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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353092/individual-and-dyadic-rope-turning-as-a-window-into-social-coordination
#1
Raoul Huys, Agnieszka Kolodziej, Julien Lagarde, Chlöé Farrer, Robert Darmana, Pier-Giorgio Zanone
The spontaneous and intentional movement coordination between peoples is well understood. Less is known about such interactions when the coordination is subordinate to the task and when the task involves, next to vision, mechanically induced haptic and kinesthetic coupling between dyadic partners. We therefore investigated dyadic jump rope turning. Fifteen dyadic pairs conjointly turned a jump rope to which five markers were equidistantly attached, and whose movements were recorded in 3D. In addition, each participant turned one side of the rope while the other side was quasi-fixed in an individual baseline condition...
January 16, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351477/mathematical-analysis-of-circadian-disruption-and-metabolic-re-entrainment-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-the-intertwining-entraining-roles-of-light-and-feeding
#2
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The circadian rhythms influence the metabolic activity from molecular level to tissue, organ, and host level. Disruption of the circadian rhythms manifest to the host's health as metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and elevated plasma glucose, eventually leading to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the mechanism behind the relationship between circadian rhythms and metabolism. To start answering this question, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model to study the effect of circadian disruption on hepatic gluconeogenesis in humans...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347798/dispersion-of-the-intrinsic-neuronal-periods-affects-the-relationship-of-the-entrainment-range-to-the-coupling-strength-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#3
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Man Wang
Living beings on the Earth are subjected to and entrained (synchronized) to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle. Interestingly, they can also be entrained to an external artificial cycle of non-24-h periods. The range of these periods is called the entrainment range and it differs among species. In mammals, the entrainment range is regulated by a main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which is composed of 10 000 neurons in the brain. Previous works have found that the entrainment range depends on the cellular coupling strength in the SCN...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347526/limit-regimes-of-ice-formation-in-turbulent-supercooled-water
#4
Francesca De Santi, Piero Olla
A study of ice formation in stationary turbulent conditions is carried out in various limit regimes of crystal growth, supercooling, and ice entrainment at the water surface. Analytical expressions for the temperature, salinity, and ice concentration mean profiles are provided, and the role of fluctuations in ice production is numerically quantified. Lower bounds on the ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux to the atmosphere are derived and their dependence on key parameters such as salt rejection in freezing and ice entrainment in the water column is elucidated...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347350/birth-of-a-subaqueous-barchan-dune
#5
Carlos A Alvarez, Erick M Franklin
Barchan dunes are crescentic shape dunes with horns pointing downstream. The present paper reports the formation of subaqueous barchan dunes from initially conical heaps in a rectangular channel. Because the most unique feature of a barchan dune is its horns, we associate the time scale for the appearance of horns to the formation of a barchan dune. A granular heap initially conical was placed on the bottom wall of a closed conduit and it was entrained by a water flow in turbulent regime. After a certain time, horns appear and grow, until an equilibrium length is reached...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347342/synchronization-of-coupled-active-rotators-by-common-noise
#6
Anastasiya V Dolmatova, Denis S Goldobin, Arkady Pikovsky
We study the effect of common noise on coupled active rotators. While such a noise always facilitates synchrony, coupling may be attractive (synchronizing) or repulsive (desynchronizing). We develop an analytical approach based on a transformation to approximate angle-action variables and averaging over fast rotations. For identical rotators, we describe a transition from full to partial synchrony at a critical value of repulsive coupling. For nonidentical rotators, the most nontrivial effect occurs at moderate repulsive coupling, where a juxtaposition of phase locking with frequency repulsion (anti-entrainment) is observed...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347180/lattice-boltzmann-modeling-and-simulation-of-liquid-jet-breakup
#7
Shimpei Saito, Yutaka Abe, Kazuya Koyama
A three-dimensional color-fluid lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows is developed in the framework of a three-dimensional 27-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. The collision operator comprises the D3Q27 versions of three suboperators: a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, a generalized Liu-Valocchi-Kang perturbation operator, and a Latva-Kokko-Rothman recoloring operator. A D3Q27 version of an enhanced equilibrium distribution function is also incorporated into this model to improve the Galilean invariance...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347101/formation-of-liquid-drops-at-an-orifice-and-dynamics-of-pinch-off-in-liquid-jets
#8
Manash Pratim Borthakur, Gautam Biswas, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the dynamics of pinch-off in liquid drops and jets during injection of a liquid through an orifice into another fluid. The current study is carried out by solving axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the interface is captured using a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid approach. The delicate interplay of inertia and viscous effects plays a crucial role in deciding the dynamics of the formation as well as breakup of liquid drops and jets. In the dripping regime, the growth and breakup rate of a drop are studied and quantified by corroborating with theoretical predictions...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346893/resuspension-threshold-of-a-granular-bed-by-localized-heating
#9
C Morize, E Herbert, A Sauret
The resuspension and dispersion of particles occur in industrial fluid dynamic processes as well as environmental and geophysical situations. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ability to fluidize a granular bed with a vertical gradient of temperature. Using laboratory experiments with a localized heat source, we observe a large entrainment of particles into the fluid volume beyond a threshold temperature. The buoyancy-driven fluidized bed then leads to the transport of solid particles through the generation of particle-laden plumes...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#10
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344724/when-the-rhythm-disappears-and-the-mind-keeps-dancing-sustained-effects-of-attentional-entrainment
#11
Sabrina Trapp, Ondrej Havlicek, Annett Schirmer, Peter E Keller
Research has demonstrated that the human cognitive system allocates attention most efficiently to a stimulus that occurs in synchrony with an established rhythmic background. However, our environment is dynamic and constantly changing. What happens when rhythms to which our cognitive system adapted disappear? We addressed this question using a visual categorization task comprising emotional and neutral faces. The task was split into three blocks of which the first and the last were completed in silence. The second block was accompanied by an acoustic background rhythm that, for one group of participants, was synchronous with face presentations, and for another group was asynchronous...
