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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232277/scaling-up-hiv-self-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-technology-policy-and-evidence
#1
Pitchaya P Indravudh, Augustine T Choko, Elizabeth L Corbett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can provide complementary coverage to existing HIV testing services and improve knowledge of status among HIV-infected individuals. This review summarizes the current technology, policy and evidence landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and priorities within a rapidly evolving field. RECENT FINDINGS: HIVST is moving towards scaled implementation, with the release of WHO guidelines, WHO prequalification of the first HIVST product, price reductions of HIVST products and a growing product pipeline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231042/perceptions-of-harm-from-substance-use-and-social-self-efficacy-among-early-adolescents
#2
Keith J Zullig, Robert F Valois
Researchers examined the association between perceptions of harm from substance use and social self-efficacy (SSE) in a sample of early adolescents in public middle schools ( n = 4,122). One-way analysis of covariance and post hoc tests were used to assess the relationships between perceptions of harm from tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use and SSE while controlling for the effects of grade, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Effect sizes were calculated from the post hoc comparisons to estimate practical importance...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230699/predictive-psychiatric-genetic-testing-in-minors-an-exploration-of-the-non-medical-benefits
#3
Arianna Manzini, Danya F Vears
Predictive genetic testing for susceptibility to psychiatric conditions is likely to become part of standard practice. Because the onset of most psychiatric diseases is in late adolescence or early adulthood, testing minors could lead to early identification that may prevent or delay the development of these disorders. However, due to their complex aetiology, psychiatric genetic testing does not provide the immediate medical benefits that current guidelines require for testing minors. While several authors have argued non-medical benefits may play a crucial role in favour of predictive testing for other conditions, little research has explored such a role in psychiatric disorders...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#4
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228823/current-practice-in-the-rehabilitation-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-survey-of-practitioners
#5
Caroline Miller, Mark Williams, Peter Heine, Esther Williamson, Neil O'connell
INTRODUCTION: International clinical guidelines for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome recommend a wide range and variation of rehabilitation therapies as the core treatment. It is likely that most therapists employ a range of approaches when managing people with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome but a recent Cochrane review identified little evidence relating to the effectiveness of multi-modal rehabilitation. There is need for up to date trials of rehabilitation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but in order to develop a clear model of best practice that can be rigorously evaluated we need to understand current practice...
December 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228788/understanding-the-experiences-of-middle-school-girls-who-have-received-help-for-non-suicidal-self-injury
#6
Kathleen S Tillman, Michael Prazak, Megan L Obert
This study aimed to understand the experiences of middle school girls who have engaged in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and have received professional help for these behaviors. Participants described engaging in NSSI in response to uncomfortable feelings and invasive negative thoughts. They reported that engaging in NSSI decreased their uncomfortable feelings. While each participant had at least one person in her life who knew about her NSSI, participants did not feel supported or validated by these people...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227688/synthesis-of-au-cds-cdse-hybrid-nanoparticles-with-highly-reactive-gold-domain
#7
Yuriy Khalavka, Sebastian Harms, Andreas Henkel, Malte S Strozyk, Rubén Ahijado-Guzmán, Carsten Sönnichsen
We propose a novel route to synthesize semiconductor-gold hybrid nanoparticles directly in water resulting in much larger gold domains than previous protocols (up to 50 nm) with very reactive surfaces whichallow further functionalization. This method advances the possibility of self-assembly into complex structures with catalytic activity towards the reduction of nitro-compounds by hydrides. The large size of these gold domains in hybrid particles supports efficient light scattering at the plasmon resonance frequency, making such structures attractive for single particle studies...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226052/developing-a-continuous-quality-improvement-assessment-using-a-patient-centered-approach-in-optimizing-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-disease-control
#8
Katelyn Mariko Updyke, Brittany Urso, Shazia Beg, James Solomon
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ, autoimmune disease in which patients lose self-tolerance and develop immune complexes which deposit systemically causing multi-organ damage and inflammation. Patients often experience unpredictable flares of symptoms with poorly identified triggers. Literature suggests exogenous exposures may contribute to flares in symptoms. An online pilot survey was marketed globally through social media to self-reported SLE patients with the goal to identify specific subpopulations who are susceptible to disease state changes based on analyzed exogenous factors...
