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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743094/a-personalized-medicine-approach-to-the-design-of-dry-powder-inhalers-selecting-the-optimal-amount-of-bypass
#1
Thomas Kopsch, Darragh Murnane, Digby Symons
In dry powder inhalers (DPIs) the patient's inhalation manoeuvre strongly influences the release of drug. Drug release from a DPI may also be influenced by the size of any air bypass incorporated in the device. If the amount of bypass is high less air flows through the entrainment geometry and the release rate is lower. In this study we propose to reduce the intra- and inter-patient variations of drug release by controlling the amount of air bypass in a DPI. A fast computational method is proposed that can predict how much bypass is needed for a specified drug delivery rate for a particular patient...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741440/commentary-on-some-recent-theses-relevant-to-combating-aging-august-2017
#2
Benjamin Zealley, Aubrey D N J de Grey
Theses reviewed in this issue include "Engineering Cellular Input-Output for the Robust Control of Mammalian Cell-Based Therapies"; "Enzyme-Instructed Self-Assembly (EISA) Selectively Targets Cancer Cells"; "Exploration of helminth-derived immunoregulatory molecules as options for therapeutic intervention in allograft rejection and autoimmune disease"; "Expression of the Medial HOXA genes is indispensible for self-renewal in human hematopoietic stem cells"; "Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia"; and "Heterogeneous Distribution of Microvascular Blood Flow Contributes to Impaired Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation in Diabetes"...
July 25, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737772/cortical-forces-and-cdc-42-control-clustering-of-par%C3%A2-proteins-for-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryonic%C3%A2-polarization
#3
Shyi-Chyi Wang, Tricia Yu Feng Low, Yukako Nishimura, Laurent Gole, Weimiao Yu, Fumio Motegi
Cell polarization enables zygotes to acquire spatial asymmetry, which in turn patterns cellular and tissue axes during development. Local modification in the actomyosin cytoskeleton mediates spatial segregation of partitioning-defective (PAR) proteins at the cortex, but how mechanical changes in the cytoskeleton are transmitted to PAR proteins remains elusive. Here we uncover a role of actomyosin contractility in the remodelling of PAR proteins through cortical clustering. During embryonic polarization in Caenorhabditis elegans, actomyosin contractility and the resultant cortical tension stimulate clustering of PAR-3 at the cortex...
July 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736543/oscillatory-correlates-of-visual-consciousness
#4
REVIEW
Stefano Gallotto, Alexander T Sack, Teresa Schuhmann, Tom A de Graaf
Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population) activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power), and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733070/spatial-relationship-of-sites-for-atrial-fibrillation-drivers-and-atrial-tachycardia-in-patients-with-both-arrhythmias
#5
Tina Baykaner, Junaid A B Zaman, Albert J Rogers, Rachita Navara, Mahmood AlHusseini, Ryan T Borne, Shirley Park, Paul J Wang, David E Krummen, William H Sauer, Sanjiv M Narayan
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often converts to and from atrial tachycardia (AT), but it is undefined if these rhythms are mechanistically related in such patients. We tested the hypothesis that critical sites for AT may be related to regional AF sources in patients with both rhythms, by mapping their locations and response to ablation on transitions to and from AF. METHODS: From 219 patients undergoing spatial mapping of AF prior to ablation at 3 centers, we enrolled 26 patients in whom AF converted to AT by ablation (n=19) or spontaneously (n=7; left atrial size 42±6cm, 38% persistent AF)...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723222/extraction-of-2-phenylethanol-pea-from-aqueous-solution-using-ionic-liquids-synthesis-phase-equilibrium-investigation-selectivity-in-separation-and-thermodynamic-models
#6
