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Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Víctor Resco de Dios, Arthur Gessler, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Michael Bahn, Jorge Del Castillo, Sébastien Devidal, Sonia García-Muñoz, Zachary Kayler, Damien Landais, Paula Martín-Gómez, Alexandru Milcu, Clément Piel, Karin Pirhofer-Walzl, Olivier Ravel, Serajis Salekin, David T Tissue, Mark G Tjoelker, Jordi Voltas, Jacques Roy
BACKGROUND: Molecular clocks drive oscillations in leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and other cell and leaf-level processes over ~24 h under controlled laboratory conditions. The influence of such circadian regulation over whole-canopy fluxes remains uncertain; diurnal CO2 and H2O vapor flux dynamics in the field are currently interpreted as resulting almost exclusively from direct physiological responses to variations in light, temperature and other environmental factors. We tested whether circadian regulation would affect plant and canopy gas exchange at the Montpellier European Ecotron...
October 20, 2016: GigaScience
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Rick van Dorp, Ewout Foppen, Jorge Mendoza, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Eric Fliers, Peter H Bisschop, Johanna H Meijer, Andries Kalsbeek, Tom Deboer
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Olivier Senn, Lorenz Kilchenmann, Richard von Georgi, Claudia Bullerjahn
This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
Circadian oscillators found across a variety of species are subject to periodic external light-dark forcing. Entrainment to light-dark cycles enables the circadian system to align biological functions with appropriate times of day or night. Phase response curves (PRCs) have been used for decades to gain valuable insights into entrainment; however, PRCs may not accurately describe entrainment to photoperiods with substantial amounts of both light and dark due to their reliance on a single limit cycle attractor...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Masahiro Kinoshita, Sachiko Iwata, Hisayoshi Okamura, Mamoru Saikusa, Naoko Hara, Chihoko Urata, Yuko Araki, Osuke Iwata
Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2-3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30-40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Edith Van Dyck, Bart Moens, Jeska Buhmann, Michiel Demey, Esther Coorevits, Simone Dalla Bella, Marc Leman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Randolph F Helfrich, Robert T Knight
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides the structural basis for numerous higher cognitive functions. However, it is still largely unknown which mechanisms provide the functional basis for flexible cognitive control of goal-directed behavior. Here, we review recent findings that suggest that the functional architecture of cognition is profoundly rhythmic and propose that the PFC serves as a conductor to orchestrate task-relevant large-scale networks. We highlight several studies that demonstrated that oscillatory dynamics, such as phase resetting, cross-frequency coupling (CFC), and entrainment, support PFC-dependent recruitment of task-relevant regions into coherent functional networks...
October 12, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
K J Zhao, Y Nagashima, P H Diamond, J Q Dong, K Itoh, S-I Itoh, L W Yan, J Cheng, A Fujisawa, S Inagaki, Y Kosuga, M Sasaki, Z X Wang, L Wei, Z H Huang, D L Yu, W Y Hong, Q Li, X Q Ji, X M Song, Y Huang, Yi Liu, Q W Yang, X T Ding, X R Duan
The synchronization of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) and magnetic fluctuations is identified in the edge plasmas of the HL-2A tokamak. Mesoscale electric fluctuations (MSEFs) having components of a dominant GAM, and m/n=6/2 potential fluctuations are found at the same frequency as that of the magnetic fluctuations of m/n=6/2 (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The temporal evolutions of the MSEFs and the magnetic fluctuations clearly show the frequency entrainment and the phase lock between the GAM and the m/n=6/2 magnetic fluctuations...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Vikaas S Sohal
γ oscillations, which can be identified by rhythmic electrical signals ∼30-100 Hz, consist of interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons that result in rhythmic inhibition capable of entraining firing within local cortical circuits. Many possible mechanisms have been described through which γ oscillations could act on cortical circuits to modulate their responses to input, alter their patterns of activity, and/or enhance the efficacy of their outputs onto downstream targets. Recently, several studies have observed changes in behavior after optogenetically manipulating neocortical γ oscillations...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniele Muser, Pasquale Santangeli, Simon A Castro, Rajeev K Pathak, Jackson J Liang, Tatsuya Hayashi, Silvia Magnani, Fermin C Garcia, Mathew D Hutchinson, Gregory G Supple, David S Frankel, Michael P Riley, David Lin, Robert D Schaller, Sanjay Dixit, Erica S Zado, David J Callans, Francis E Marchlinski
BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy can be challenging because of the complexity of underlying substrates. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes of endocardial and adjuvant epicardial CA in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 282 consecutive patients (aged 59±15 years, 80% males) with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy who underwent CA. Ablation was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal electrograms for unmappable VT...
