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Thermoregulation in the newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888930/thermoregulation-in-premature-infants-a-mathematical-model
#1
Carina Barbosa Pereira, Konrad Heimann, Michael Czaplik, Vladimir Blazek, Boudewijn Venema, Steffen Leonhardt
PURPOSE: In 2010, approximately 14.9 million babies (11.1%) were born preterm. Because preterm infants suffer from an immature thermoregulatory system they have difficulty maintaining their core body temperature at a constant level. Therefore, it is essential to maintain their temperature at, ideally, around 37°C. For this, mathematical models can provide detailed insight into heat transfer processes and body-environment interactions for clinical applications. METHODS: A new multi-node mathematical model of the thermoregulatory system of newborn infants is presented...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396436/commonly-employed-african-neonatal-skin-care-products-compromise-epidermal-function-in-mice
#2
Mao-Qiang Man, Richard Sun, George Man, Dale Lee, Zelee Hill, Peter M Elias
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. METHODS: After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor...
September 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378702/a-thermoregulation-model-for-hypothermic-treatment-of-neonates
#3
Ana Beatriz C G Silva, Joanna Laszczyk, Luiz C Wrobel, Fernando L B Ribeiro, Andrzej J Nowak
This paper presents a thermoregulation finite element model (FEM) to simulate hypothermia procedures for the treatment of encephalopathy hypoxic-ischemia (EHI) in neonates, a dangerous ischemic condition that can cause neurological damages and even death. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only recommended technique to reduce sequels caused by EHI in neonates; intervention with moderate cooling for neural rescue in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is the culmination of a series of clinical research studies spanning decades...
September 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345327/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-maturation-in-early-life-in-pigs
#4
REVIEW
T Thymann
After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249428/-problems-of-newborn-neonatal-adaptation-from-a-twins
#5
I Nikitina, V Boykо, T Babar, N Kalashnik, A Yezhova
The clinical analysis of multiple pregnancies. The features of neonatal adaptation process in 96 twins, depending on the type of zygosity. It is proved that the adaptation of the newborn with multiple pregnancy depends on the type of placentation. It is found that monozygotic twins is a risk factor syndromes disadaptation. Children from monozygotic twins compared with dizygotic twins have a higher frequency of the syndrome of respiratory disorders, and more prone to jaundice, hemorrhagic syndrome, violation gemolikvorodinamics II and III degrees...
April 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971447/bedside-resuscitation-of-newborns-with-an-intact-umbilical-cord-experiences-of-midwives-from-british-columbia
#6
Colleen Fulton, Kathrin Stoll, Dana Thordarson
CONTEXT: level 1 evidence supports the practice of delayed cord clamping, and many doctors and midwives consider it routine care when delivering vigorous, term neonates. However, scarce research exists regarding the risks or benefits of delayed cord clamping for infants needing resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation. Nonetheless, some midwives in British Columbia already practice intact cord resuscitation (ICR) at planned home births and in the hospital in order to facilitate delayed cord clamping for infants who need resuscitation...
March 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879969/-kangaroo-mother-care-for-low-birth-weight-infants-at-albert-royer-national-children-hospital-center-of-dakar
#7
P M Faye, A Thiongane, N R Diagne-Guèye, A Ba, M Gueye, S Diouf, O N'Diaye, A N'Diour, H S Sy, M Sarr
INTRODUCTION: Kangaroo care (KC) is an effective method to care for low birth weight (LBW) newborns, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of this method and its impact on morbidity and mortality of LBW infants admitted to the KC unit of Albert-Royer National Children's Hospital Center (ARNCHC) in Dakar, Senegal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center study from July 2011 to July 2013...
