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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212519/early-calibration-of-the-hpa-axis-by-maternal-psychopathology
#1
Heidemarie Laurent
Given the central role of stress-responsive neurophysiology in mental and physical health, it is important to understand how particular patterns of stress responsivity may become entrained by the early caregiving environment. In this study we investigated links between maternal depression and anxiety symptom profiles and within-infant development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses from 6 to 18 months of life. Associations with infant cognitive and social-emotional development were also tested to gauge the adjustment implications of HPA response trajectories...
February 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208342/phase-reduction-theory-for-hybrid-nonlinear-oscillators
#2
Sho Shirasaka, Wataru Kurebayashi, Hiroya Nakao
Hybrid dynamical systems characterized by discrete switching of smooth dynamics have been used to model various rhythmic phenomena. However, the phase reduction theory, a fundamental framework for analyzing the synchronization of limit-cycle oscillations in rhythmic systems, has mostly been restricted to smooth dynamical systems. Here we develop a general phase reduction theory for weakly perturbed limit cycles in hybrid dynamical systems that facilitates analysis, control, and optimization of nonlinear oscillators whose smooth models are unavailable or intractable...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202267/large-eddy-simulation-of-reactive-pollutants-in-a-deep-urban-street-canyon-coupling-dynamics-with-o3-nox-voc-chemistry
#3
Jian Zhong, Xiao-Ming Cai, William James Bloss
A large eddy simulation (LES) model coupled with O3-NOx-VOC chemistry is implemented to simulate the coupled effects of emissions, mixing and chemical pre-processing within an idealised deep (aspect ratio = 2) urban street canyon under a weak wind condition. Reactive pollutants exhibit significant spatial variations in the presence of two vertically aligned unsteady vortices formed in the canyon. Comparison of the LES results from two chemical schemes (simple NOx-O3 chemistry and a more comprehensive Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) chemical mechanism) shows that the concentrations of NO2 and Ox inside the street canyon are enhanced by approximately 30-40% via OH/HO2 chemistry...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188912/characterization-of-neural-entrainment-to-speech-with-and-without-slow-spectral-energy-fluctuations-in-laminar-recordings-in-monkey-a1
#4
Benedikt Zoefel, Jordi Costa-Faidella, Peter Lakatos, Charles E Schroeder, Rufin VanRullen
Neural entrainment, the alignment between neural oscillations and rhythmic stimulation, is omnipresent in current theories of speech processing - nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that laminar recordings in non-human primates provide us with important insight into these mechanisms, in particular with respect to processing in cortical layers. We presented one monkey with human everyday speech sounds and recorded neural (as current-source density, CSD) oscillations in primary auditory cortex (A1)...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188855/auditory-processing-assessment-suggests-that-wistar-audiogenic-rat-neural-networks-are-prone-to-entrainment
#5
Hyorrana Priscila Pereira Pinto, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Ana Flávia Santos Almeida, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal Mendes, Marcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
Epilepsy is a neurological disease related to the occurrence of pathological oscillatory activity, but the basic physiological mechanisms of seizure remain to be understood. Our working hypothesis is that specific sensory processing circuits may present abnormally enhanced predisposition for coordinated firing in the dysfunctional brain. Such facilitated entrainment could share a similar mechanistic process as those expediting the propagation of epileptiform activity throughout the brain. To test this hypothesis, we employed the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) reflex animal model, which is characterized by having seizures triggered reliably by sound...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187128/neural-mechanisms-of-rhythm-based-temporal-prediction-delta-phase-locking-reflects-temporal-predictability-but-not-rhythmic-entrainment
#6
Assaf Breska, Leon Y Deouell