Urszula Maria Domanska, Patrycja Okuniewska, Kamil Paduszyński, Marta Królikowska, Maciej Zawadzki, Mikolaj Wieckowski
This work presents some important issues and topics related to possible extraction of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) from aqueous phase "in situ" during the biosynthesis. It consist of a series of experimental phase equilibrium measurements in binary and ternary systems. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an important new media for imaging and sensing applications because of their solvation property, thermal stability and negligible vapor pressure. However, complex procedures and non-miscibility with water are often required in PEA extraction...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721355/simultaneously-estimating-the-task-related-and-stimulus-evoked-components-of-hemodynamic-imaging-measurements
#7
Max Charles Herman, Mariana M B Cardoso, Bruss Lima, Yevgeniy B Sirotin, Aniruddha Das
Task-related hemodynamic responses contribute prominently to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. They reflect behaviorally important brain states, such as arousal and attention, and can dominate stimulus-evoked responses, yet they remain poorly understood. To help characterize these responses, we present a method for parametrically estimating both stimulus-evoked and task-related components of hemodynamic responses from subjects engaged in temporally predictable tasks. The stimulus-evoked component is modeled by convolving a hemodynamic response function (HRF) kernel with spiking...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#8
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716700/role-of-entrainment-in-the-era-of-high-density-activation-mapping-for-characterizing-the-reentrant-circuit
#9
EDITORIAL
Pasquale Santangeli, Sanjay Dixit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#10
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712036/synchronization-to-metrical-levels-in-music-depends-on-low-frequency-spectral-components-and-tempo
#11
Birgitta Burger, Justin London, Marc R Thompson, Petri Toiviainen
Previous studies have found relationships between music-induced movement and musical characteristics on more general levels, such as tempo or pulse clarity. This study focused on synchronization abilities to music of finely-varying tempi and varying degrees of low-frequency spectral change/flux. Excerpts from six classic Motown/R&B songs at three different tempos (105, 115, and 130 BPM) were used as stimuli in this experiment. Each was then time-stretched by a factor of 5% with regard to the original tempo, yielding a total of 12 stimuli that were presented to 30 participants...
July 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709053/transport-and-retention-of-biochar-nanoparticles-in-a-paddy-soil-under-environmentally-relevant-solution-chemistry-conditions
#12
Ming Chen, Dengjun Wang, Fan Yang, Xiaoyun Xu, Nan Xu, Xinde Cao
Land application of biochar has been increasingly recommended as a powerful strategy for carbon sequestration and soil remediation. However, the biochar particles, especially those in the nanoscale range, may migrate or carry the inherent contaminants along the soil profile, posing a potential risk to the groundwater. This study investigated the transport and retention of wood chip-derived biochar nanoparticles (NPs) in water-saturated columns packed with a paddy soil. The environmentally-relevant soil solution chemistry including ionic strength (0...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707143/clinical-sleep-wake-disorders-ii-focus-on-insomnia-and-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#13
Kai Spiegelhalder, Christoph Nissen, Dieter Riemann
Insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders affect large proportions of the population and have pronounced effects on quality of life and daytime performance. While the neurobiology of insomnia is not yet fully understood, circadian rhythm sleep disorders are assumed to be caused by a mismatch between the individual circadian phase position and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulators improve sleep onset and maintenance in the short-term treatment of insomnia...