October 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223761/chemsex-risk-behaviours-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dublin-ireland
#9
Ronan W Glynn, Niamh Byrne, Siobhan O'Dea, Adam Shanley, Mary Codd, Eamon Keenan, Mary Ward, Derval Igoe, Susan Clarke
BACKGROUND: Drug use for or during sex ('chemsex') among MSM has caused concern, because of the direct effects of the drugs themselves, and because of an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of chemsex, associated behaviours and STIs among attendees at Ireland's only MSM-specific sexual health clinic in Dublin over a six week period in 2016. METHODS: The questionnaire collected demographic data, information on sexuality and sexual practice, self-reported history of treatment for STIs, and chemsex use...
December 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220608/factors-that-differentiate-prescription-stimulant-misusers-from-those-at-risk-for-misuse-expectancies-perceived-safety-and-diversion
#10
Laura J Holt, Alison Looby
BACKGROUND: The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) is one of the most prevalent illicit behaviors on college campuses. While numerous risk factors for NMUPS have been identified, it is unknown how nonusing students who meet several risk factors for NMUPS differ from those who have used, which may inform intervention efforts. We expected that users would evidence greater cognitive enhancement and anxiety/arousal expectancies and intentions to use, and lower guilt/dependence expectancies, perceptions of NMUPS-related harm, and academic self-efficacy...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219626/eveningness-is-associated-with-skipping-breakfast-and-poor-nutritional-intake-in-brazilian-undergraduate-students
#11
Gabriela Pereira Teixeira, Maria Carliana Mota, Cibele Aparecida Crispim
Some studies have proposed that self-reported eveningness, which reflects the preference of performing activities in the evening, may harm nutritional health and influence the eating behavior and nutritional status of individuals. However, the relationship between these variables (eveningness and nutritional status) and the consumption of breakfast, which is currently considered a marker of health, has been insufficiently explored by studies. The aim of this study was to investigate, in undergraduate students, the association between diurnal preference, being overweight, and food consumption (with special focus on breakfast)...
December 8, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217724/correlation-of-impulsivity-with-self-harm-and-suicidal-attempt-a-community-study-of-adolescents-in-taiwan
#12
Yu-Hsin Huang, Hui-Ching Liu, Fang-Ju Tsai, Fang-Ju Sun, Kuo-Yang Huang, Yu-Ching Chiu, Yen-Hsun Huang, Yo-Ping Huang, Shen-Ing Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences and similarities in risk factors for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal attempt (SA), and the role of impulsivity among a group of community adolescents. SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at high schools in Northern Taiwan. DATA AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited grade 1 students from 14 high schools. A total of 5879 participants (mean age 16.02 years, female adolescents: 57...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216754/estimating-incidence-rate-of-hospital-treated-self-harm-in-hong-kong-using-capture-recapture-approach
#14
Chi Leung Kwok, Paul S F Yip
BACKGROUND: A surveillance system for self-harm has not been established in Hong Kong. The existing data source has an unknown degree of underreporting, and therefore a capture-recapture method has been proposed to correct for the incompleteness. AIMS: To assess the underestimation of the incidence of self-harm cases presenting to hospital in Hong Kong using a capture and recapture method. METHOD: Two different yet overlapping hospital administrative datasets of self-harm were obtained from all public hospitals in Hong Kong...
December 8, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215905/patient-perceived-family-stigma-of-type-2-diabetes-and-its-consequences
#15
Kryseana J Harper, Chandra Y Osborn, Lindsay Satterwhite Mayberry
INTRODUCTION: Adults with type two diabetes (T2D) report being monitored and judged by family members, contributing to feelings of guilt/shame, and attempts to conceal one's diabetes status or self-care efforts. However, studies have not yet quantitatively examined T2D stigma from family members. Our objective was to assess the frequency of T2D family stigma and its association with helpful and harmful diabetes-specific family behaviors and psychological and behavioral consequences of stigma...
