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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741535/amanita-muscaria-fly-agaric-from-a-shamanistic-hallucinogen-to-the-search-for-acetylcholine
#1
M R Lee, E Dukan, I Milne
The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. The bioactive compounds occurring in the mushroom remained a mystery for long periods of time, but eventually four hallucinogens were isolated from the fungus: muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenic acid. The shamans of Eastern Siberia used the mushroom as an inebriant and a hallucinogen. In 1912, Henry Dale suggested that muscarine (or a closely related substance) was the transmitter at the parasympathetic nerve endings, where it would produce lacrimation, salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction and increased intestinal motility...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716819/a-randomized-trial-comparing-metered-dose-inhalers-and-breath-actuated-nebulizers
#2
Mark A Snider, Jim Y Wan, Jonathan Jacobs, Rudy Kink, Barry Gilmore, Sandra R Arnold
BACKGROUND: Despite little evidence for its effectiveness, the breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN) is the default albuterol delivery method in our pediatric emergency department. OBJECTIVE: We compared the clinical efficacy of BAN and the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in treating subjects patients 2 to 17 years of age who presented with mild to moderate asthma exacerbations. METHODS: This is a randomized, nonblinded, noninferiority study conducted at a single pediatric tertiary care emergency department...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655683/bronchodilator-effects-of-lignosus-rhinocerotis-extract-on-rat-isolated-airways-is-linked-to-the-blockage-of-calcium-entry
#3
Mei-Kee Lee, Kuan-Hon Lim, Paul Millns, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Sue-Mian Then, Yvonne Mbaki, Kang-Nee Ting
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a popular medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Southeast Asia to treat asthma and chronic cough. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of this mushroom on airways patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of L. rhinocerotis TM02 cultivar was analyzed. Organ bath experiment was employed to study the bronchodilator effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis cold water extract (CWE) on rat isolated airways...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652032/prevalence-and-clinical-predictors-of-lpr-among-patients-diagnosed-with-gerd-according-to-the-reflux-symptom-index-questionnaire
#4
Mahmoud Mosli, Bashaer Alkhathlan, Abdulmalik Abumohssin, Mazin Merdad, Ameen Alherabi, Osama Marglani, Hani Jawa, Talal Alkhatib, Hani Z Marzouki
Background/Aims: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a distinct clinical entity that can occur simultaneously with GERD, necessitating additional treatment measures. The degree of overlap and clinical predictors of LPR among patients with GERD remains unknown. We aim to measure the prevalence of LPR in patients with GERD and identify clinical predictors. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study involving patients with confirmed GERD according to the GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) using the reflux symptom index (RSI)...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625590/guideline-on-management-of-the-acute-asthma-attack-in-children-by-italian-society-of-pediatrics
#5
REVIEW
Luciana Indinnimeo, Elena Chiappini, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: Acute asthma attack is a frequent condition in children. It is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization. Appropriate care is fundamental, considering both the high prevalence of asthma in children, and its life-threatening risks. Italian Society of Pediatrics recently issued a guideline on the management of acute asthma attack in children over age 2, in ambulatory and emergency department settings. METHODS: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was adopted...
April 6, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578103/acute-bronchodilator-therapy-does-not-reduce-wasted-ventilation-during-exercise-in-copd
#6
Amany F Elbehairy, Katherine A Webb, Pierantonio Laveneziana, Nicolle J Domnik, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
This randomized, double-blind, crossover study aimed to determine if acute treatment with inhaled bronchodilators, by improving regional lung hyperinflation and ventilation distribution, would reduce dead space-to-tidal volume ratio (VD /VT ); thus contributing to improved exertional dyspnea in COPD. Twenty COPD patients (FEV1  = 50 ± 15%predicted;mean ± SD) performed pulmonary function tests and symptom-limited constant-work rate exercise at 75% peak-work rate (with arterialized capillary blood gases) after nebulized bronchodilator (BD;ipratropium 0...