Predicting the timing of upcoming events enables efficient resource allocation and action preparation. Rhythmic streams, such as music, speech, and biological motion, constitute a pervasive source for temporal predictions. Widely accepted entrainment theories postulate that rhythm-based predictions are mediated by synchronizing low-frequency neural oscillations to the rhythm, as indicated by increased phase concentration (PC) of low-frequency neural activity for rhythmic compared to random streams. However, we show here that PC enhancement in scalp recordings is not specific to rhythms but is observed to the same extent in less periodic streams if they enable memory-based prediction...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179479/impaired-auditory-to-motor-entrainment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Erik S Te Woerd, Robert Oostenveld, Floris Pieter De Lange, Peter Praamstra
Several electrophysiological studies suggest that PD patients have a reduced tendency to entrain to regular environmental patterns. Here we investigate whether this reduced entrainment concerns a generalized deficit or is confined to movement-related activity, leaving sensory entrainment intact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded during a rhythmic auditory target detection task in 14 PD patients and 14 control subjects. Participants were instructed to press a button when hearing a target tone amidst an isochronous sequence of standard tones...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#8
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167086/entrainment-mapping
#9
REVIEW
Saurabh Kumar, Usha B Tedrow, William G Stevenson
Mapping during ventricular tachycardia (VT) aims to elucidate mechanism, describe myocardial propagation, and identify the origin and critical regions of VT that can be targeted for ablation, most commonly with radiofrequency ablation. Most VTs in structural heart disease are due to macro-reentry in and around scar. A combination of mapping techniques, including mapping to identify the arrhythmia substrate, activation sequence mapping, pace-mapping, and entrainment mapping, may be used to identify putative ablation targets...
March 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166539/primordial-helium-entrained-by-the-hottest-mantle-plumes
#10
M G Jackson, J G Konter, T W Becker
Helium isotopes provide an important tool for tracing early-Earth, primordial reservoirs that have survived in the planet's interior. Volcanic hotspot lavas, like those erupted at Hawaii and Iceland, can host rare, high (3)He/(4)He isotopic ratios (up to 50 times the present atmospheric ratio, Ra) compared to the lower (3)He/(4)He ratios identified in mid-ocean-ridge basalts that form by melting the upper mantle (about 8Ra; ref. 5). A long-standing hypothesis maintains that the high-(3)He/(4)He domain resides in the deep mantle, beneath the upper mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge basalts, and that buoyantly upwelling plumes from the deep mantle transport high-(3)He/(4)He material to the shallow mantle beneath plume-fed hotspots...
February 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164781/long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-taste-circuit-of-drosophila
#11
Heesoo Kim, Colleen Kirkhart, Kristin Scott
Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162920/how-does-general-anaesthesia-affect-the-circadian-clock
#12
REVIEW
Raewyn C Poulsen, Guy R Warman, Jamie Sleigh, Nicola M Ludin, James F Cheeseman
: Post-operative patients experience sleep disturbances. Animal studies demonstrate that general anaesthesia (GA) can disrupt circadian rhythms and cause changes in the molecular clock, indicating that anaesthesia contributes to post-operative circadian disruption. Here we review the effect of anaesthesia on the circadian clock and its rhythms in order to summarise current findings outline commonalities between studies and propose mechanisms by which effects may be mediated. KEY POINTS: 1) GA has strong effects on the main neurotransmitter systems linked with circadian control (Gamma aminobutyric acid/N-methyl-D-aspartate (GABA/NMDA)) and may act by interfering with light-entrainment of the clock...
December 18, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162893/circadian-entrainment-to-the-natural-light-dark-cycle-across-seasons-and-the-weekend
#13
Ellen R Stothard, Andrew W McHill, Christopher M Depner, Brian R Birks, Thomas M Moehlman, Hannah K Ritchie, Jacob R Guzzetti, Evan D Chinoy, Monique K LeBourgeois, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Reduced exposure to daytime sunlight and increased exposure to electrical lighting at night leads to late circadian and sleep timing [1-3]. We have previously shown that exposure to a natural summer 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle entrains the human circadian clock to solar time, such that the internal biological night begins near sunset and ends near sunrise [1]. Here we show that the beginning of the biological night and sleep occur earlier after a week's exposure to a natural winter 9 hr 20 min:14 hr 40 min light-dark cycle as compared to the modern electrical lighting environment...