January 17, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342372/enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soil-receiving-composts-derived-from-swine-manure-yard-wastes-or-food-wastes-and-evidence-for-multi-year-persistence-of-swine-i-i-clostridium-i-i-spp
#12
Andrew Scott, Yuan-Ching Tien, Craig F Drury, W Daniel Reynolds, Edward Topp
The impact of amendment with swine manure composts (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared to untreated control soil, all three amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to four years post-application...
January 17, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340915/primed-and-unprimed-rebounding-illusory-apparent-motion
#13
Nicolas Davidenko, Nathan H Heller
Although sequences of uncorrelated random dots can yield a wide range of illusorily coherent motion percepts (including translation, rotation, contraction, expansion, shear, and rebounding motion), past priming studies have relied on two-alternative forced choice tasks that only measure unidirectional (positive or negative) priming effects. In Experiment 1 we showed that when participants are primed with unidirectional motion and given an additional option to report bidirectional (rebounding) motion, they do so frequently, suggesting that unidirectional motion can "default" to a rebounding percept...
January 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339922/effect-of-rhythmic-auditory-cueing-on-gait-in-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
Auditory entrainment can influence gait performance in movement disorders. The entrainment can incite neurophysiological and musculoskeletal changes to enhance motor execution. However, a consensus as to its effects based on gait in people with cerebral palsy is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait in people with cerebral palsy. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine guidelines, from inception until July 2017, on online databases: Web of Science, PEDro, EBSCO, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and ProQuest...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339324/oscillatory-synchronous-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-its-primary-dependence-on-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptors
#15
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338250/pickering-emulsion-formation-of-paraffin-wax-in-ethanol-water-mixture-stabilized-by-primary-polymer-particles-and-wax-microspheres-thereof
#16
Zuoxu Xiao, Hongyan Cao, Xubao Jiang, Xiang Zheng Kong
Stable dispersions of paraffin wax droplets and their nano- and microspheres have broad applications. Despite intensive efforts, the production of uniform wax spheres remains a challenge. For their preparation, abundant surfactants and other additives are commonly used to stabilize the dispersions. These additives are hardly removable and entrain often adverse consequence in many applications, particularly in biological and medical applications, where microspheres with absolutely clean surface are preferred...
January 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329314/influence-of-monsoonal-winds-on-chlorophyll-%C3%AE-distribution-in-the-beibu-gulf
#17
Chunyan Shen, Yunrong Yan, Hui Zhao, Jiayi Pan, Adam T Devlin
The influence of seasonal, monsoonal winds on the temporal and spatial variability of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in the Beibu Gulf is studied based on long-term satellite data of sea surface winds, chl-a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST) and in-situ observations for the years from 2002 to 2014. The analysis results indicated that under northeasterly monsoonal winds, chl-a concentrations were substantially elevated in most area of the Beibu Gulf, with a high chl-a concentration (>2 mg m-3) patch extending southwestward from the coastal water of the northeastern Gulf, consistent with the winter wind pattern...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327439/the-hidden-concealed-left-sided-accessory-pathway-an-uncommon-cause-of-svt-in-young-people
#18
Robert H Pass, Leonardo Liberman, Eric S Silver, Christopher M Janson, Andrew D Blaufox, Lynn Nappo, Scott R Ceresnak
BACKGROUND: Concealed left sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of SVT in the young. Most are mapped with RV apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from 3 pediatric EP centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. METHODS: All patients < 21 years undergoing EP study from 2008-2014 with a "hidden" CLAP (defined as an accessory pathway (AP) for which RV pacing at CL's stable for mapping did not demonstrate eccentric retrograde conduction) were included...
January 12, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#19
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317650/link-between-concentrations-of-sediment-flux-and-deep-crustal-processes-beneath-the-european-alps
#20
Philippos Garefalakis, Fritz Schlunegger
Large sediment fluxes from mountain belts have the potential to cause megafans to prograde into the neighbouring sedimentary basins. These mechanisms have been documented based from numerical modelling and stratigraphic records. However, little attention has been focused on inferring temporal changes in the concentrations of supplied sediment from coarse-grained deposits. Here, we extract changes of this variable in the field from a Late Oligocene, c. 4 km-thick suite of fluvial conglomerates situated in the North Alpine foreland basin, which evolved in response to the tectonic and erosional history of the Alps...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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