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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548639/rai1%C3%A2-frees-mice-from-the-repression-of-active-wake-behaviors-by-light
#1
Shanaz Diessler, Corinne Kostic, Yvan Arsenijevic, Aki Kawasaki, Paul Franken
Besides its role in vision, light impacts physiology and behavior through circadian and direct (aka 'masking') mechanisms. In Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS), the dysregulation of both sleep-wake behavior and melatonin production strongly suggest impaired non-visual light perception. We discovered that mice haploinsufficient for the SMS causal gene, Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1), were hypersensitive to light such that light eliminated alert and active-wake behaviors, while leaving time-spent-awake unaffected...
May 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546283/high-resolution-mapping-of-gastric-slow-wave-recovery-profiles-biophysical-model-methodology-and-demonstration-of-applications
#2
Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Leo K Cheng, Peng Du, Jack M Rogers, Gregory O'Grady
Slow waves play a central role in coordinating gastric motor activity. High-resolution mapping of extracellular potentials from the stomach provides spatiotemporal detail on normal and dysrhythmic slow-wave patterns. All mapping studies to date have focused exclusively on tissue activation; however, the recovery phase contains vital information on repolarization heterogeneity, the excitable gap, and refractory tail interactions, but has not been investigated. Here, we report a method to identify the recovery phase in slow-wave mapping data...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536417/the-calming-effect-of-a-new-wearable-device-during-the-anticipation-of-public-speech
#3
Ruben T Azevedo, Nell Bennett, Andreas Bilicki, Jack Hooper, Fotini Markopoulou, Manos Tsakiris
We assessed the calming effect of doppel, a wearable device that delivers heartbeat-like tactile stimulation on the wrist. We tested whether the use of doppel would have a calming effect on physiological arousal and subjective reports of state anxiety during the anticipation of public speech, a validated experimental task that is known to induce anxiety. Two groups of participants were tested in a single-blind design. Both groups wore the device on their wrist during the anticipation of public speech, and were given the cover story that the device was measuring blood pressure...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#4
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#5
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532353/ocular-photoreception-for-circadian-rhythm-entrainment-in-mammals
#6
Russell N Van Gelder, Ethan D Buhr
Circadian rhythms are self-sustained, approximately 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. These rhythms are entrained to an exactly 24-h period by the daily light-dark cycle. Remarkably, mice lacking all rod and cone photoreceptors still demonstrate photic entrainment, an effect mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). These cells utilize melanopsin (OPN4) as their photopigment. Distinct from the ciliary rod and cone opsins, melanopsin appears to function as a stable photopigment utilizing sequential photon absorption for its photocycle; this photocycle, in turn, confers properties on ipRGCs such as sustained signaling and resistance from photic bleaching critical for an irradiance detection system...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#7
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528848/temporal-expectancies-driven-by-self-and-externally-generated-rhythms
#8
Alexander Jones, Yi-Fang Hsu, Lionel Granjon, Florian Waszak
The dynamic attending theory proposes that rhythms entrain periodic fluctuations of attention which modulate the gain of sensory input. However, temporal expectancies can also be driven by the mere passage of time (foreperiod effect). It is currently unknown how these two types of temporal expectancy relate to each other, i.e. whether they work in parallel and have distinguishable neural signatures. The current research addresses this issue. Participants either tapped a 1Hz rhythm (active task) or were passively presented with the same rhythm using tactile stimulators (passive task)...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528736/on-the-effectiveness-of-event-related-beta-tacs-on-episodic-memory-formation-and-motor-cortex-excitability
#9
Verena Braun, Rodika Sokoliuk, Simon Hanslmayr
BACKGROUND: Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is widely used to entrain or modulate brain oscillations in order to investigate causal relationships between oscillations and cognition. OBJECTIVE: In a series of experiments we here addressed the question of whether event-related, transient tACS in the beta frequency range can be used to entrain beta oscillations in two different domains: episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, 72 healthy human participants engaged in an incidental encoding task of verbal and non-verbal material while receiving tACS to the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at 6...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527614/n-o-344-salpingectomie-opportuniste-et-autres-m%C3%A3-thodes-pour-r%C3%A3-duire-le-risque-de-cancer-de-l-ovaire-de-la-trompe-de-fallope-et-du-p%C3%A3-ritoine-dans-la-population-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-rale
#10
Shannon Salvador, Stephanie Scott, Julie Ann Francis, Anita Agrawal, Christopher Giede
OBJECTIF: La présente directive clinique examine les avantages potentiels de la salpingectomie opportuniste pour prévenir le développement du cancer séreux de grade élevé de l'ovaire, de la trompe de Fallope et du péritoine à la lumière de données probantes actuelles selon lesquelles ce type de cancer prendrait naissance dans la trompe de Fallope. UTILISATEURS CIBLES: Gynécologues, obstétriciens, médecins de famille, infirmières autorisées, infirmières praticiennes, résidents et fournisseurs de soins de santé...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526259/the-impact-of-daytime-light-exposures-on-sleep-and-mood-in-office-workers
#11
Mariana G Figueiro, Bryan Steverson, Judith Heerwagen, Kevin Kampschroer, Claudia M Hunter, Kassandra Gonzales, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
BACKGROUND: By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep-wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVE: Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522986/retinal-ganglion-cells-and-circadian-rhythms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
