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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148844/circadian-phase-circadian-period-and-chronotype-are-reproducible-over-months
#1
Thomas Kantermann, Charmane I Eastman
The timing of the circadian clock, circadian period and chronotype varies among individuals. To date, not much is known about how these parameters vary over time in an individual. We performed an analysis of the following five common circadian clock and chronotype measures: 1) the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a measure of circadian phase), 2) phase angle of entrainment (the phase the circadian clock assumes within the 24-h day, measured here as the interval between DLMO and bedtime/dark onset), 3) free-running circadian period (tau) from an ultradian forced desynchrony protocol (tau influences circadian phase and phase angle of entrainment), 4) mid-sleep on work-free days (MSF from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire; MCTQ) and 5) the score from the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)...
November 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145761/non-fluent-speech-following-stroke-is-caused-by-impaired-efference-copy
#3
Lynda Feenaughty, Alexandra Basilakos, Leonardo Bonilha, Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Brielle Stark, Julius Fridriksson
Efference copy is a cognitive mechanism argued to be critical for initiating and monitoring speech: however, the extent to which breakdown of efference copy mechanisms impact speech production is unclear. This study examined the best mechanistic predictors of non-fluent speech among 88 stroke survivors. Objective speech fluency measures were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The primary PCA factor was then entered into a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis as the dependent variable, with a set of independent mechanistic variables...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144969/good-vibrations-resting-state-functional-connectivity-reflects-entrainment-of-vasomotion
#4
Allen W Chan, Timothy H Murphy
In this issue of Neuron,Mateo et al. (2017) suggest that hemodynamic measures of resting-state functional connectivity in cortex are reporting the consequences of entrainment of arteriole vasomotion by neuronal activity.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144426/experimental-exploration-of-metal-cable-as-reinforcement-in-3d-printed-concrete
#5
Freek P Bos, Zeeshan Y Ahmed, Evgeniy R Jutinov, Theo A M Salet
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#6
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139226/cortical-nociceptive-processes-are-reduced-by-visual-alpha-band-entrainment-in-the-human-brain
#7
K Ecsy, C A Brown, A K P Jones
BACKGROUND: Acute noxious stimuli induce a suppression of cortical alpha activity, yet little is known about whether increasing alpha activity affects the processing of noxious stimuli. We have previously shown that visual alpha stimulation reduces experimental pain. Here, we demonstrate that increasing alpha power causes a reciprocal suppression of acute nociceptive processing. METHODS: We attempted to increase cortical alpha activity through visual entrainment at 8 Hz, 10 Hz and 12 Hz to investigate the influence on the electrophysiological pain response...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138967/mice-lacking-egr1-have-impaired-clock-gene-bmal1-oscillation-locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature
#8
Casper Schwartz Riedel, Birgitte Georg, Henrik L Jørgensen, Jens Hannibal, Jan Fahrenkrug
Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138421/mperiod2-brdm1-and-other-single-period-mutant-mice-have-normal-food-anticipatory-activity
#9
Julie S Pendergast, Robert H Wendroth, Rio C Stenner, Charles D Keil, Shin Yamazaki
Animals anticipate the timing of food availability via the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The anatomical location and timekeeping mechanism of the FEO are unknown. Several studies showed the circadian gene, Period 2, is critical for FEO timekeeping. However, other studies concluded that canonical circadian genes are not essential for FEO timekeeping. In this study, we re-examined the effects of the Per2 (Brdm1) mutation on food entrainment using methods that have revealed robust food anticipatory activity in other mutant lines...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134443/circadian-clock-during-plant-development
#10
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128213/the-effects-of-feeding-a-partial-mixed-ration-plus-a-top-dress-before-feeding-on-milk-production-and-the-daily-rhythm-of-feed-intake-and-plasma-hormones-and-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#11
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Total mixed rations (TMR) are commonly fed to dairy cows with a goal of reducing ruminal acidosis, but the daily pattern of feed intake has major implication for rumen fermentation and postabsorptive physiology. Generally there is low feed intake during the overnight period and high intake after feeding and during the afternoon. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding a partial mixed ration (PMR) plus a high starch top-dress before feeding of the PMR would improve production and modify key daily rhythms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128210/short-communication-the-effects-of-morning-compared-with-evening-feed-delivery-in-lactating-dairy-cows-during-the-summer
#12
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Delivering fresh feed in the evening is a management strategy sometimes used during periods of heat stress, but previous experiments have observed that night feeding increased feed intake during the 2 h after feeding and did not change intake during the overnight period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of night feeding on daily rhythms of the dairy cow during the summer season. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117548/multiplexing-visual-signals-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nuclei
