inhibition in hard-to-treat glioblastomas (GBMs) harboring the mutated, constitutively active EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yiguang Lin, Junhu Zhou, Jianglong Xu, Kai Zhao, Xiaomin Liu, Guokai Wang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Youlin Ge, Yongqing Zong, Desheng Xu, Yanli Tan, Chuan Fang, Chunsheng Kang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant and notably aggressive primary tumour. Variant III of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) is one of the most common types of variants in GBM, and serves an important role in tumour invasion, proliferation and treatment resistance. In the present study, statistical analyses were performed on data from 57 patients with GBM, and polymerase chain reaction detection was conducted on the tumour tissues from 32 of these patients. The results indicated that the EGFRvIII mutation was significantly associated with tumour malignancy...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Kai Huang, Chuan Fang, Kaikai Yi, Xing Liu, Hongzhao Qi, Yanli Tan, Junhu Zhou, Ying Li, Mingyang Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Jingxuan Yang, Jianning Zhang, Min Li, Chunsheng Kang
Exosomes play critical roles in intercellular communication in both nearby and distant cells in individuals and organs. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF), also known as Cavin1, has previously been described as a critical factor in caveola formation, and aberrant PTRF expression has been reported in various malignancies. However, the function of PTRF in tumor progression remains controversial, and its role in glioma is poorly understood. In this study, we report that PTRF is associated with malignancy grade and poor prognosis in glioma patients...
2018: Theranostics
Yujuan Chen, Fengjiao Yuan, Xian Jiang, Qing Lv, Na Luo, Changyang Gong, Chunting Wang, Li Yang, Gu He
Recently, tumor immunotherapy has achieved great progress in the treatment of hematological and solid neoplasms. The DC vaccines, KLH-conjugated vaccines or glycosylated peptide vaccines can efficiently induce immune responses against tumors. In the current study, we have discovered cholesteryl PADRE-EGFRvIII epitope-conjugated lipopeptide self-assembled micelles as a potential self-adjuvant vaccine against cutaneous melanoma. The lipopeptide vaccines were synthesized using a standard solid phase peptide synthesis method, and these vaccines could elicit both a humoral and a cellular immune response to EGFRvIII positive melanoma cells...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Xingmei Zhang, Li Peng, Zhiman Liang, Zhewen Kou, Yue Chen, Guangwei Shi, Xiaowen Li, Yanling Liang, Fang Wang, Yusheng Shi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and lethal malignant intracranial tumor in the brain, with very poor prognosis and survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) contributes to increased oncogenicity that does not occur through binding EGFR ligands and instead occurs through constitutive activation, which enhances glioma tumorigenicity and resistance to targeted therapy. Aptamers are nucleic acids with high affinity and specificity to targets selected by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and are usually developed as antagonists of disease-associated factors...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Wojciech Stec, Kamila Rosiak, Cezary Treda, Maciej Smolarz, Joanna Peciak, Marcin Pacholczyk, Anna Lenart, Dawid Grzela, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus, Piotr Rieske
Despite intensive research no therapies targeted against the oncogenic EGFRvIII are present in the clinic. One of the reasons is the elusive nature of the molecular structure and activity of the truncated receptor. The recent publications indicate the EGF-bound wild-type EGFR to trans -phosphorylate the EGFRvIII initiating aberrant signaling cascade. The elevated stability of the mutant receptor contributes towards oncogenic potential, preventing termination of signaling by receptor degradation. Here, we show that inhibition of phosphatases leads to a marked increase in phosphorylation of wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII, indicating that both undergo cyclic rounds of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on all investigated tyrosine residues, including Tyr1045...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Jee-Wei Emily Chen, Jan Lumibao, Audrey Blazek, H Rex Gaskins, Brendan Harley
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, and deadly form of adult brain cancer, and is associated with a short survival rate (median 12-15 months, 5+ year less than 5%). The complex tumor microenvironment includes matrix transitions at the tumor margin, such as gradations in hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, metabolic stress induced by decreased oxygen content across the tumor may contribute to tumor progression. However, cross-talk between matrix composition and metabolic stress remains unclear...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Andrew C Phillips, Erwin R Boghaert, Kedar S Vaidya, Hugh D Falls, Michael J Mitten, Peter J DeVries, Lorenzo Benatuil, Chung-Ming Hsieh, Jonathan A Meulbroek, Sanjay C Panchal, Fritz G Buchanan, Kenneth R Durbin, Martin J Voorbach, David R Reuter, Sarah R Mudd, Lise I Loberg, Sherry L Ralston, Diana Cao, Hui K Gan, Andrew M Scott, Edward B Reilly
