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Randomised control trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922704/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#1
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), e.g. sofosbuvir, are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). Sustained virological response (SVR) is used by investigators and regulatory agencies as a surrogate outcome for morbidity and mortality, based solely on observational evidence...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922695/strategies-for-detecting-colon-cancer-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
William A Bye, Tran M Nguyen, Claire E Parker, Vipul Jairath, James E East
BACKGROUND: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance programs for diagnosis of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and in reducing the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in patients with IBD...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922519/a-cost-minimisation-analysis-of-olive-oil-versus-hyperoxygenated-fatty-acid-treatment-for-the-prevention-of-pressure-ulcers-in-primary-health-care-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Inmaculada Lupiañez-Pérez, Juan Carlos Morilla-Herrera, Shakira Kaknani-Uttumchanchandani, Yolanda Lupiañez-Perez, Magdalena Cuevas-Fernandez-Gallego, Francisco Martin-Santos, Jorge Caro-Bautista, Jose Miguel Morales-Asencio
Pressure ulcers represent a major current health problem and cause an important economic impact on the health care system. Most studies on the prevention of pressure ulcers have been carried out in hospital contexts, with respect to the use of hyperoxygenated fatty acids, and to date no studies have specifically examined the use of olive oil-based treatments. AIM: To evaluate the cost of using extra virgin olive oil, rather than hyperoxygenated fatty acids, in the prevention of pressure ulcers among persons with impaired mobility and receiving home care...
September 18, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922340/the-impact-of-continuous-non-invasive-arterial-blood-pressure-monitoring-on-blood-pressure-stability-during-general-anaesthesia-in-orthopaedic-patients-a-randomised-trial
#6
Agnes S Meidert, Johanna S Nold, Roman Hornung, Alexander C Paulus, Bernhard Zwißler, Stephan Czerner
BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing general anaesthesia, intraoperative hypotension occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes such as postoperative acute kidney failure, myocardial infarction or stroke. A history of chronic hypertension renders patients more susceptible to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) after induction of general anaesthesia. As a patient's BP is generally monitored intermittently via an upper arm cuff, there may be a delay in the detection of hypotension by the anaesthetist...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922338/does-the-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonist-esmolol-have-analgesic-effects-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study-on-healthy-volunteers-undergoing-the-cold-pressor-test
#7
Fredrik Ander, Anders Magnuson, Alex de Leon, Rebecca Ahlstrand
BACKGROUND: Esmolol may attenuate the sympathetic response to pain and reduce postoperative opioid consumption. It is not clear whether esmolol has an analgesic effect per se. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of esmolol in the absence of anaesthetics and opioids. We tested the hypothesis that esmolol would reduce the maximum pain intensity perceived during the cold pressor test (CPT) by 2 points on a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale (NRS) compared to placebo...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921778/alcohol-e-help-study-protocol-for-a-web-based-self-help-program-to-reduce-alcohol-use-in-adults-with-drinking-patterns-considered-harmful-hazardous-or-suggestive-of-dependence-in-middle-income-countries
#8
Michael P Schaub, Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. DESIGN: Two-arm RCT with follow-up 6 months after randomisation...
September 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921612/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-to-reduce-the-symptoms-of-mild-to-moderate-anxiety-in-pregnant-women
#9
REVIEW
Kerry Evans, C Jane Morrell, Helen Spiby
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for pregnant women with symptoms of mild to moderate anxiety. BACKGROUND: Many pregnant women experience mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and could benefit from additional support. Non-pharmacological interventions have been suggested for use during pregnancy. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Randomised controlled trials published since 1990, identified from electronic databases: Medline; CINAHL; Maternity and Infant Care; PsycINFO; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; CENTRAL; EMBASE; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; Social Sciences Citation Index; ASSIA; HTA Library; Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice database; Allied and Complementary Medicine...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921558/safety-and-efficacy-of-intravenous-iron-polymaltose-iron-sucrose-and-ferric-carboxymaltose-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Alaa Qassim, Ben W Mol, Rosalie M Grivell, Luke E Grzeskowiak
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) iron in pregnancy is useful where oral iron is not tolerated or a rapid replenishment of iron is required. AIMS: To review the literature on the efficacy and safety of different IV iron preparations in the management of antenatal iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus from inception to June 2016. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies, involving administration of IV iron (ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), iron polymaltose (IPM) or iron sucrose (IS)), regardless of comparator, to manage antenatal IDA...