There is increasing awareness on the role played by circadian rhythm abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The characterization of the circadian dysfunction parallels the mounting evidence that the hallmarks of neurodegeneration also affect the retina and frequently lead to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to different degrees of optic neuropathy. In the RGC population, there is the subgroup of cells intrinsically photosensitive and expressing the photopigment melanopsin [melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs)], which are now well known to drive the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517940/thermal-decomposition-of-potential-ester-biofuels-part-i-methyl-acetate-and-methyl-butanoate
#13
Jessica P Porterfield, David H Bross, Branko Ruscic, James H Thorpe, Thanh Lam Nguyen, Joshua H Baraban, John F Stanton, John W Daily, G Barney Ellison
Two methyl esters have been examined as models for the pyrolysis of biofuels. Dilute samples (0.06 - 0.13%) of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and methyl butanoate (CH3CH2CH2COOCH3) were entrained in (He, Ar) carrier gas and decomposed in a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from the methyl esters were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the pulsed micro-reactor were roughly 20 Torr and residence times through the reactors were approximately 25 - 150 µs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#14
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515914/analysis-of-the-function-of-microrna-375-in-humans-using-bioinformatics
#15
Xiaohua Chen, Baoxia Li, Rongcheng Luo, Sina Cai, Cao Zhang, Xiaolong Cao
MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) is expressed at low levels in many types of solid tumor, particularly in gastrointestinal tumors. It is considered to be important in the development of cancer and certain diseases. Thus, more detailed knowledge is required on the particular functions of miR-375. miRs function by regulating target genes. Therefore, in the current study, miRWalk (which includes the data from 10 prediction software programs) was used to predict the target genes of miR-375. The genes, which were co-predicted using five different software programs were further analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online software [including gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis]...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509779/gas-embolism-during-hysteroscopic-surgery-three-cases-and-a-literature-review
#16
Benjamin S Storm, Stine Andreasen, Anders Hovland, Erik W Nielsen
During a period of 1 month, 3 episodes of probable or actual venous air embolism occurred during hysteroscopic surgery. All patients developed the same symptoms of ventilatory and hemodynamic decompensation, beginning with a reduction in end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial desaturation, and cyanosis on the upper trunk, and rapidly progressed to hypotension and 2 cardiac arrests. While entrainment of some air is common during hysteroscopy, life-threatening embolism is a rare but serious complication for which an anesthetist needs to be vigilant and prepared...
May 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505778/outcomes-of-the-collapse-of-a-large-bubble-in-water-at-high-ambient-pressures
#17
Jonathan R Sukovich, Phillip A Anderson, Ashwinkumar Sampathkumar, D Felipe Gaitan, Yuri A Pishchalnikov, R Glynn Holt
Presented here are observations of the outcomes of the collapses of large single bubbles in H_{2}O and D_{2}O at high ambient pressures. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure spherical resonator at ambient pressures of up to 30 MPa and acoustic pressures up to 35 MPa. Monitoring of the collapse events and their outcomes was accomplished using multiframe high-speed photography. Among the observations to be presented are the temporal and spatial evolution of light emissions produced by the collapse events, which were observed to last on the order of 30 ns and have time independent radii on the order of 30μm; the production of Rayleigh-Taylor jets which were observed to travel distances of up to 70μm at speeds in excess of 4500 m/s; the entrainment of the light emitting regions in the jets' remnants; the production of spheroidal objects around the collapse points of the bubbles, far from any surface of the resonator; and the traversal and emergence of the Rayleigh-Taylor jets through the spherical objects...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505726/entrainment-range-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-difference-in-the-neuronal-amplitudes-between-the-light-sensitive-and-light-insensitive-regions
#18
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Zhongyuan Ruan
Mammals not only can be synchronized to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle, but also to a cycle with a non-24-h period. The range of the period of the external cycle, for which the animals can be entrained to, is called the entrainment range, which differs among species. The entrainment range as a characteristic of the animal is determined by the main circadian clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. The SCN is composed of ∼10000 heterogeneous neurons, which can be divided into two subgroups, i...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#19
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499924/hypercholesterolemia-causes-circadian-dysfunction-a-potential-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Makoto Akashi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Takahiro Matsuo, Yuki Kubo, Hiroshi Komoda, Koichi Node
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for a wide range of diseases in developed countries. Here, we report that mice lacking functional LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor), an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, show circadian abnormalities. In free running behavioral experiments in constant darkness, these mice showed a prolonged active phase and distinctly bimodal rhythms. Even when the circadian rhythms were entrained by light and dark cycles, these mice showed a significant attenuation of behavioral onset intensity at the start of the dark period...
April 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
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