Depatuxizumab mafodotin (depatux-m, ABT-414) is a tumor-selective antibody drug conjugate (ADC) comprised of the anti-EGFR antibody ABT-806 and the monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) warhead. Depatux-m has demonstrated promising clinical activity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in first-line and recurrent GBM disease settings. Depatux-m responses have been restricted to patients with amplified EGFR highlighting the need for therapies with activity against tumors with non-amplified EGFR overexpression...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Andrew S Gilder, Letizia Natali, Danielle M Van Dyk, Cristina Zalfa, Michael A Banki, Donald P Pizzo, Huawei Wang, Richard L Klemke, Elisabetta Mantuano, Steven L Gonias
PLAUR encodes the urokinase receptor (uPAR), which promotes cell survival, migration, and resistance to targeted cancer therapeutics in glioblastoma cells in culture and in mouse model systems. Herein, we show that patient survival correlates inversely with PLAUR mRNA expression in gliomas of all grades, in glioblastomas, and in the subset of glioblastomas that demonstrate the mesenchymal gene expression signature. PLAUR clusters with genes that define the more aggressive mesenchymal subtype in transcriptome profiles of glioblastoma tissue and glioblastoma cells in neurospheres, which are enriched for multipotent cells with stem cell-like qualities...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongfan Zhu, Diangang Chen, Jinliang Tang, Changlin Huang, Shengqing Lv, Donglin Wang, Guanghui Li
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified in glioma, with the most common extracellular domain mutation being EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). Abnormal EGFRvIII signaling has been shown to be important in driving tumor progression. Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55), a member of the centrosomal relative proteins family, participates cytokinesis in the cell cycle. It exists in a few normal tissues and various tumor cells. The expression and function of CEP55 in human glioma cells need to investigate...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Barry Jutten, Tom G Keulers, Hanneke J M Peeters, Marco B E Schaaf, Kim G M Savelkouls, Inge Compter, Ruud Clarijs, Olaf E M G Schijns, Linda Ackermans, Onno P M Teernstra, Marijke I Zonneveld, Resi M E Colaris, Ludwig Dubois, Marc A Vooijs, Johan Bussink, Julio Sotelo, Jan Theys, Guido Lammering, Kasper M A Rouschop
Expression of EGFRvIII is frequently observed in glioblastoma and is associated with increased cellular proliferation, enhanced tolerance to metabolic stresses, accelerated tumor growth, therapy resistance and poor prognosis. We observed that expression of EGFRvIII elevates the activation of macroautophagy/autophagy during starvation and hypoxia and explored the underlying mechanism and consequence. Autophagy was inhibited (genetically or pharmacologically) and its consequence for tolerance to metabolic stress and its therapeutic potential in (EGFRvIII+) glioblastoma was assessed in cellular systems, (patient derived) tumor xenopgrafts and glioblastoma patients...
January 29, 2018: Autophagy
Oliver D Mrowczynski, Alexandre J Bourcier, Jason Liao, Sara T Langan, Charles S Specht, Elias B Rizk
Glioblastoma is a devastating malignancy with a dismal survival rate. Currently, there are limited prognostic markers of glioblastoma including IDH1, ATRX, MGMT, PTEN, EGFRvIII, and others. Although these biomarkers for tumor prognosis are available, a surgical biopsy must be performed for these analyses, which has morbidity involved. A non-invasive and readily available biomarker is sought after which provides clinicians prognostic information. Sodium is an electrolyte that is easily and quickly obtained through analysis of a patient's serum...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Eduardo Reátegui, Kristan E van der Vos, Charles P Lai, Mahnaz Zeinali, Nadia A Atai, Berent Aldikacti, Frederick P Floyd, Aimal H Khankhel, Vishal Thapar, Fred H Hochberg, Lecia V Sequist, Brian V Nahed, Bob S Carter, Mehmet Toner, Leonora Balaj, David T Ting, Xandra O Breakefield, Shannon L Stott
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry RNA, DNA, proteins, and lipids. Specifically, tumor-derived EVs have the potential to be utilized as disease-specific biomarkers. However, a lack of methods to isolate tumor-specific EVs has limited their use in clinical settings. Here we report a sensitive analytical microfluidic platform (EVHB-Chip) that enables tumor-specific EV-RNA isolation within 3 h. Using the EVHB-Chip, we achieve 94% tumor-EV specificity, a limit of detection of 100 EVs per μL, and a 10-fold increase in tumor RNA enrichment in comparison to other methods...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Lili Sun, Shuye Yu, Hui Xu, Yanwen Zheng, Juntang Lin, Meiyan Wu, Jide Wang, Aidong Wang, Qing Lan, Frank Furnari, Webster Cavenee, Benjamin Purow, Ming Li
Four-and-a-half LIM protein2 (FHL2) is a member of the LIM-only protein family, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. We previously reported that FHL2 is upregulated and plays an oncogenic role in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive brain tumor. GBM is also marked by amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and its mutations, of which EGFRvIII is the most common and functionally significant. Here we report that FHL2 physically interacts with the wild-type EGFR and its mutated EGFRvIII form in GBM cells...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
Zhenyi An, Ozlem Aksoy, Tina Zheng, Qi-Wen Fan, William A Weiss
Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its active mutant EGFRvIII occurs frequently in glioblastoma (GBM). While EGFR and EGFRvIII play critical roles in pathogenesis, targeted therapy with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or antibodies has only shown limited efficacy in patients. Here we discuss signaling pathways mediated by EGFR/EGFRvIII, current therapeutics, and novel strategies to target EGFR/EGFRvIII-amplified GBM.
