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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644542/the-conservation-significance-of-natural-hybridisation-in-mediterranean-plants-from-a-case-study-on-cyclamen-primulaceae-to-a-general-perspective
#1
John D Thompson, Perrine Gauthier, Guillaume Papuga, Virginie Pons, Max Debussche, Emmanuele Farris
Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643617/preselection-statistics-and-random-forest-classification-identify-population-informative-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-cosmopolitan-and-autochthonous-cattle-breeds
#2
F Bertolini, G Galimberti, G Schiavo, S Mastrangelo, R Di Gerlando, M G Strillacci, A Bagnato, B Portolano, L Fontanesi
Commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have been recently developed for several species and can be used to identify informative markers to differentiate breeds or populations for several downstream applications. To identify the most discriminating genetic markers among thousands of genotyped SNPs, a few statistical approaches have been proposed. In this work, we compared several methods of SNPs preselection (Delta, F st and principal component analyses (PCA)) in addition to Random Forest classifications to analyse SNP data from six dairy cattle breeds, including cosmopolitan (Holstein, Brown and Simmental) and autochthonous Italian breeds raised in two different regions and subjected to limited or no breeding programmes (Cinisara, Modicana, raised only in Sicily and Reggiana, raised only in Emilia Romagna)...
June 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643574/stability-and-in-vitro-release-behaviour-of-encapsulated-omega-fatty-acid-rich-oils-in-lentil-protein-isolate-based-microcapsules
#3
C Chang, M T Nickerson
The objective of this study was to investigate the use of a lentil protein isolate-based microcapsule design as a platform for entrapping different types of omega fatty acid-rich oil (e.g. canola, fish and flaxseed oils) and to characterise differences in the physical properties (e.g. moisture content, water activity, colour, wettability, particle size, surface oil and entrapment efficiency), storage stability and in vitro release behaviour of the entrapped oils. All microcapsules displayed similar physical properties regardless of the core material...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642972/does-contrast-between-eggshell-ground-and-spot-coloration-affect-egg-rejection
#4
Miri Dainson, Mark E Hauber, Analía V López, Tomáš Grim, Daniel Hanley
Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641236/analytical-evidences-of-the-use-of-iron-gall-ink-as-a-pigment-on-miniature-paintings
#5
Maurizio Aceto, Elisa Calà
Iron-gall ink (IGI) has been used by scribes for writing since at least the 4th century CE. Another typical use of this ink was for drawing: many Old Masters created beautiful sketches in brown-black hues. Despite its widespread use to draw lines, it seems like IGI was hardly used for painting as well. In fact, the number of identification on manuscripts is very low at present. This could be partially due to a lack of reliable diagnostic information. In this work we tried to better define the possibility of identifying IGI as a pigment on illuminate manuscripts, evaluating the pros and cons of three different techniques: UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS), Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry...
