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Cocaine and acute renal failure

Anna Mudoni, Francesco Caccetta, Maurizio Caroppo, Fernando Musio, Antonella Accogli, Maria Dolores Zacheo, Maria Domenica Burzo, Vitale Nuzzo
Cocaine, a natural alkaloid derived from the coca plant, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Cocaine abuse causes systemic adverse effects like stroke, myocardic infarction, arterial dissection, vascular thrombosis and rhabdomyolysis. Cocaine use is, also, associated with renal complications such as acute kidney injury, vasculitis, acute interstitial nephritis, chronic kidney disease, malignant hypertension with thrombotic microangiopathy. Acute kidney injury may or may be not associated to rhabdomyolysis...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Alexandre Debelmas, Déborah Benchetrit, Damien Galanaud, Roman H Khonsari
History A 21-year-old man with a history of abuse of multiple drugs and mild cognitive impairment who initially underwent treatment for excited delirium developed respiratory arrest shortly after admission and was successfully resuscitated. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck and contrast material-enhanced CT of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and complete spine were performed shortly after the initial treatment. Head and neck magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed 24 hours after admission...
March 2018: Radiology
Pavan Luckoor, Mashal Salehi, Afua Kunadu
BACKGROUND Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome caused by muscle breakdown. It can be caused by traumatic as well as non-traumatic factors such as drugs, toxins, and infections. Although it has been initially associated with only traumatic causes, non-traumatic causes now appear to be at least 5 times more frequent. In rhabdomyolysis, the CK levels can range anywhere from 10 000 to 200 000 or even higher. The higher the CK levels, the greater will be the renal damage and associated complications. We present the case of a patient with exceptionally massive rhabdomyolysis with unusually high CK levels (nearly 1 million) caused by combined etiologic factors and complicated with acute renal failure...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Vikas Singh, Alex P Rodriguez, Badal Thakkar, Ghanshyambhai T Savani, Nileshkumar J Patel, Apurva O Badheka, Mauricio G Cohen, Carlos E Alfonso, Raul D Mitrani, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Jeffrey J Goldberger
BACKGROUND: The outcomes related to chest pain associated with cocaine use and its burden on the healthcare system are not well studied. METHODS: Data were collected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001-2012). Subjects were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was a composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac arrest. RESULTS: We identified 363,143 admissions for cocaine-induced chest pain...
June 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Rais Lamia, Zohra El Ati, Lilia Ben Fatma, Karim Zouaghi, Wided Smaoui, Khedher Rania, Madiha Krid, Fathi Ben Hmida, Soumaya Béji, Fatma Ben Moussa
Cocaine is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs with distribution and consumption throughout the world. Acute renal failure associated with rhabdomyolysis, direct vasoconstriction and hemodynamic alteration is well described in patients with cocaine intoxication. Cocaine use is associated with high blood pressure and may rarely induce malignant hypertension associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of a patient who developed malignant hypertension associated with thrombotic microangiopathy after chronic consumption of cocaine...
January 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Sandeep Singh Lubana, Dennis Iilya Genin, Navdeep Singh, Angel De La Cruz
BACKGROUND: Opioid addiction and overdose is a serious problem worldwide. Fatal overdoses from opioids are responsible for numerous deaths and are increasing, especially if taken in combination with other psychoactive substances. Combined with environmental exposure, opioid overdose can cause profound hypothermia. Opioid abuse and other drugs of abuse impair thermoregulation, leading to severe hypothermia. Both drug overdose and severe hypothermia can cause cardiac arrest. CASE REPORT: We report a case of 20-year-old man with history of polysubstance abuse presenting with severe hypothermia and asystole of unknown duration with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) achieved after 28 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...
June 8, 2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Andrew Goldberg
A 52-year-old man presented with acute, sharp chest pain radiating to the back and abdomen after using cocaine 18 hours previously. Computed tomographic angiography revealed a type B aortic dissection that extended to the iliac arteries. The patient underwent balloon fenestration, placement of multiple aortic stents, and bilateral leg fasciotomy. He eventually went into hyperkalemic arrest but was successfully resuscitated, after which his serum lactate and creatine kinase levels peaked at 7.4 mmol/L and 990,400 U/L, respectively...
March 15, 2015: A & A Case Reports
Joshua H Dean, Elise M Woznicki, Patrick O'Gara, Daniel G Montgomery, Santi Trimarchi, Truls Myrmel, Reed E Pyeritz, Kevin M Harris, Toru Suzuki, Alan C Braverman, G Chad Hughes, Eva Kline-Rogers, Christoph A Nienaber, Eric M Isselbacher, Kim A Eagle, Eduardo Bossone
BACKGROUND: Acute aortic dissection associated with cocaine use is rare and has been reported predominantly as single cases or in small patient cohorts. METHODS: Our study analyzed 3584 patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996 to 2012. We divided the population on the basis of documented cocaine use (C+) versus non cocaine use (C-) and further stratified the cohorts into type A (33 C+/2332, 1.4%) and type B (30 C+/1252, 2...
September 2014: American Journal of Medicine
Alireza Hosseinnezhad, Rajakrishnan Vijayakrishnan, Mary Jo S Farmer
Cocaine has been associated with known adverse effects on cardiac, cerebrovascular and pulmonary systems. However, the effect of cocaine on other organs has not been extensively reported. A middle age man presented with abdominal pain and nausea after inhalation of crack cocaine. On admission, he was found to be hypertensive and tachycardic. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness without rebound. Laboratory investigations were significant for acute kidney failure with elevated serum creatinine (3...