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
Thomas A Burley, Justyna Mączyńska, Anant Shah, Wojciech Szopa, Kevin J Harrington, Jessica K R Boult, Anna Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Maria Vinci, Jeffrey C Bamber, Wojciech Kaspera, Gabriela Kramer-Marek
Glioblastomas (GBM) are high-grade brain tumours, differentially driven by alterations (amplification, deletion, or missense mutations) in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), that carry a poor prognosis of just 12-15 months following standard therapy. A combination of interventions targeting tumor-specific cell surface regulators along with convergent downstream signalling pathways may enhance treatment efficacy. Against this background, we investigated a novel photoimmunotherapy approach combining the cytotoxicity of photodynamic therapy with the specificity of immunotherapy...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jennifer P Newman, Grace Y Wang, Kazuhiko Arima, Shou P Guan, Michael R Waters, Webster K Cavenee, Edward Pan, Edita Aliwarga, Siao T Chong, Catherine Y L Kok, Berwini B Endaya, Amyn A Habib, Tomohisa Horibe, Wai H Ng, Ivy A W Ho, Kam M Hui, Tomasz Kordula, Paula Y P Lam
The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13Rα2) is a cancer-associated receptor overexpressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This receptor is undetectable in normal brain which makes it a highly suitable target for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, the pathological role of this receptor in GBM remains to be established. Here we report that IL-13Rα2 alone induces invasiveness of human GBM cells without affecting their proliferation. In contrast, in the presence of the mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), IL-13Rα2 promotes GBM cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
Akiyoshi Komuro, Erna Raja, Caname Iwata, Manabu Soda, Kazunobu Isogaya, Keiko Yuki, Yasushi Ino, Masato Morikawa, Tomoki Todo, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiromichi Suzuki, Melissa Ranjit, Atsushi Natsume, Akitake Mukasa, Nobuhito Saito, Hitoshi Okada, Hiroyuki Mano, Kohei Miyazono, Daizo Koinuma
Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant forms of cancer, for which no effective targeted therapy has been found. Although The Cancer Genome Atlas has provided a list of fusion genes in glioblastoma, their role in progression of glioblastoma remains largely unknown. To search for novel fusion genes, we obtained RNA-seq data from TGS-01 human glioma-initiating cells, and identified a novel fusion gene (HMGA2-EGFR), encoding a protein comprising the N-terminal region of the high-mobility group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) fused to the C-terminal region of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which retained the transmembrane and kinase domains of the EGFR...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Bryan D Choi, Donald M O'Rourke, Marcela V Maus
Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for glioblastoma (GBM), a disease that remains universally fatal despite currently available standard-of-care. Adoptive T cell therapy has been shown to produce potent antitumor immunity while obviating the need for traditional antigen presentation and primary immune responses. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are specialized molecules that can be expressed on the surface of T cells allowing for redirected cytotoxicity against tumor antigens of interest. To date, the application of CAR T cells for GBM has been relatively limited, in large part due to a dearth of well-described tumor specific antigens that are both homogenously and frequently expressed...
August 2017: The journal of targeted therapies in cancer
Alberto Grandi, Michele Tomasi, Ilaria Zanella, Luisa Ganfini, Elena Caproni, Laura Fantappiè, Carmela Irene, Luca Frattini, Samine J Isaac, Enrico König, Francesca Zerbini, Simona Tavarini, Chiara Sammicheli, Fabiola Giusti, Ilaria Ferlenghi, Matteo Parri, Guido Grandi
Introduction: Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally produced by all Gram-negative bacteria and, thanks to their plasticity and unique adjuvanticity, are emerging as an attractive vaccine platform. To test the applicability of OMVs in cancer immunotherapy, we decorated them with either one or two protective epitopes present in the B16F10EGFRvIII cell line and tested the protective activity of OMV immunization in C57BL/6 mice challenged with B16F10EGFRvIII. Materials and methods: The 14 amino acid B cell epitope of human epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) and the mutation-derived CD4+ T cell neo-epitope of kif18b gene (B16-M30) were used to decorate OMVs either alone or in combination...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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