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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329005/rethinking-the-influence-of-hydroelectric-development-on-gene-flow-in-a-long-lived-fish-the-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens
#1
Craig A McDougall, Amy B Welsh, Thierry Gosselin, W Gary Anderson, Patrick A Nelson
Many hydroelectric dams have been in place for 50 - >100 years, which for most fish species means that enough generations have passed for fragmentation induced divergence to have accumulated. However, for long-lived species such as Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, it should be possible to discriminate between historical population structuring and contemporary gene flow and improve the broader understanding of anthropogenic influence. On the Winnipeg River, Manitoba, two hypotheses were tested: 1) Measureable quantities of former reservoir dwelling Lake Sturgeon now reside downstream of the Slave Falls Generating Station, and 2) genetically differentiated populations of Lake Sturgeon occur upstream and downstream, a result of historical structuring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326909/resynchronization-dynamics-reveal-that-the-ventral-entrains-the-dorsal-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#2
Stephanie R Taylor, Thomas J Wang, Daniel Granados-Fuentes, Erik D Herzog
Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been considered the master circadian clock in mammals, the topology of the connections that synchronize daily rhythms among SCN cells is not well understood. We combined experimental and computational methods to infer the directed interactions that mediate circadian synchrony between regions of the SCN. We analyzed PERIOD2 (PER2) expression from SCN slices during and after treatment with tetrodotoxin, allowing us to map connections as cells resynchronized their daily cycling following blockade and restoration of cell-cell communication...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#3
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323009/investigation-of-the-effects-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-self-paced-rhythmic-movements
#4
Manuel Varlet, Alanna Wade, Giacomo Novembre, Peter E Keller
Human rhythmic movements spontaneously entrain to external rhythmic stimuli. Such sensory-motor entrainment can attract movements to different tempi and enhance their efficiency, with potential clinical applications for motor rehabilitation. Here we investigate whether entrainment of self-paced rhythmic movements can be induced via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which uses alternating currents to entrain spontaneous brain oscillations at specific frequencies. Participants swung a handheld pendulum at their preferred tempo with the right hand while tACS was applied over their left or right primary motor cortex at frequencies equal to their preferred tempo (Experiment 1) or in the alpha (10Hz) and beta (20Hz) ranges (Experiment 2)...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322951/initiating-fibro-proliferation-through-interfacial-interactions-of-myoglobin-colloids-with-collagen-in-solution
#5
Madhumitha Dhanasekaran, Aruna Dhathathreyan
This work examines fibro-proliferation through interaction of myoglobin (Mb), a globular protein with collagen, an extracellular matrix fibrous protein. Designed colloids of Mb at pH 4.5 and 7.5 have been mixed with collagen solution at pH 7.5 and 4.5 in different concentrations altering their surface charges. For the Mb colloids, 100-200nm sizes have been measured from Transmission electron micrographs and zeta sizer. CD spectra shows a shift to beta sheet like structure for the protein in the colloids. Interaction at Mb/Collagen interface studied using Dilational rheology, Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and Differential Scanning calorimetry show that the perturbation is not only by the charge compensation arising from the difference in pH of the colloids and collagen, but also by the organized assembly of collagen at that particular pH...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321642/circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-in-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Lauren B Alloy, Tommy H Ng, Madison K Titone, Elaine M Boland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. RECENT FINDINGS: Relative circadian phase delay (e...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317918/vertebrate-cryptochromes-are-vestigial-flavoproteins
#7
Roger J Kutta, Nataliya Archipowa, Linus O Johannissen, Alex R Jones, Nigel S Scrutton
All cryptochromes are currently classified as flavoproteins. In animals their best-described role is as components of the circadian clock. This circadian function is variable, and can be either light-dependent or -independent; the molecular origin of this difference is unknown. Type I animal cryptochromes are photoreceptors that entrain an organism's clock to its environment, whereas Type II (including mammals) regulate circadian timing in a light-independent manner. Here, we reveal that, in contrast to Type I, Type II animal cryptochromes lack the structural features to securely bind the photoactive flavin cofactor...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314477/extraction-of-nobiletin-from-citrus-unshiu-peels-by-supercritical-fluid-and-its-cre-mediated-transcriptional-activity
#8
Chisato Oba, Masaki Ota, Koichiro Nomura, Hironori Fujiwara, Jiro Takito, Yoshiyuki Sato, Yasushi Ohizumi, Hiroshi Inomata
BACKGROUND: Polymethoxyflavone (PMF) is one of bioactive compounds in Citrus Unshiu and included mainly in the peels rather than the fruits, seeds and leaves. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Supercritical CO2 extraction is one candidate for selective extraction of polymethoxyflavone and in this study, supercritical CO2 extraction with/without ethanol entrainer from Citrus Unshiu peels was examined at a temperature of 333K and a pressure of 30MPa. METHODS: CRE (cyclic AMP response element)-mediated transcriptional assay was examined by using the extracts from supercritical fluid extraction...