March 22, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573212/medication-use-in-infants-admitted-with-bronchiolitis
#7
Ed Oakley, Trusha Brys, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Natalie Phillips, David Krieser, Stuart R Dalziel, Andrew Davidson, Susan Donath, Kim Jachno, Mike South, Amanda Williams, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: There are no medications known that improve the outcome of infants with bronchiolitis. Studies have shown the management of bronchiolitis to be varied. OBJECTIVES: To describe medication use at the seven study hospitals from a recent multi-centre randomised controlled trial on hydration in bronchiolitis (comparative rehydration in bronchiolitis [CRIB]). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of extant data of infants between 2 months (corrected for prematurity) and 12 months of age admitted with bronchiolitis identified through the CRIB trial...
March 23, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571931/effectiveness-of-pediatric-asthma-pathways-for-hospitalized-children-a-multicenter-national-analysis
#8
Sunitha V Kaiser, Jonathan Rodean, Arpi Bekmezian, Matt Hall, Samir S Shah, Sanjay Mahant, Kavita Parikh, Andrew D Auerbach, Rustin Morse, Henry T Puls, Charles E McCulloch, Michael D Cabana
OBJECTIVE: To determine if clinical pathways affect care and outcomes for children hospitalized with asthma using a multicenter study. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study using an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System. We evaluated the impact of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways on children age 2-17 years admitted for asthma from 2006 to 2015 in 42 children's hospitals. Date of pathway implementation for each hospital was collected via survey...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530864/substrate-selectivity-check-of-the-ergothioneine-transporter
#9
Julia Tschirka, Madlen Kreisor, Janina Betz, Dirk Gründemann
The candidate vitamin ergothioneine (ET) is a unique antioxidant. Expression of the ET transporter (ETT) (gene symbol SLC22A4 ) in distinct cells is thought to signal intracellular ET activity, since we have previously shown that the ETT is highly selective for ET. Unfortunately, some continue to hold the ETT as a relevant drug transporter, using the misleading functional name OCTN1, novel organic cation transporter. The present study was provoked by two recent reports in which new ETT substrates were declared...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506504/a-phase-iib-randomized-chronic-dosing-incomplete-block-cross-over-study-of-glycopyrronium-delivered-via-metered-dose-inhaler-compared-with-a-placebo-and-an-active-control-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-copd
#10
Edward M Kerwin, Selwyn Spangenthal, Christine Kollar, Earl St Rose, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) bronchodilators are key to the pharmacologic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This Phase IIb study investigated the safety and efficacy of four doses of the LAMA glycopyrronium (GP) delivered using co-suspension delivery technology via metered dose inhaler (MDI). The study was part of a wider clinical trial program performed to determine the optimal dose of GP MDI, the LABA formoterol fumarate dihydrate (FF) MDI, and glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (GFF) MDI fixed-dose combination to be taken forward into Phase III studies...
March 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337266/comparison-of-the-in-vitro-pharmacological-profiles-of-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonists-in-human-bronchus
#11
Emmanuel Naline, Stanislas Grassin Delyle, Hélène Salvator, Marion Brollo, Christophe Faisy, Tatiana Victoni, Charlotte Abrial, Philippe Devillier
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) have been recommended for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and (more recently) asthma. However, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of the four LAMAs currently marketed (tiotropium, umeclidinium, aclidinium and glycopyrronium) have not yet been compared (relative to ipratropium) by using the same experimental approach. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: With a total of 560 human bronchial rings, we investigated the antagonists' potency, onset and duration of action for inhibition of the contractile response evoked by electrical field stimulation...
April 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331328/pilot-clinical-trial-of-high-flow-oxygen-therapy-in-children-with-asthma-in-the-emergency-service
#12
Yolanda Ballestero, Jimena De Pedro, Nancy Portillo, Otilia Martinez-Mugica, Eunate Arana-Arri, Javier Benito
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy and safety in children with asthma and moderate respiratory failure in the emergency department (ED). STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized pilot trial of children (aged 1-14 years) presenting to a tertiary academic pediatric ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations between September 2012 and December 2015. Patients with a pulmonary score (PS) ≥6 or oxygen saturation <94% with a face mask despite initial treatment (salbutamol/ipratropium bromide and corticosteroids) were randomized to HFNC or to conventional oxygen therapy...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306307/observational-study-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-oncological-inpatients
#13
María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco, Miguel Almanchel-Rivadeneyra, Aina Tomás-Luiz, Sandra Pelegrín-Montesinos, Cristina Ramírez-Roig, Juan José Fernández-Ávila
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most  frequent interactions. A standard database was used. METHOD: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients  admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were  collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp®  database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X...