June 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639713/rosacea-in-black-south-africans-with-skin-phototypes-v-and-vi
#6
N C Dlova, A Mosam
Rosacea is a chronic facial dermatosis considered to affect primarily white patients with light phototype skin, and is poorly documented in black patients. The aim of this study was to document the clinical features of rosacea in patients with phototypes V and VI. An 8-year retrospective chart review of patients with a clinical and histological diagnosis of rosacea or acne rosacea was undertaken. Of 6700 patients, 15 (0.2%) had rosacea. All were of African descent with skin phototype V or VI. Mean age was 47 years, and female : male ratio was 14 : 1...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638865/some-engineering-properties-of-shelled-and-kernel-tea-camellia-sinensis-seeds
#7
Ebubekir Altuntas, Merve Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Camellia sinensis is the source of tea leaves and it is an economic crop now grown around the World. Tea seed oil has been used for cooking in China and other Asian countries for more than a thousand years. Tea is the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It is mainly produced in Asia, central Africa, and exported throughout the World. Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture force of shelled and kernel tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds were determined in this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638077/vapour-induced-liquid-crystallinity-and-self-recovery-mechanochromism-of-helical-block-copolymer
#8
Hiroki Hayashi, Tomokazu Iseki, Shigeki Nimori, Hiromasa Goto
New molecular design of conjugated polymer that possess high sensitivity to vapour and self-recovering property against pressure is proposed. We synthesised a rod-rod diblock copolymer, poly(3-((3S)-3,7-dimethyl-octyl)-thiophene)-block-poly(4-octyl phenylisocyanide) (PTh- b -PPI), composed of a π-conjugated polymer and a rod-type helical coiled polymer. Introduction of PPI block in the block copolymer architecture enabled PTh- b -PPI film to exhibit solid-to-liquid crystal phase transition by exposure to chloroform vapour, accompanied with colour change (purple-to-yellow), which is the first report on a new phenomenon of "vapour-induced liquid crystallinity"...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637488/a-high-throughput-colorimetric-assay-for-detection-of-schistosoma-mansoni-viability-based-on-the-tetrazolium-salt-xtt
#9
Pedro Henrique Nascimento Aguiar, Núbia Monteiro Gonçalves Soares Fernandes, Carlos Leomar Zani, Marina Moraes Mourão
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a trematode parasite that causes schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, leading to the loss of 2.6 million disability-adjusted life years. Praziquantel is the only drug available, and new drugs are required. The most common strategy in schistosomiasis drug discovery is the use of the schistosomula larval-stage for a pre-screen in drug sensitivity assays. However, assessing schistosomula viability by microscopy has always been a limitation to the throughput of such assays...
June 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636520/radial-artery-occlusion-incidence-predictors-and-long-term-outcome-after-transradial-catheterization-clinico-doppler-ultrasound-based-study-rail-trac-study
#10
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Vikas Mishra, Ramesh Thakur, Amit Goel, Ashutosh Kumar, Avinash Kumar Singh, Mohit Sachan, Chandra Mohan Varma, Vinay Krishna
Background and aim The purpose of this study was to assess incidence, predictors and outcome of radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization (TRC) based on clinical and Doppler ultrasound study. Methods A total of 1,945 consecutive patients undergoing transradial catheterization for diagnostic evaluation or intervention were included. Radial artery examination was based on palpation and colour Doppler study on the day before, 1 day (D1), 1 month (D30) and 6 months (D180) following the procedure...
March 30, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636141/binocular-facilitation-of-cone-specific-visual-evoked-potentials-in-colour-deficiency
#11
Jeff Rabin, Andrew Kryder, Dan Lam
BACKGROUND: Neural compensatory mechanisms have been proposed, which preserve the binocular visual field in glaucoma, as well as cognition in Alzheimer's disease and motor function in Parkinson's disease. It is conceivable that comparable mechanisms operate to preserve function in congenital and/or dystrophic disease. In hereditary colour vision deficiency (CVD), we observed significant facilitation in the amplitude of the binocular cone-specific visual evoked potential (VEP) compared to the monocular amplitude for the cone type corresponding to the CVD...
June 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636019/wavelength-selective-and-high-contrast-multicolour-fluorescence-photoswitching-in-a-mixture-of-photochromic-nanoparticles
#12
Sanae Ishida, Tuyoshi Fukaminato, Daichi Kitagawa, Seiya Kobatake, Sunnam Kim, Tomonari Ogata, Seiji Kurihara
Herein, we report on wavelength-selective and high-contrast multicolour fluorescence photoswitching between white-, orange-, cyan-, and dark-colours in a mixture of two distinguishable emission-coloured photochromic nanoparticles composed of different pairs of a photoswitching unit and a fluorescence unit.
