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Benzhong Zhao, Amir Alizadeh Pahlavan, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso, Ruben Juanes
Immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in partial wetting continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid in a circular capillary tube in the partial wetting regime. In contrast with the classic results for complete wetting, we show that the presence of a moving contact line induces a wetting transition at a critical capillary number that is contact angle dependent. At small displacement rates, the fluid-fluid interface deforms slightly from its equilibrium state and moves downstream at a constant velocity, without changing its shape...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Evgeni V Nikolaev, Sahand Jamal Rahi, Eduardo D Sontag
This article uncovers a remarkable behavior in two biochemical systems that commonly appear as components of signal transduction pathways in systems biology. These systems have globally attracting steady states when unforced, so they might have been considered uninteresting from a dynamical standpoint. However, when subject to a periodic excitation, strange attractors arise via a period-doubling cascade. Quantitative analyses of the corresponding discrete chaotic trajectories are conducted numerically by computing largest Lyapunov exponents, power spectra, and autocorrelation functions...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Todd D Rozen
OBJECTIVE: To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey comparing the clinical presentation of tobacco nonexposed and tobacco-exposed cluster headache patients. BACKGROUND: Cluster headache is uniquely tied to a personal history of tobacco usage/cigarette smoking and, if the individual cluster headache sufferer did not smoke, it has been shown that their parent(s) typically did and that individual had significant secondary smoke exposure as a child...
March 14, 2018: Headache
Jea Kwon, Min Gu Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA)...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Kate M Richmond, Katharine G Warburton, Simon J Finney, Sachin Shah, Benjamin A J Reddi
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive clinical examination can be compromised in patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Adjunctive diagnostic imaging strategies range from bedside imaging only to routine computed tomography (CT). The risk-benefit of either approach remains to be evaluated. Patients retrieved to the Royal Brompton Hospital (RBH) on VV-ECMO routinely undergo admission CT imaging of head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. This study aimed to identify how frequently changes in therapy or adverse events could be attributed to routine CT scanning...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
Anthony S Barnhart, Mandy J Ehlert, Stephen D Goldinger, Alison D Mackey
Recently, performance magic has become a source of insight into the processes underlying awareness. Magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats." One of these variables is akin to the phenomenon psychologists know as attentional entrainment. The current experiments, inspired by performance magic, explore the extent to which entrainment can occur across sensory modalities. Across two experiments using a difficult dot probe detection task, we find that the mere presence of an auditory rhythm can bias when visual attention is deployed, speeding responses to stimuli appearing in phase with the rhythm...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Min-Hee Lee, Jan E Szulejko, Ki-Hyun Kim
In this study, we report a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization HPLC/UV method to quantify carbonyl compounds (CCs) either in electronic cigarette (EC) refill solutions or in vaped aerosols. Vaped aerosol samples were entrained in a 1 L atm min-1 ambient lab air stream and pulled through an impinger containing a DNPH solution for derivatization. The mass change tracking (MCT) approach was used to check mass balance. Refill solution samples were diluted (2, 4, and 10 times) in a DNPH/acetonitrile solution for derivatization...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Asuka Mogi, Ryo Yomoda, Syunya Kimura, Chisato Tsushima, Jun Takouda, Miho Sawauchi, Tomoko Maekawa, Hidenobu Ohta, Satoshi Nishino, Masatake Kurita, Nariyasu Mano, Noriko Osumi, Takahiro Moriya
The mitotic activity of certain tissues in the body is closely associated with circadian clock function. However, the effects of growth factors on the molecular clockwork are not fully understood. Stimulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a well-known mitogen, is known to cause synchronized cell cycle progression with a period of approximately 24 h, closely associated with the Per2 gene expression rhythm. Here, we examined the effects of EGF on the molecular clockwork of NSCs...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Marina Toompuu, Tea Tuomela, Pia Laine, Lars Paulin, Eric Dufour, Howard T Jacobs
RNA 3' polyadenylation is known to serve diverse purposes in biology, in particular, regulating mRNA stability and translation. Here we determined that, upon exposure to high levels of the intercalating agent ethidium bromide (EtBr), greater than those required to suppress mitochondrial transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells became polyadenylated. Relaxation of the inducing stress led to rapid turnover of the polyadenylated tRNAs. The extent, kinetics and duration of tRNA polyadenylation were EtBr dose-dependent, with mitochondrial tRNAs differentially sensitive to the stress...