January 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305409/adjunctive-pharmacotherapies-in-children-with-asthma-exacerbations-requiring-continuous-albuterol-therapy-findings-from-the-ohio-pediatric-asthma-repository
#14
Steven L Shein, Obada Farhan, Nathan Morris, Nabihah Mahmood, Sherman J Alter, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, Samantha M Gunkelman, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Lisa J Martin, Karen S McCoy, Jennifer R Ruddy, Kristie R Ross
OBJECTIVES: To identify associations between use of ipratropium and/or intravenous magnesium and outcomes of children hospitalized with acute asthma exacerbations and treated with continuous albuterol. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from children prospectively enrolled in the multicenter Ohio Pediatric Asthma Repository restricted to only children who were treated with continuous albuterol in their initial inpatient location. Children were treated with adjunctive therapies per the clinical team...
January 5, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305356/case-of-a-fixed-and-dilated-pupil-acute-anisocoria-secondary-to-aerosol-ipratropium-bromide
#15
Laura Royce, Chris Schulz, Nick Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261402/oral-versus-nasal-high-flow-bronchodilator-inhalation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Jens Bräunlich, Hubert Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Nasal high flow (NHF) alters breathing patterns, stabilizes fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during respiratory distress, helps to keep up hemostasis in the airways, and washes out the upper airways. Particularly the support of inspiratory flow and decrease in functional dead space are interesting mechanisms of action with regard to aerosol delivery. Several laboratory investigations have studied aerosol delivery via the nasal route by using NHF, whereas clinical benefits are poorly evaluated...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260071/transient-anisocoria-in-a-patient-treated-with-nebulized-ipratropium-bromide
#17
Renato Pejic, Branka Klaric
Purpose: We present a case report of a 44-year old female patient with complicated pneumonia who developed anisocoria after treatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide. Discontinuation of ipratropium bromide treatment led to complete resolution of anisocoria. Observation: A 44-year old female patient was admitted to the Department of Pulmonology due to high body temperature (40.0 °C), coughing and general weakness. After a general examination and tests the patient was diagnosed with right-sided pneumonia...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234869/a-controlled-trial-of-inhaled-bronchodilators-in-familial-dysautonomia
#18
Bat-El Bar-Aluma, Ori Efrati, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease is a leading cause of premature death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD). A significant number of patients have obstructive airway disease, yet it is not known whether this is pharmacologically reversible. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing the beta 2 agonist albuterol with the muscarinic blocker ipratropium bromide in patients homozygous for the IKBKAP founder mutation...
February 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228436/the-effect-of-ventilator-mask-atomization-inhalation-of-ipratropium-bromide-and-budesonide-suspension-liquid-in-the-treatment-of-copd-in-acute-exacerbation-period-on-circulating-levels-of-inflammation-and-prognosis
#19
D-H Jiang, X Wang, L-S Liu, D-D Ji, N Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ventilator mask atomization inhalation of ipratropium bromide and budesonide suspension liquid in the treatment of acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) on circulating levels of inflammatory factors and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 86 cases of patients on ventilator support were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 43 cases each. The control group was administered routine treatment including basic disease treatment, anti-infection, maintenance of a stable internal environment, nutritional support, oxygen inhalation and so on...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182799/inhaled-magnesium-sulfate-in-the-treatment-of-acute-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Rachel Knightly, Stephen J Milan, Rodney Hughes, Jennifer A Knopp-Sihota, Brian H Rowe, Rebecca Normansell, Colin Powell
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations can be frequent and range in severity from mild to life-threatening. The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) is one of numerous treatment options available during acute exacerbations. While the efficacy of intravenous MgSO₄ has been demonstrated, the role of inhaled MgSO₄ is less clear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled MgSO₄ administered in acute asthma. SPECIFIC AIMS: to quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO₄ I) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled β₂-agonist and ipratropium bromide; ii) in addition to inhaled β₂-agonist; and iii) in comparison to inhaled β₂-agonist...
November 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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