May 16, 2011: Clinics and Practice
Fernanda Guollo, Janaína L Narciso-Schiavon, Adriana M Barotto, Marlene Zannin, Leonardo L Schiavon
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animal models and case reports in humans have described the hepatotoxic potential of cocaine. However, there are few data regarding the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients admitted for cocaine intoxication, particularly regarding the status of the liver enzymes. GOAL: To investigate the significance of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in individuals hospitalized for acute cocaine intoxication. METHODS: Retrospective study with standardized chart review that included patients admitted between January 2003 and December 2010...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Grerk Sutamtewagul, Vineeta Sood, Kenneth Nugent
"Bath salts" is a well known street drug which can cause several cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, only one case of acute kidney injury has been reported in the literature. We present a case with sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, gustatory and olfactory hallucinations, and acute kidney injury following the use of bath salts. A 37-year-old man with past medical history of hypertension and depression was brought to the emergency center with body shaking. Three days before admission he injected 3 doses of bath salts intravenously and felt eye pain with blurry vision followed by a metallic taste, strange smells, profuse sweating, and body shaking...
January 2014: Clinical Nephrology
Varun Parkash Singh, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol...
August 2013: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Nitisha Narayan, Martin Griffiths, Hasu D L Patel
Gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare entity but a recognised complication of prolonged immobilisation. It can present as renal failure as a result of severe rhabdomyolysis and can lead to sepsis and death. We report a case of gluteal compartment syndrome in a 25-year-old man who was found unconscious following intoxication with alcohol and cocaine of an unknown duration. He presented with tense tight left buttock swelling, right thigh swelling, cold immobile extremeties and acute renal failure. Immediate left gluteal, thigh and calf fasciotomy resulting in an improvement of lower limb and renal function...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
J P Hunter, A Saratzis, K Zayyan
Isolated necrosis of the caecum is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In the absence of occlusive vascular disease it has a number of well documented associations, the commonest of which is patients' receiving haemodialysis for endstage renal failure. It has also been associated with shock states, cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and drugs such as cocaine, thiopentone and cytotoxic agents. However, there are few reported cases in the literature without the aforementioned associations and the majority of cases, regardless of aetiology, were treated with either hemicolectomy or wedge resection and ileocolic anastamosis...
January 2013: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Janice L Zimmerman
Cocaine, a natural alkaloid derived from the coca plant, is one of the most commonly abused illicit drugs. Cocaine is commonly abused by inhalation, nasal insufflation, and intravenous injection, resulting in many adverse effects that ensue from local anesthetic, vasoconstrictive, sympathomimetic, psychoactive, and prothrombotic mechanisms. Cocaine can affect all body systems and the clinical presentation may primarily result from organ toxicity. Among the most severe complications are seizures, hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, rhabdomyolysis, mesenteric ischemia, acute renal injury and multiple organ failure...
October 2012: Critical Care Clinics
Thomas M Penders, Richard E Gestring, Dmitry A Vilensky
Synthetic analogs of the cathinone molecule have seen increasing recreational use as substitutes for cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and methamphetamine. Repeated use of these drugs is associated with a paranoid hallucinatory delirium. A subset of patients using these substances develops a syndrome of extreme agitation and violent behavior that has been reported following the use of other stimulant drugs that also produce rapid changes in brain monoamines. This syndrome, characterized as "excited delirium," presents to the acute care setting with a challenging combination of paranoia, severe agitation and violent behavior...
November 2012: General Hospital Psychiatry
A De Giorgi, F Fabbian, M Pala, F Bonetti, I Babini, I Bagnaresi, F Manfredini, F Portaluppi, D P Mikhailidis, R Manfredini
Cocaine is one of the most widely used drugs of abuse. Chest pain is the most common side effect requiring emergency visits after cocaine use. Vasoconstriction and platelet activation are the main effects of cocaine in the vasculature. In this brief review, we consider the most important clinical effects of cocaine abuse on the heart, brain and kidney. Symptoms related to cocaine toxicity such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, aortic dissection, stroke, renal failure, are similar to the clinical picture of atherosclerotic vascular damage, even if the age of cocaine abusers is usually in the second and third decades...
June 2012: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
A Malin, J Freyhoff, W Nobis, H G Bone
A case report of severe rhabdomyolysis in a 33-year-old motorcyclist after multiple trauma is described. The injuries included severe thoracic and abdominal trauma as well as injuries to the extremities and spinal column. During the first 3 days of treatment a forced volume therapy was performed because of increased levels of creatine kinase during which the patients condition stabilized both hemodynamically and respiratorily. On day 10 the patient developed a rise in temperature to 42°C with no evidence of a re-infection and the creatine kinase levels rose to 109,830 U/l...
March 2012: Der Anaesthesist
Craig W Freyer, Michael Peters
Palpable purpura resulting from cocaine and levamisole coingestion has been reported with increasing frequency over the last several years as distribution of this drug combination becomes more universal. Toxicity from ingestion of this dangerous combination is difficult to diagnose due to the multitude of possible clinical presentations, variety of possible adulterants, and elusive nature of levamisole given its short half-life and limited availability of detection methods. Levamisole is a chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory agent currently marketed as a veterinary anthelmintic...
February 2012: Pharmacotherapy
Manal O Elnenaei, Michael A Heneghen, Caje Moniz
Cocaine is a drug notorious for its ability to adversely affect almost any organ in the body and cause a plethora of biochemical abnormalities secondary to its severe vasoconstrictive properties. These abnormalities are not exclusively seen in habitual users or cases of overdose, and may sometimes cause confusion as to the underlying pathology. We describe a case of a young female who presented to the Accident and Emergency department in the early hours of the morning complaining of muscle weakness following the inhalation of a small quantity of an 'unknown substance' the previous night...
March 2012: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
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