March 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487977/skin-physiology-of-the-neonate-and-infant-clinical-implications
#8
Teresa Oranges, Valentina Dini, Marco Romanelli
Significance: The skin is a complex and dynamic organ that performs several vital functions. The maturation process of the skin starts at birth with the adaption of the skin to the comparatively dry environment compared to the in utero milieu. This adaptive flexibility results in the unique properties of infant skin. To deliver appropriate care to infant skin, it is necessary to understand that it is evolving with unique characteristics. Recent Advances: The role of biophysical noninvasive techniques in the assessment of skin development underlines the importance of an objective evaluation of skin physiology parameters...
October 1, 2015: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359253/brown-adipose-tissue-a-potential-target-in-the-fight-against-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Laurence Poekes, Nicolas Lanthier, Isabelle A Leclercq
BAT (brown adipose tissue) is the main site of thermogenesis in mammals. It is essential to ensure thermoregulation in newborns. It is also found in (some) adult humans. Its capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glucose without ATP production contributes to energy expenditure and glucose homoeostasis. Brown fat activation has thus emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we integrate the recent advances on the metabolic role of BAT and its relation with other tissues as well as its potential contribution to fighting obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
December 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26288788/mortality-in-newborns-referred-to-tertiary-hospital-an-introspection
#10
Kailash Chandra Aggarwal, Ratan Gupta, Shobha Sharma, Rachna Sehgal, Manas Pratim Roy
BACKGROUND: India is one of the largest contributors in the pool of neonatal death in the world. However, there are inadequate data on newborns referred to tertiary care centers. The present study aimed to find out predictors of mortality among newborns delivered elsewhere and admitted in a tertiary hospital in New Delhi between February and September 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital data for were retrieved and analyzed for determining predictors for mortality of the newborns...
July 2015: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25965015/differential-metabolism-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-newborn-rabbits-in-relation-to-position-in-the-litter-huddle
#11
Esmeralda García-Torres, Robyn Hudson, Francisco Castelán, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Amando Bautista
Competition for resources can contribute importantly to the early development of individual differences in behavioral and physiological phenotypes. In newborn rabbits, littermates compete for thermally favorable positions within the litter huddle. As brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the principal site of thermogenesis in such altricial young, we investigated differences in rabbit pups' growth and morphological differences in BAT associated with position within the huddle. We formed three treatment groups (7 litters/group): GI-birth (pups killed at birth); GII-chronic thermal challenge (pups killed after exposure to a moderately cold environmental during postnatal days 1-3); GIII-acute thermal challenge (as for GII but pups killed after an additional 30min exposure to a very cold environment on postnatal day 3)...
July 2015: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25963260/a-hypomorphic-cbx3-allele-causes-prenatal-growth-restriction-and-perinatal-energy-homeostasis-defects
#12
Ebru Aydin, Dick-Paul Kloos, Emmanuel Gay, Willem Jonker, Lijuan Hu, Jorn Bullwinkel, Jeremy P Brown, Maria Manukyan, Martin Giera, Prim B Singh, Reinald Fundele
Mammals have three HP1 protein isotypes HP1 beta (CBX1), HP1 alpha (CBX3) and HP1 alpha (CBX5) that are encoded by the corresponding genes Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5. Recent work has shown that reduction of CBX3 protein in homozygotes for a hypomorphic allele (Cbx3hypo) causes a severe postnatal mortality with around 99 percent of the homozygotes dying before weaning. It is not known what the causes of the postnatal mortality are. Here we show that Cbx3hypo/hypo conceptuses are significantly reduced in size and the placentas exhibit a haplo-insufficiency...
June 2015: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25723795/skin-to-skin-care-and-breastfeeding-in-the-perioperative-suite
#13
Amanda Claire Burke-Aaronson
Current trends are moving toward immediate skin-to-skin care after birth of a newborn. This is shown to be highly beneficial, both physiologically and emotionally, to the mother and the baby. Strategies and considerations for initiating skin-to-skin care in the perioperative suite immediately after cesarean birth, such as thermoregulation of the baby in the operative suite, equipment, baby and family positioning, and maternal monitoring, are presented. Initiating skin-to-skin care as soon as possible after birth is recommended...