September 18, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921545/editorial-new-frontiers-in-the-scientific-study-of-developmental-language-disorders
#11
EDITORIAL
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
Developmental language disorders (DLD) are common and have far-reaching developmental consequences. Nevertheless, public awareness of DLD is poor, and one goal of this special issue is to showcase a set of papers that provide a clear and coherent message about the nature and impact of DLD, and the potential of intervention to mitigate these impacts. In this editorial, we highlight seminal papers JCPP has published on language disorders over the last 40 years. Many of the issues raised then are still relevant now; however, the papers that comprise this special issue exemplify how far the field has come in achieving consensus on terminology and diagnostic criteria, and producing highly consistent findings on the stability and impact of DLD, and the potential for language change in response to targeted interventions...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921544/commentary-so-was-it-worth-it-a-commentary-on-fricke-et%C3%A2-al-and-hagen-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#12
Elspeth McCartney
Fricke et al. and Hagen et al. (2017) each report on large-scale pragmatic randomised controlled trials delivered in schools or nurseries, investigating language interventions for vulnerable children and showing moderate positive effect sizes. Such research is part of a recent development of 'what works' research in England, and the number of 'what works' trials continues to increase, largely through funding from the Sutton Trust, who are concerned with disadvantaged children, to the Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF)...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921537/nasotracheal-intubation-over-a-bougie-vs-non-bougie-intubation-a-prospective-randomised-controlled-trial-in-older-children-and-adults-using-videolaryngoscopy
#13
R O Abrons, M B Zimmerman, Y M S El-Hattab
Conventionally, nasotracheal intubation has consisted of blind nasal passage and external manipulation of the tube through the glottis ('conventional technique'), a technique associated with a high incidence of nasal trauma. We evaluated a novel technique for routine asleep (i.e. post-induction) nasotracheal intubation using a bougie ('bougie technique'), which uses a nasopharyngeal airway to guide a paediatric bougie nasotracheally for use as a Seldinger tracheal intubation guide. Two hundred and fifty-seven older children (> 8 years) and adults were randomly assigned to videolaryngoscopy-assisted nasotracheal intubation using either the conventional or the bougie technique...
September 15, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921500/growth-hormone-therapy-for-people-with-thalassaemia
#14
REVIEW
Chin Fang Ngim, Nai Ming Lai, Janet Yh Hong, Shir Ley Tan, Amutha Ramadas, Premala Muthukumarasamy, Meow-Keong Thong
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920540/the-effect-of-conventional-versus-figure-of-eight-module-ligation-on-mandibular-incisor-alignment-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Rachel A Little, David J Spary
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether using figure-of-eight modules affects the rate of lower incisor alignment compared with conventionally tied modules. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Orthodontic department at Queen's Hospital, Burton upon Trent, UK. METHODS: One hundred and twenty participants were randomly allocated to conventional module or figure-of-eight module groups, stratified for extraction or non-extraction lower arch treatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919201/macitentan-for-the-treatment-of-inoperable-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-merit-1-results-from-the-multicentre-phase-2-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#16
Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani, Gérald Simonneau, Andrea M D'Armini, Peter Fedullo, Luke S Howard, Xavier Jaïs, David P Jenkins, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Michael M Madani, Nicolas Martin, Eckhard Mayer, Kelly Papadakis, Dominik Richard, Nick H Kim
BACKGROUND: Macitentan is beneficial for long-term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The microvasculopathy of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension are similar. METHODS: The phase 2, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled MERIT-1 trial assessed macitentan in 80 patients with CTEPH adjudicated as inoperable. Patients identified as WHO functional class II-IV with a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of at least 400 dyn·s/cm(5) and a walk distance of 150-450 m in 6 min were randomly assigned (1:1), via an interactive voice/web response system, to receive oral macitentan (10 mg once a day) or placebo...
September 8, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919130/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-cognitive-remediation-exploring-how-different-training-components-relate-to-cognitive-and-functional-gains
#17
Matteo Cella, Til Wykes
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Remediation (CR) is an evidence based treatment targeting cognitive and functional difficulties in people with psychosis. Despite the large number of effectiveness studies, only limited evidence exists for the active ingredients of this therapy. This study begins to fill this gap by exploring the relationship between CR ingredients, including alliance with a therapist, and therapy outcomes. METHOD: This is a secondary analysis based on data from a published randomised controlled trial comparing CR+treatment-as-usual (TAU) to TAU alone...