October 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Oliver Rawashdeh, Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-often referred to as the master circadian clock-is essential in generating physiologic rhythms and orchestrating synchrony among circadian clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that periodic motivation induced by rhythmically pairing 2 reinforcing stimuli [methamphetamine (METH) and running wheel (RW)] restores autonomous circadian activity in arrhythmic SCN-lesioned (SCNX) C3H/HeN mice. Sham-operated and SCNX mice were treated with either METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle in association, dissociation, or absence of an RW...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Laura Laguna, Grace Farrell, Michael Bryant, Ardian Morina, Anwesha Sarkar
This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire...
September 22, 2016: Food & Function
David G Angeler
This paper builds a bridge between heavy metal music, complexity theory and sustainability science to show the potential of the (auditory) arts to inform different aspects of complex systems of people and nature. The links are described along different dimensions. This first dimension focuses on the scientific aspect of heavy metal. It uses complex adaptive systems theory to show that the rapid diversification and evolution of heavy metal into multiple subgenres leads to a self-organizing and resilient socio-musicological system...
2016: SpringerPlus
Y E M Dreissen, D C Cath, M A J Tijssen
Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal dyskinesias, can be difficult. In support of a functional jerk are: acute onset in adulthood, precipitation by a physical event, variable, complex, and inconsistent phenomenology, suggestibility, distractibility, entrainment and a Bereitschaftspotential preceding the movement...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
P Schwingenschuh, G Deuschl
Functional tremor is the commonest reported functional movement disorder. A confident clinical diagnosis of functional tremor is often possible based on the following "positive" criteria: a sudden tremor onset, unusual disease course, often with fluctuations or remissions, distractibility of the tremor if attention is removed from the affected body part, tremor entrainment, tremor variability, and a coactivation sign. Many patients show excessive exhaustion during examination. Other somatizations may be revealed in the medical history and patients may show additional functional neurologic symptoms and signs...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Katherine A Johnson, Marita Bryan, Kira Polonowita, Delia Decroupet, Jennifer T Coull
Knowing when an event is likely to occur allows attentional resources to be oriented toward that moment in time, enhancing processing of the event. We previously found that children (mean age 11 years) are unable to use endogenous temporal cues to orient attention in time, despite being able to use endogenous spatial cues (arrows) to orient attention in space. Arrow cues, however, may have proved beneficial by engaging exogenous (automatic), as well as endogenous (voluntary), orienting mechanisms. We therefore conducted two studies in which the exogenous properties of visual temporal cues were increased, to examine whether this helped children orient their attention in time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephen V Gliske, William C Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A Holman, Christian G Fink
Previous experimental studies have demonstrated the emergence of narrowband local field potential oscillations during epileptic seizures in which the underlying neural activity appears to be completely asynchronous. We derive a mathematical model explaining how this counterintuitive phenomenon may occur, showing that a population of independent, completely asynchronous neurons may produce narrowband oscillations if each neuron fires quasi-periodically, without requiring any intrinsic oscillatory cells or feedback inhibition...
July 14, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Lonnele J Ball, Oxana Palesh, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Most physiological processes in the brain and body exhibit daily (circadian) rhythms coordinated by an endogenous master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that are essential for normal health and functioning. Exposure to sunlight during the day and darkness at night optimally entrains biological rhythms to promote homeostasis and human health. Unfortunately, a major consequence of the modern lifestyle is increased exposure to sun-free environments during the day and artificial lighting at night...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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