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634713/characterization-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-saponin-conjugated-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-that-cause-burn-wound-infection
#13
Anbarasan Muniyan, Kalaiselvi Ravi, Udayamathi Mohan, Rajasekar Panchamoorthy
Saponins are glycosides, which destabilize the membrane by altering the membrane permeability. Thus, the present study was aimed to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fenugreek derived saponin (SN) against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study has optimized the concentration of SN (240 mg/mL) for the synthesis of an effective AgNPs against the test organism Escherichia coli. The SN reduced AgNPs produced a reddish-brown colour and displayed UV absorption at 416 nm. The bio-reducing efficiency of SN (62...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633820/green-synthesis-of-ag-cr-ac-nanocomposites-by-azadirachta-indica-and-its-application-for-the-simultaneous-removal-of-binary-mixture-of-dyes-by-ultrasonicated-assisted-adsorption-process-using-response-surface-methodology
#14
Muhammad Saad, Hajira Tahir, Duaa Ali
In the present studies the Ag-Cr-AC nanocomposites were synthesized by Azadirachta indica leaves extract. They were inoculated on the amorphous surface of activated carbon. The surface morphology and structural identification was determined by SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The simultaneous removal of binary dye system of Reactive Red and Crystal Violet were performed by ultrasonicated assisted adsorption process utilizing Ag-Cr-AC nanocomposites. Central Composite Design (CCD) having 5 factors of time, pH, amount of Ag-Cr-AC (adsorbent), concentrations of Reactive Red (RR) and Crystal Violet (CV) was employed...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633414/an-extended-model-of-heartwood-secondary-metabolism-informed-by-functional-genomics
#15
Jose M Celedon, Jörg Bohlmann
The development of heartwood (HW) and the associated accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are also known as 'specialized metabolites' or 'extractives', is an important feature of tree biology. Heartwood development can affect tree health with broader implications for forest health. Heartwood development also defines a variety of wood quality traits that are important in the forest industry such as durability and colour of wood products. In the bioproducts industry, HW provides a source of high-value small molecules such as fragrances and antimicrobials...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632746/body-part-compatibility-effects-are-modulated-by-the-tendency-for-women-to-experience-negative-social-comparative-emotions-and-the-body-type-of-the-model
#16
Eva Pila, Kimberely Jovanov, Timothy N Welsh, Catherine M Sabiston
Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women's bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631825/studies-on-the-occurrence-of-infectious-myonecrosis-virus-in-pond-reared-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone-1931-in-india
#17
A S Sahul Hameed, S Abdul Majeed, S Vimal, N Madan, T Rajkumar, S Santhoshkumar, S Sivakumar
Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, with clinical sign of muscle opaqueness with reddish colour at the distal abdominal segments were observed in farms located in West Bengal State, India. The mortality of shrimp in all disease outbreak ponds ranged from 20% to 50%, and mortality increased gradually. The RT-PCR assay of these samples using primer sets specific to infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) revealed its presence in the disease outbreak ponds. The IMNV infection was reproduced in healthy shrimp by intramuscular injection to satisfy River's postulates...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630681/imaging-optical-scattering-of-butterfly-wing-scales-with-a-microscope
#18
Jinxin Fu, Beom-Jin Yoon, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao
A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as Morpho butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of Morpho butterflies. We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630678/on-the-colour-of-wing-scales-in-butterflies-iridescence-and-preferred-orientation-of-single-gyroid-photonic-crystals
#19
Robert W Corkery, Eric C Tyrode
Lycaenid butterflies from the genera Callophrys, Cyanophrys and Thecla have evolved remarkable biophotonic gyroid nanostructures within their wing scales that have only recently been replicated by nanoscale additive manufacturing. These nanostructures selectively reflect parts of the visible spectrum to give their characteristic non-iridescent, matte-green appearance, despite a distinct blue-green-yellow iridescence predicted for individual crystals from theory. It has been hypothesized that the organism must achieve its uniform appearance by growing crystals with some restrictions on the possible distribution of orientations, yet preferential orientation observed in Callophrys rubi confirms that this distribution need not be uniform...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630672/circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-scarab-beetle-chalcothea-smaragdina-light-scattering-by-a-dual-photonic-structure
#20
Luke T McDonald, Ewan D Finlayson, Bodo D Wilts, Pete Vukusic
Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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