September 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919126/low-dose-ct-for-the-diagnosis-of-appendicitis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-locat-a-pragmatic-multicentre-randomised-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#18
Hyuk Jung Kim, Byeong Geon Jeon, Chong Kun Hong, Kye Won Kwon, Seung Bong Han, Soya Paik, Suk Ki Jang, Young Rock Ha, Young Sik Kim, Min Hee Lee, Boem Ha Yi, Eung Jin Shin, Hae Kyung Lee, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho Jung Kim, Jae Hyung Choi, Young Soon Cho, Min-Jeong Kim, Dong Kyu Kim, Ji-Young Choe, Kyueng-Whan Min, Man Sup Lim, Sang Ook Ha, Sang Woo Lim, Youdong Sohn, Young Hwan Lee, Ji Hoon Park, Bon Seung Gu, Hye Seung Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji Ye Sim, Joonghee Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Kyuseok Kim, Soyeon Ahn, Sung-Bum Kang, Yoon Jin Lee, You Hwan Jo, Young Hoon Kim, Yousun Ko, Seung Joon Choi, Bohyung Song, Byung Ho Goh, Chaesuk Lim, Chang Rae Kim, Cho Rong Seo, Eunbaeck Kim, Gio Han, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jinhyun Kim, Kyoungjin Min, Min-A Lee, Min Ju Jeong, Min Kyoung Lee, Yong Su Lim, Young Sup Shim, Sung Bin Park, Chan Woong Kim, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Yoo Shin Choi, Sung Eun Rha, Eun Sun Jung, Gun Hyung Na, Han Joon Kim, Han Mo Yoo, Hye Kyung Chang, Joon Il Choi, Kyu Nam Park, Michael Yong Park, Moon Hyung Choi, Sang Hoon Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Sohee Lee, Soo Ah Im, Soo Hyun Kim, Soon Nam Oh, Tae Ho Hong, Won-Kyung Kang, Young Joon Lee, Young Hwan Lee, Dong Baek Kang, Hyun Soo Han, Jeong Woo Choi, Ki-Jung Yoon, Yong Hwang, Seong Sook Hong, Eui Sung Hwang, Heajin Chung, Hye Young Jang, Jiyoung Hwang, Jun Bum Park, Kyung Yul Hur, Yoon Mi Jeen, Young Joo Lee, Young Shin Cho, Han Jin Cho, Inyoung Choi, Jong Hak Park, Jooyeong Kim, Suk Keu Yeom, Sung Woo Moon, Young Sik Kim, Mi Sung Kim, Dong Hyuk Shin, Heon-Ju Kwon, Pil Cho Choi, Sang Kuk Han, Ji Young Woo, Gu Hyun Kang, Han Myun Kim, Hyun Young Choi, Ik Yang, Jae Ho Jang, Jeong Won Kim, Sang Nam Yoon, Won Hee Kim, Yong Soo Jang, Mi-Suk Park, In Cheol Park, Jae Gil Lee, Min Joung Kim, Yong Eun Chung, Jongmee Lee, Baek-Hui Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Jung-Youn Kim, Sanghee Kang, Sung-Hyuk Choi, Yang Shin Park, Seong Whi Cho, Chan Woo Park, Gi Bong Chae, Taek Guen Ohk, Yong-Hwan Jeon, Nurhee Hong, Dae Han Wi, Jun Hee Lee, Jung Nam Kwon, Seok Youn Lee, Weon-Cheol Han, Young Cheol Song, Mi Jeong Kim, Jung Hyeok Kwon, Seoung Kyu Beak, Sung Jin Kim, Woo Ik Choi, Yu Na Kang, Cheong-Il Shin, Dong Ho Lee, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Ijin Joo, Jeong Hee Yoon, Ji Won Park, Kyu Joo Park, Sang Do Shin, Seung-Bum Ryoo, Seung-Yong Jeong, Su Joa Ahn, Tae Han Kim, Won Chang, Yoon-Hye Kwon, Sang Soo Shin, Hee Joon Kim, Ho Goon Kim, Yong Soo Cho, Yoo Duk Choi, Bong Soo Kim, Chang Lim Hyun, Guk Myung Choi, In Ho Jeong, Kyeong Won Kang, Seung Hyoung Kim, Woo Jeong Kim, Young Joon Kang, Kwang Pyo Kim
BACKGROUND: CT radiation is arguably carcinogenic. Results from single-centre studies, mostly retrospective, have advocated lowering the CT radiation dose for the diagnosis of appendicitis. However, adoption of low-dose CT has been slow. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of low-dose CT compared with standard-dose CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults. METHODS: We did this pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial at 20 South Korean teaching hospitals with little experience with low-dose CT...
September 11, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919087/outcomes-of-restrictive-versus-liberal-transfusion-strategies-in-older-adults-from-nine-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Geoff I Simon, Alison Craswell, Ogilvie Thom, Yoke Lin Fung
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for patient blood management recommend restrictive transfusion practice for most adult patients. These guidelines are supported by evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, one of the patient groups not explicitly examined in these studies is the geriatric population. We examined RCTs relevant to transfusion outcomes in older patients. Our aim was to determine whether special guidelines are warranted for geriatric patients, recognising the different pathophysiological characteristics of this group...
September 11, 2017: Lancet Haematology
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