April 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306130/brain-connectivity-is-altered-by-extreme-physical-exercise-during-non-rem-sleep-and-wakefulness-indications-from-eeg-and-fmri-studies
#9
D Menicucci, C Gentili, A Piarulli, M Laurino, S Pellegrini, F Mastorci, R Bedini, D Montanaro, L Sebastiani, A Gemignani
Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, cytokines) associated to the exercise are involved. In this pilot study, we used extreme exercise (UltraTriathlon) as a model to investigate physical-activity-related changes of brain connectivity. We studied post-race brain synchronization during wakefulness and sleep as well as possible correlations between exercise-related cytokines/hormones and synchronization features...
December 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303945/dependence-of-nighttime-sleep-duration-in-one-month-old-infants-on-alterations-in-natural-and-artificial-photoperiod
#10
Sachiko Iwata, Fumie Fujita, Masahiro Kinoshita, Mitsuaki Unno, Takashi Horinouchi, Seiichi Morokuma, Osuke Iwata
Human sleep-wake cycles are entrained by both natural and artificial light-dark cycles. However, little is known regarding when and how the photoperiod changes entrain the biological clock after conception. To investigate the dependence of sleep patterns in young infants on the natural and artificial light-dark cycles, 1,302 pairs of one-month-old infants and their mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire. Birth in spring, longer daytime sleep duration, early/regular light-off times, and longer maternal nighttime sleep duration were identified as independent variables for longer infant nighttime sleep duration in both univariate and multivariate analyses...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301599/exploring-the-role-of-locomotor-sensitization-in-the-circadian-food-entrainment-pathway
#11
Hanna Opiol, Nuria de Zavalia, Tara Delorme, Pavel Solis, Spencer Rutherford, Uri Shalev, Shimon Amir
Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF) or restricted treat (RT) that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300044/impact-of-operator-hearing-threshold-on-manual-blood-pressure-measurement
#12
Abubakar Danjuma Salisu, Aminu Bakari, Hamisu Abdullahi
INTRODUCTION: Une déficience auditive non détectée chez le personnel de santé pourrait affecter leur capacité à obtenir une pression artérielle (PA) précise avec des conséquences négatives sur les soins aux patients. Le but de cet article était de déterminer l'impact de l'audition de l'opérateur sur la mesure manuelle de la pression artérielle. Méthodologie: Une étude transversale portant sur 25 patients et 60 personnel de santé composé de 25 médecins (groupe 1), 25 infirmières (groupe 2) et 10 10 personnes qualifiées sélectionnées ayant une audition normale formé (groupe 3)...
January 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298889/cortical-sensitivity-to-guitar-note-patterns-eeg-entrainment-to-repetition-and-key
#13
David A Bridwell, Emily Leslie, Dakarai Q McCoy, Sergey M Plis, Vince D Calhoun
Music is ubiquitous throughout recent human culture, and many individual's have an innate ability to appreciate and understand music. Our appreciation of music likely emerges from the brain's ability to process a series of repeated complex acoustic patterns. In order to understand these processes further, cortical responses were measured to a series of guitar notes presented with a musical pattern or without a pattern. ERP responses to individual notes were measured using a 24 electrode Bluetooth mobile EEG system (Smarting mBrainTrain) while 13 healthy non-musicians listened to structured (i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296892/blue-light-induced-accumulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-is-a-consequence-of-the-drosophila-cryptochrome-photocycle
#14
Louis-David Arthaut, Nathalie Jourdan, Ali Mteyrek, Maria Procopio, Mohamed El-Esawi, Alain d'Harlingue, Pierre-Etienne Bouchet, Jacques Witczak, Thorsten Ritz, André Klarsfeld, Serge Birman, Robert J Usselman, Ute Hoecker, Carlos F Martino, Margaret Ahmad
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily conserved blue-light absorbing flavoproteins which participate in many important cellular processes including in entrainment of the circadian clock in plants, Drosophila and humans. Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome (DmCry) absorbs light through a flavin (FAD) cofactor that undergoes photoreduction to the anionic radical (FAD•-) redox state both in vitro and in vivo. However, recent efforts to link this photoconversion to the initiation of a biological response have remained controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295001/microbial-remobilisation-on-riverbed-sediment-disturbance-in-experimental-flumes-and-a-human-impacted-river-implication-for-water-resource-management-and-public-health-in-developing-sub-saharan-african-countries
#15
Akebe Luther King Abia, Chris James, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Maggy Ndombo Benteke Momba