February 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161598/language-facilitates-introspection-verbal-mind-wandering-has-privileged-access-to-consciousness
#14
Mikaël Bastian, Sébastien Lerique, Vincent Adam, Michael S Franklin, Jonathan W Schooler, Jérôme Sackur
Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp...
February 2, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156168/evolution-of-circadian-rhythms-in-drosophila-melanogaster-populations-reared-in-constant-light-and-dark-regimes-for-over-330-generations
#15
Radhika Shindey, Vishwanath Varma, K L Nikhil, Vijay Kumar Sharma
Organisms are believed to have evolved circadian clocks as adaptations to deal with cyclic environmental changes, and therefore it has been hypothesized that evolution in constant environments would lead to regression of such clocks. However, previous studies have yielded mixed results, and evolution of circadian clocks under constant conditions has remained an unsettled topic of debate in circadian biology. In continuation of our previous studies, which reported persistence of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under constant light, here we intended to examine whether circadian clocks and the associated properties evolve differently under constant light and constant darkness...
February 3, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154744/environmental-factors-influencing-biological-rhythms-in-newborns-from-neonatal-intensive-care-units-to-home
#16
Clarissa Bueno, Luiz Menna-Barreto
Photic and non-photic environmental factors are suggested to modulate the development of circadian rhythms in infants. Our aim is to evaluate the development of biological rhythms (circadian or ultradian) in newborns in transition from Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) to home and along the first 6 months of life, to identify masking and entraining environment factors along development. Ten newborns were evaluated in their last week inside the NICU and in the first week after being delivered home; 6 babies were also followed until 6 months of corrected age...
October 2016: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154593/the-role-of-intravenous-dopamine-on-hemodynamic-support-during-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-of-poorly-tolerated-idiopathic-ventricular-tachycardia
#17
Jinhee Ahn, Dong-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Young Roh, Kwang No Lee, Dae-In Lee, Jaemin Shim, Jong-Il Choi, Young-Hoon Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hemodynamically unstable idiopathic ventricular tachycardias (VTs) are a challenge for activation or entrainment mapping technique. Mechanical circulatory support is an option, but is not always readily available. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of hemodynamic support using intravenous (IV) dopamine solely during radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of hemodynamically unstable VT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seven out of 86 patients with hemodynamically unstable idiopathic VT underwent de novo RFCA using dopamine in our single center...
January 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152425/stimulation-of-the-medial-septum-improves-performance-in-spatial-learning-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#18
Darrin J Lee, Ali Izadi, Mikhail Melnik, Stacey Seidl, Angela Echeverri, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Temporal lobe epilepsy often leads to hippocampal sclerosis and persistent cognitive deficits, including difficulty with learning and memory. Hippocampal theta oscillations are critical in optimizing hippocampal function and facilitating plasticity. We hypothesized that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus would disrupt oscillations and behavioral performance and that electrical neuromodulation to entrain theta would improve cognition specifically in injured rats. Rats received a pilocarpine (n=30) or saline injection (n=27) and unilateral bi-polar electrodes were implanted into the medial septum and hippocampus the following day...
January 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143493/the-yin-yan-of-ccl2-a-minor-role-in-neutrophil-anti-tumor-activity-in-vitro-but-a-major-role-on-the-outgrowth-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-lesions-in-the-lung-in-vivo
#19
Nicole Lavender, Jinming Yang, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Jiqing Sai, C Andrew Johnson, Philip Owens, Gregory D Ayers, Ann Richmond
BACKGROUND: The role of the chemokine CCL2 in breast cancer is controversial. While CCL2 recruits and activates pro-tumor macrophages, it is also reported to enhance neutrophil-mediated anti-tumor activity. Moreover, loss of CCL2 in early development enhances breast cancer progression. METHODS: To clarify these conflicting findings, we examined the ability of CCL2 to alter naïve and tumor entrained neutrophil production of ROS, release of granzyme-B, and killing of tumor cells in multiple mouse models of breast cancer...
January 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140399/timing-of-light-exposure-affects-mood-and-brain-circuits
#20
REVIEW
T A Bedrosian, R J Nelson
Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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