July 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705895/asymmetric-distribution-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-%C3%AE-regulates-dorsoventral-axis-in-the-early-sea-urchin-embryo
#14
Wei-Lun Chang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Kuan-Ting Lin, Han-Ru Li, Chih-Yu Pai, Jen-Hao Chen, Yi-Hsien Su
Hypoxia signaling is an ancient pathway by which animals can respond to low oxygen. Malfunction of this pathway disturbs the hypoxic acclimation and results in various diseases, including cancers. The role of the hypoxia pathway in early embryogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus blastula, hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα), the downstream transcription factor of this pathway, is localized and transcriptionally active on the future dorsal side. This asymmetric distribution is attributable to its oxygen-sensing ability...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704935/entrainment-of-breast-cell-lines-results-in-rhythmic-fluctuations-of-micrornas
#15
Rafael Chacolla-Huaringa, Jorge Moreno-Cuevas, Victor Trevino, Sean-Patrick Scott
Circadian rhythms are essential for temporal (~24 h) regulation of molecular processes in diverse species. Dysregulation of circadian gene expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, depression, and cancer. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical modulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally, and perhaps involved in circadian clock architecture or their output functions. The aim of the present study is to explore the temporal expression of miRNAs among entrained breast cell lines...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704069/potent-synchronization-of-peripheral-circadian-clocks-by-glucocorticoid-injections-in-per2-luc-clock-clock-mice
#16
Mayo Kamagata, Yuko Ikeda, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Yuta Hattori, Shinnosuke Yasuda, Shiho Iwami, Miku Tsubosaka, Ryosuke Ishikawa, Ai Todoh, Konomi Tamura, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
In mammals, the central clock (the suprachiasmatic nuclei, SCN) is entrained mainly by the light-dark cycle, whereas peripheral clocks in the peripheral tissues are entrained/synchronized by multiple factors, including feeding patterns and endocrine hormones such as glucocorticoids. Clock-mutant mice (Clock/Clock), which have a mutation in a core clock gene, show potent phase resetting in response to light pulses compared with wild-type (WT) mice, owing to the damped and flexible oscillator in the SCN. However, the phase resetting of the peripheral clocks in Clock/Clock mice has not been elucidated...
July 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701535/enhancement-of-phase-locking-in-rodents-i-an-axonal-recording-study-in-gerbil
#17
Liting Wei, Shotaro Karino, Eric Verschooten, Philip X Joris
The trapezoid body (TB) contains axons of neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) projecting to monaural and binaural nuclei in the superior olivary complex (SOC). Characterization of these monaural inputs is important for the interpretation of response properties of SOC neurons. In particular, understanding of the sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) in neurons of the medial and lateral superior olive (MSO and LSO) requires knowledge of the temporal firing properties of the monaural excitatory and inhibitory inputs to these neurons...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701533/treadmill-versus-overground-walking-different-response-to-physical-interaction
#18
Julieth Ochoa, Dagmar Sternad, Neville Hogan
Rehabilitation of human motor function is an issue of growing significance and human-interactive robots offer promising potential to meet the need. For the lower-extremity, however, robot-aided therapy has proven challenging. To inform effective approaches to robotic gait therapy, it is important to better understand unimpaired locomotor control: its sensitivity to different mechanical contexts and its response to perturbations. The present study evaluated the behavior of 14 healthy subjects who walked on a motorized treadmill and overground while wearing an exoskeletal ankle robot...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700914/period-robustness-and-entrainability-of-the-kai-system-to-changing-nucleotide-concentrations
#19
Joris Paijmans, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Circadian clocks must be able to entrain to time-varying signals to keep their oscillations in phase with the day-night rhythm. On the other hand, they must also exhibit input compensation: their period must remain approximately one day in different constant environments. The posttranslational oscillator of the Kai system can be entrained by transient or oscillatory changes in the ATP fraction, yet is insensitive to constant changes in this fraction. We study in three different models of this system how these two seemingly conflicting criteria are met...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699517/circadian-micrornas-in-cardioprotection
#20
Yoshimasa Oyama, Colleen Marie Bartman, Jennifer Gile, Tobias Eckle
The most dramatic feature of life on Earth is our adaptation to the cycle of day and night. Throughout evolutionary time, almost all living organisms developed a molecular clock linked to the light-dark cycles of the sun. In present time, we know that this molecular clock is crucial to maintain metabolic and physiological homeostasis. Indeed, a dysregulated molecular clockwork is a major contributing factor to many metabolic diseases. In fact, the time of onset of acute myocardial infarction exhibits a circadian periodicity and recent studies found that the light regulated circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (PER2) elicits endogenous cardioprotection from ischemia...
July 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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