March 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
József Vuts, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Stephen J Powers, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
BACKGROUND: The response of virgin females of the legume pest Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to headspace extracts of volatiles collected from flowers of a nectar plant, Daucus carota, was investigated using behaviour (four-arm olfactometry) and coupled gas chromatography-electrophysiology (GC-EAG). RESULTS: Odours from inflorescences were significantly more attractive to virgin female beetles than clean air. Similarly, a sample of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by air entrainment (dynamic headspace collection) was more attractive to beetles than a solvent control...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jana Annina Müller, Birger Kollmeier, Stefan Debener, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to investigate whether attentional influences on speech recognition are reflected in the neural phase entrained by an external modulator. Sentences were presented in 7 Hz sinusoidally modulated noise while the neural response to that modulation frequency was monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in 21 participants. We implemented a selective attention paradigm including three different attention conditions while keeping physical stimulus parameters constant. The participants' task was either to repeat the sentence as accurately as possible (speech recognition task), to count the number of decrements implemented in modulated noise (decrement detection task), or to do both (dual task), while the EEG was recorded...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jennifer Yurkovich, Debra S Burns, Tondi Harrison
Background: Although evidence suggests music therapy lowers the heart rate of ill adults undergoing painful procedures and premature infants in the NICU, the effect of music therapy interventions on physiologic response in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) being cared for in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) has not been explored. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the music therapy entrainment on physiologic responses of infants with CHD in the CICU...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
Ibrahim Alhroub, Evguenii Kozliak, Alena Kubatova, Mark Sulkes
There has been a limited understanding of high MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) product chemistry in the pyrolysis of triglycerides (TGs), though the subject has important implications for both fuel production from TGs and food science. Previous TG pyrolysis studies have been able to identify only relatively low MW GC-elutable aromatics occurring in the bulk liquid phase; products occurring in the solid phase have remained inaccessible to chemical analysis. In contrast, cold gas expansion molecular beam methods, where pyrolysis products are analyzed in real time as they are entrained in gas expansions, remove product collection difficulties, thereby allowing for analysis of coke/tar PAH precursors...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Zhibo Zhang, Chun Zhao, Kerry Meyer, Chamara Rajapakshe, Chenglai Wu, Zhifeng Yang, Joyce E Penner
Marine stratocumulus clouds cover nearly one-quarter of the ocean surface and thus play an extremely important role in determining the global radiative balance. The semipermanent marine stratocumulus deck over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest, because of its interactions with seasonal biomass burning aerosols that are emitted in southern Africa. Understanding the impacts of biomass burning aerosols on stratocumulus clouds and the implications for regional and global radiative balance is still very limited...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cécile Revellin, Alain Hartmann, Sébastien Solanas, Edward Topp
Antibiotics are entrained into agricultural soil through the application of manures from medicated animals. In the present study, a series of small field plots was established in 1999 that receive annual spring applications of a mixture of tylosin, sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg kg-1 soil. These antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production. The field plots were cropped continuously to soybeans and in 2012, after 14 annual antibiotic applications, nodules from soybean roots were sampled and the occupying bradyrhizobia characterized...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Randall P Williams, Donghwan Kim, Kristofer L Gleason, Neal A Hall
In this article, the feasibility of using balloons for the measurement of acoustic particle velocity in air is investigated by exploring the behavior of an elastic balloon in air as it vibrates in response to an incident acoustic wave. This is motivated by the frequent use of neutrally buoyant spheres as underwater inertial particle velocity sensors. The results of experiments performed in an anechoic chamber are presented, in which a pair of laser Doppler vibrometers simultaneously captured the velocities of the front and back surfaces of a Mylar balloon in an acoustic field...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hans Rutger Bosker, Martin Cooke
Speakers adjust their voice when talking in noise (known as Lombard speech), facilitating speech comprehension. Recent neurobiological models of speech perception emphasize the role of amplitude modulations in speech-in-noise comprehension, helping neural oscillators to "track" the attended speech. This study tested whether talkers produce more pronounced amplitude modulations in noise. Across four different corpora, modulation spectra showed greater power in amplitude modulations below 4 Hz in Lombard speech compared to matching plain speech...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
T R Angeli, G O'Grady, R Vather, I P Bissett, L K Cheng
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical slow waves are a coordinating mechanism of small intestine motility, but extracellular human studies have been restricted to a limited number of sparse electrode recordings. High-resolution (HR) mapping has offered substantial insights into spatiotemporal intestinal slow wave dynamics, but has been limited to animal studies to date. This study aimed to translate intra-operative HR mapping to define pacemaking and conduction profiles in the human small intestine...
March 1, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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