#13
Adam R Stinchcombe, Joshua W Mouland, Kwoon Y Wong, Robert J Lucas, Daniel B Forger
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the site of the mammalian circadian (daily) pacemaker, contains thousands of interconnected neurons, some of which receive direct retinal input. Here, we study the fast (<1 s) responses of SCN neurons to visual stimuli with a large-scale mathematical model tracking the ionic currents and voltage of all SCN neurons. We reconstruct the SCN network connectivity and reject 99.99% of theoretically possible SCN networks by requiring that the model reproduces experimentally determined receptive fields of SCN neurons...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108526/stabilising-sleep-for-patients-admitted-at-acute-crisis-to-a-psychiatric-hospital-owls-an-assessor-blind-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman, Louise Isham, Josephine McInerney, Alecia Nickless, Ly-Mee Yu, Stephanie Rek, Jonathan Bradley, Sarah Reeve, Caroline Attard, Colin A Espie, Russell Foster, Anna Wirz-Justice, Eleanor Chadwick, Alvaro Barrera
BACKGROUND: When patients are admitted onto psychiatric wards, sleep problems are highly prevalent. We carried out the first trial testing a psychological sleep treatment at acute admission (Oxford Ward sLeep Solution, OWLS). METHODS: This assessor-blind parallel-group pilot trial randomised patients to receive sleep treatment at acute crisis [STAC, plus standard care (SC)], or SC alone (1 : 1). STAC included cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia, sleep monitoring and light/dark exposure for circadian entrainment, delivered over 2 weeks...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107517/entrainment-of-arteriole-vasomotor-fluctuations-by-neural-activity-is-a-basis-of-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-resting-state-connectivity
#15
Celine Mateo, Per M Knutsen, Philbert S Tsai, Andy Y Shih, David Kleinfeld
Resting-state signals in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) imaging are used to parcellate brain regions and define "functional connections" between regions. Yet a physiological link between fluctuations in blood oxygenation with those in neuronal signaling pathways is missing. We present evidence from studies on mouse cortex that modulation of vasomotion, i.e., intrinsic ultra-slow (0.1 Hz) fluctuations in arteriole diameter, provides this link. First, ultra-slow fluctuations in neuronal signaling, which occur as an envelope over γ-band activity, entrains vasomotion...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106303/dynamics-of-core-body-temperature-cycles-in-long-term-measurements-under-real-life-conditions-in-women
#16
D Ekhart, H Wicht, T Kersken, H Ackermann, M Kaczmarczyk, G Pretzsch, H Alexander, H W Korf
Studies under real life conditions become more and more relevant in chronobiological and chronomedical research. The present study aims to analyze one of the most prominent biological rhythms: the core body temperature (CBT) rhythm in the real world outside the laboratory. CBT was recorded continuously in 37 healthy women (age between 21 and 44 years, median 29 years) with a newly developed intravaginal temperature sensor for up to 102 days. Sleep logs were available from 23 participants. To quantify the daily dynamics of each individual CBT-curve, novel measurement parameters are introduced which permit the quantification of the phase and shape of the CBT rhythms as well as their relation to the sleep-wake cycle...
November 6, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104560/in-a-heartbeat-light-and-cardiovascular-physiology
#17
REVIEW
Sarah L Chellappa, Ruta Lasauskaite, Christian Cajochen
Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102808/causal-cortical-dynamics-of-a-predictive-enhancement-of-speech-intelligibility
#18
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Edmund C Lalor, Rebecca E Millman
Speech perception may be underpinned by a hierarchical cortical system, which attempts to match "external" incoming sensory inputs with "internal" top-down predictions. Prior knowledge modulates internal predictions of an upcoming stimulus and exerts its effects in temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Here, we used source-space magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the spatiotemporal dynamics underpinning the integration of prior knowledge in the speech processing network. Prior knowledge was manipulated to i) increase the perceived intelligibility of speech sentences, and ii) dissociate the perceptual effects of changes in speech intelligibility from acoustical differences in speech stimuli...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100070/uniformity-from-diversity-vast-range-light-sensing-in-a-single-neuron-type
#19
Supraja G Varadarajan, Andrew D Huberman
The brightness of our visual environment varies tremendously from day to night. In this issue of Cell, Milner and Do describe how the population of retinal neurons responsible for entrainment of the brain's circadian clock cooperate to encode irradiance across a wide range of ambient-light intensities.
November 2, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099875/daily-rhythms-and-enrichment-patterns-in-the-transcriptome-of-the-behavior-manipulating-parasite-ophiocordyceps-kimflemingiae
#20
Charissa de Bekker, Ian Will, David P Hughes, Andreas Brachmann, Martha Merrow
Various parasite-host interactions that involve adaptive manipulation of host behavior display time-of-day synchronization of certain events. One example is the manipulated biting behavior observed in Carpenter ants infected with Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato. We hypothesized that biological clocks play an important role in this and other parasite-host interactions. In order to identify candidate molecular clock components, we used two general strategies: bioinformatics and transcriptional profiling...
2017: PloS One
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