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Daniel Shane Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis, Martine E Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Feifei Xiao, Guoshuai Cai, Heping Zhang
In early 2015, the debate of blue-black and white-gold color perception from "the dress" became an overnight internet phenomenon. According to the vote from the online social network Twitter, more people observed white-gold colors than those who observed blue-black colors. Biological explanations have been proposed by neurologist and other scientists, most of which mainly focus on the bias of color perception from visual cortex assuming different illuminants as backgrounds. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic reason that might be underlying this phenomenon...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Maria Alexandra Bighiu, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Britta Eklund
The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Abel Santos, Cheryl Suwen Law, Dominique Wong Chin Lei, Taj Pereira, Dusan Losic
In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures...
October 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Danqing Yin, Matthew E Ritchie, Jafar S Jabbari, Tamara Beck, Marnie E Blewitt, Andrew Keniry
Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) provides an efficient method for measuring DNA methylation at single base resolution in regions of high CpG density. This technique has been extensively tested on the HiSeq2500, which uses a 4-colour detection method, however it is unclear if the method will also work on the NextSeq500 platform, which employs a 2-colour detection system. We created an RRBS library and sequenced it on both the HiSeq2500 and NextSeq500, and found no significant difference in the base composition of reads derived from either machine...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Natalia Lifshitz, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Growth in human populations causes habitat degradation for other species, which is usually gauged by physical changes to landscapes. Corresponding habitat degradation to air and water is also common, but its effects on individuals can be difficult to detect until they result in the decline or disappearance of populations. More proactive measures of pollution usually combine abiotic samples of soil, water or air with invasive sampling of expendable species, but this approach sometimes creates ethical dilemmas and has limited application for threatened species...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Daniela Damasceno, Martín Pérez Andrés, Wouter Bl van den Bossche, Juan Flores-Montero, Sandra de Bruin, Cristina Teodosio, Jacques Jm van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Julia Almeida
Although major steps have been recently made in understanding the role of the distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DC)/antigen-presenting cells (APC), further studies are required to unravel their precise role, including in-depth immunophenotypic characterisation of these cells. Here, we used eight-colour flow cytometry to investigate the reactivity of a panel of 72 monoclonal antibodies (including those clustered in seven new Cluster of Differentiation, CD) on different subsets of APC in peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy adults...
September 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
L V Alvarez, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The asexual genera Coniella (1918) and Pilidiella (1927), including their sexual morphs in Schizoparme (1923), have a cosmopolitan distribution and are associated with foliar, fruit, leaf, stem and root diseases on a wide variety of hosts. Species of these genera sometimes occur as secondary invaders of plant tissues infected by other organisms or that are injured by other causes. Several studies published over the last few decades had conflicting ideas as to whether Coniella, Pilidiella and Schizoparme should be regarded as synonymous or as separate genera...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
V Eyarkai Nambi, R K Gupta, Sunil Kumar, P C Sharma
Bioactive components of fruit and vegetables play an important role in scavenging free radicals and protect the body from degenerative diseases. A kinetic study was conducted to quantify the losses occurring in bioactive components, antioxidant activity and changes in colour and firmness of four commonly used vegetables (beetroot, green pea, eggplant and green pepper) during heat treatment (70-90 °C). The study revealed that logistic model can predict the variation in bioactive components and antioxidant activity with higher R(2) and lower root mean square error (RMSE) as compared to first order model due to logarithmic reduction in these properties in the beginning of the process itself...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
P K Prasanth Kumar, T Jeyarani, A G Gopala Krishna
Phytonutrients retained palm olein (PRPOL) was prepared and blended into butterfat at different ratios. The physicochemical characteristics and the phytonutrient composition of blends, as well as its utilization in the preparation of functional chocolate spread were evaluated. The results showed that the redness, yellowness, slip melting point, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol increased while lightness, saponification value, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased upon incorporation of increased quantities of PRPOL into butterfat...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
José Pinela, João C M Barreira, Lillian Barros, Sandra Cabo Verde, Amilcar L Antonio, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Ana Maria Carvalho, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The effects of conventional and inert-gas enriched atmospheres, as well as those caused by different γ-irradiation doses, on buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus) leaves quality were evaluated and compared after 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The green colour of the abaxial surface of the leaves was relatively stable, as well as the carbohydrates content and the calorific value. The storage time decreased the amounts of fructose, glucose, trehalose, α-tocopherol, and β-tocopherol and increased the levels of total organic acids and δ-tocopherol...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Balakrishnan Nirmal
Management of periungual wart is a great challenge, especially when there is subungual extension. The major cause of recurrence of wart is improper clinical assessment of its extent and not directing therapy against the entire wart. This difficulty of ascertaining its extent could be overcome with this finger-shaped red light emitting diode device. Red light in the device penetrates the thick palmar skin and dark constitutive skin colour due to its longer wavelength.
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Binod Kumar Thakur, Shikha Verma
BACKGROUND: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Babita Raghuwanshi, N K Pehlajani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
S Bektas Donmez, S Uysal, A Dolgun, M D Turgut
AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical performance of three different restorative materials in primary teeth according to the FDI criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resin-modified glass ionomer cement, compomer and composite resin restorations (n=93) were made in 31 patients. The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline, 6th, 12th and 18th month with the FDI criteria. RESULTS: The cumulative survival rate after 18 months was found to be 90...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
John M Hudson, Petra Mj Pollux
The Cognitive Daisy is an innovative assessment system created to provide healthcare staff with an instant snapshot of the cognitive status of older adults in residential care. The Cognitive Daisy comprises a flower head consisting of 15 colour coded petals depicting information about: visual-spatial perception, comprehension, communication, memory and attention. This study confirmed the practicality of the Cognitive Daisy protocol for assessing cognition in a sample of 33 older adults living in residential care and endorsed the use of the Cognitive Daisy as a tool for recognising the cognitive status of care home residents...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
Peri E Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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