December 7, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214946/psychosomatic-and-psychosocial-questions-regarding-bariatric-surgery-what-do-we-know-or-what-do-we-think-we-know
#16
Stephan Herpertz, Henrik Kessler, Sebastian Jongen
SUBJECT: In view of the epidemic increase in severe obesity and the ineffectiveness of conservative weight-loss interventions, bariatric surgery delivers compelling results for patients with class II (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m²), not only in reducing weight over the long term, but also in reducing obesity-related somatic comorbidity and improving psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Investigations into the psychosocial aspects of obesity surgery have proliferated over the last 15 years, providing a huge amount of essential research data...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209674/prevalence-and-determinants-of-antenatal-depression-among-women-attending-primary-health-care-centers-in-western-saudi-arabia
#17
Jamala A Bawahab, Jawaher R Alahmadi, Adel M Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of antenatal depression among pregnant women attending the primary health care (PHC) antenatal care clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to determine associated factors. METHODS: Following a cross-sectional study design, 320 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics in the Ministry of Health PHC Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1st 2017 and February 15th 2017 were interviewed. A self-administered questionnaire used for data collection asked about socio-demographic variables and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206847/-gaining-or-losing-the-importance-of-the-perspective-in-primary-care-health-services-valuation
#18
Jesús Martín-Fernández, Gloria Ariza-Cardiel, Luz Mª Peña-Longobardo, Elena Polentinos-Castro, Juan Oliva-Moreno, Ana Isabel Gil-Lacruz, Héctor Medina-Palomino, Isabel Del Cura-González
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Economic theory classifies an intervention as socially beneficial if the total Willingness to Pay (WTP) of those who gain exceeds the total Willingness to accept (WTA) of those who are harmed. This paper examines the differences in health system users' valuation of a health care service in primary care setting based on the WTP and WTA perspectives, discussing the impact of personal and service variables, including risk attitudes, on these disparities. METHOD: Six hundred and sixty two subjects who asked for care in health centres in the Region of Madrid (Spain) were interviewed, using the contingent valuation method to estimate WTP and WTA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206769/severe-menopausal-symptoms-associated-with-reduced-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-perimenopausal-and-menopausal-women-living-with-hiv-in-metro-vancouver
#19
Putu K Duff, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie, Florence Ranville, Mary Kestler, Melissa C Braschel, Neora Pick, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVES: Although more women living with HIV (WLWH) are entering midlife, the experiences of perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH, including the effects of menopausal symptoms severity, remain understudied. This study longitudinally investigated the correlates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH from Metro Vancouver. METHODS: Analyses drew on longitudinal data (2014-2017) from Sexual health and HIV/AIDS: Women's Longitudinal Needs Assessment, an ongoing community-based cohort of WLWH, aged 14+, from Metro Vancouver, Canada...
December 4, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206103/a-population-of-innate-myelolymphoblastoid-effector-cell-expanded-by-inactivation-of-mtor-complex-1-in-mice
#20
Fei Tang, Peng Zhang, Peiying Ye, Christopher A Lazarski, Qi Wu, Ingrid L Bergin, Timothy P Bender, Michael N Hall, Ya Cui, Liguo Zhang, Taijiao Jiang, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
Adaptive autoimmunity is restrained by controlling population sizes and pathogenicity of harmful clones, while innate destruction is controlled at effector phase. We report here that deletion of Rptor in mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells causes self-destructive innate immunity by massively increasing the population of previously uncharacterized innate myelolymphoblastoid effector cells (IMLECs). Mouse IMLECs are CD3-B220-NK1.1-Ter119- CD11clow/-CD115-F4/80low/-Gr-1- CD11b+, but surprisingly express high levels of PD-L1...
December 5, 2017: ELife
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