Resuspension of sediment-borne microorganisms (including pathogens) into the water column could increase the health risk for those using river water for different purposes. In the present work, we (1) investigated the effect of sediment disturbance on microbial resuspension from riverbed sediments in laboratory flow-chambers and in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa; and (2) estimated flow conditions for sediment-borne microorganism entrainment/resuspension in the river. For mechanical disturbance, the top 2 cm of the sediment in flow-chambers was manually stirred...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288865/retinal-npy-and-5-ht-inputs-to-the-aged-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#16
Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo D de Azevedo Silva, Felipe Porto Fiuza, Joacil Germano Soares, Miriam S M O Costa, Ruthnaldo R de Melo Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, José R Dos Santos, José R L P Cavalcanti, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The circadian timing system (CTS) anticipates optimal physiological patterns in response to environmental fluctuations, such as light-dark cycle. Since age-related disruption of circadian synchronization is linked to several pathological conditions, we characterized alterations of neurochemical constituents and retinal projections to the major pacemaker of CTS, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in adult and aged marmosets. We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287231/failure-mechanisms-of-air-entrainment-in-drop-impact-on-lubricated-surfaces
#17
M Pack, H Hu, D Kim, Z Zheng, H A Stone, Y Sun
Lubricated surfaces have recently been introduced and studied due to their potential benefit in various configurations and applications. Combining the techniques of total internal reflection microscopy and reflection interference microscopy, we examine the dynamics of an underlying air film upon drop impact on a lubricated substrate where the thin liquid film is immiscible to the drop. In contrast to drop impact on solid surfaces where even the smallest asperities cause random breakup of the entraining air film, we report two air film failure mechanisms on lubricated surfaces...
March 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285747/effect-of-the-ventricular-folds-in-a-synthetic-larynx-model
#18
Stefan Kniesburges, Veronika Birk, Alexander Lodermeyer, Anne Schützenberger, Christopher Bohr, Stefan Becker
Within the human larynx, the ventricular folds serve primarily as a protecting valve during swallowing. They are located directly above the sound-generating vocal folds. During normal phonation, the ventricular folds are passive structures that are not excited to periodical oscillations. However, the impact of the ventricular folds on the phonation process has not yet been finally clarified. An experimental synthetic human larynx model was used to investigate the effect of the ventricular folds on the phonation process...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284990/modeling-the-photoperiodic-entrainment-of-the-plant-circadian-clock
#19
Joëlle De Caluwé, José Romário Fernandes de Melo, Alen Tosenberger, Christian Hermans, Nathalie Verbruggen, Jean-Christophe Leloup, Didier Gonze
The circadian clock is an endogenous 24hour rhythm that helps organisms anticipate and adapt to daily and seasonal variations in environment, such as the day/night cycle or changing temperatures. The plant clock is a complex network of transcription factors that regulate each other, forming interlocked feedback loops. Most of its components are light-regulated in some way, making the system highly sensitive to changes in light conditions. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the plant clock adapts to changing day length...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275001/pancreatic-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cellular-clocks-have-distinct-molecular-properties-and-impact-on-islet-hormone-secretion-and-gene-expression
#20
Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Laurianne Giovannoni, Cedric Gobet, Daniel Sage, Michael Unser, Mounia Heddad Masson, Guoqiang Gu, Domenico Bosco, Frédéric Gachon, Jacques Philippe, Charna Dibner
A critical role of circadian oscillators in orchestrating insulin secretion and islet gene transcription has been demonstrated recently. However, these studies focused on whole islets and did not explore the interplay between α-cell and β-cell clocks. We performed a parallel analysis of the molecular properties of α-cell and β-cell oscillators using a mouse model expressing three reporter genes: one labeling α cells, one specific for β cells, and a third monitoring circadian gene expression. Thus, phase entrainment properties, gene expression, and functional outputs of the α-cell and β-cell clockworks could be assessed in vivo and in vitro at the population and single-cell level...
March 8, 2017: Genes & Development
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