March 2015: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714847/intraosseous-hibernoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Imran Hafeez, Steven Shankman, Jon Michnovicz, Vincent J Vigorita
STUDY DESIGN: A case report and a literature review are presented. OBJECTIVE: To describe and review the clinical presentation and characteristic imaging and pathology findings of intraosseous hibernoma. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hibernomas are lesions of brown fat. Brown fat is typically found in newborn mammals and is rich in mitochondria, thus enabling its role in thermoregulation. It represents a small proportion of adult fat and is distinct from the more common "white fat...
May 1, 2015: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25627043/brown-adipose-tissue-what-have-we-learned-since-its-recent-identification-in-human-adults
#15
REVIEW
Bruno Halpern, Marcio Correa Mancini, Alfredo Halpern
Brown adipose tissue, an essential organ for thermoregulation in small and hibernating mammals due to its mitochondrial uncoupling capacity, was until recently considered to be present in humans only in newborns. The identification of brown adipose tissue in adult humans since the development and use of positron emission tomography marked with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) has raised a series of doubts and questions about its real importance in our metabolism. In this review, we will discuss what we have learnt since its identification in humans as well as both new and old concepts, some of which have been marginalized for decades, such as diet-induced thermogenesis...
December 2014: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567564/effect-of-delivery-mode-on-postpartum-neonatal-body-temperatures
#16
Naci Topaloğlu, Fatih Köksal Binnetoğlu, Şule Yıldırım, Mustafa Tekin, Nazan Kaymaz, Hakan Aylanç, Fatih Battal, Hasan Ali Kiraz, Meryem Gencer, Esra Başer, Volkan Hancı
OBJECTIVE: It is known that general and local anesthesia practices disrupt the delicate balance of thermoregulation center which is already sensitive to very tiny differences of temperatures in a normal subject. We aimed to evaluate and compare the rectal temperatures of newborns born with normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 106 term newborn - 40 born with normal vaginal delivery (group 1) and 66 born with cesarean section [51 spinal anesthesia (group 2), 15 general anesthesia (group 3)]...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25557201/mathematical-modelling-of-thermoregulation-processes-for-premature-infants-in-closed-convectively-heated-incubators
#17
REVIEW
Andrés Fraguela, Francisca D Matlalcuatzi, Ángel M Ramos
The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight...
February 2015: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25530887/usage-of-embrace-tm-in-gujarat-india-survey-of-paediatricians
#18
Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Harshil Patel, Ashish Dongara, Dipen V Patel, Satvik Bansal
Aim. EMBRACE(TM) is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACE(TM) regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACE(TM) was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3-18, SD = 3.84) months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD) duration of 42 (0...
2014: Advances in Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25388370/the-skinny-on-brown-fat-obesity-and-bone
#19
REVIEW
Maureen J Devlin
The discovery that metabolically active brown fat is present in humans throughout ontogeny raises new questions about the interactions between thermoregulatory, metabolic, and skeletal homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) for its ability to burn, rather than store, energy. BAT uniquely expresses uncoupling protein-1 (abbreviated as UCP1), which diverts the energy produced by cellular respiration to generate heat. While BAT is found in small mammals, hibernators, and newborns, this depot was thought to regress in humans during early postnatal life...
February 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25122002/ucp1-is-present-in-porcine-adipose-tissue-and-is-responsive-to-postnatal-leptin
#20
Alison Mostyn, Linda Attig, Thibaut Larcher, Samir Dou, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Monia Boukthir, Arieh Gertler, Jean Djiane, Michael E Symonds, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be accompanied by inadequate thermoregulation, especially in piglets that are not considered to possess any brown adipose tissue (BAT) and are thus entirely dependent on shivering thermogenesis in order to maintain body temperature after birth. Leptin can stimulate heat production by promoting non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT, but whether this response occurs in piglets is unknown. Newborn female piglets that were characterised as showing IUGR (mean birth weight of approximately 0...
October 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
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