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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868846/personhood-and-moral-status-of-the-embryo-it-s-effect-on-validity-of-surrogacy-contract-revocation-according-to-shia-jurisprudence-perspective
#1
Saeid Nazari Tavakkoli
Background: One of the most controversial issues related to the human embryo is the determination of the moment when an embryo is considered a human being and acquires a moral status. Although personhood and moral status are frequently mentioned in medical ethics, they are considered interdisciplinary as concepts that shape the debate in medical law (fiqh) since their consequences are influential in the way which the parents and other individuals behave towards the embryo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analytical-descriptive research gathered relevant data in a literature search...
October 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839261/structural-basis-for-therapeutic-inhibition-of-influenza-a-polymerase-pb2-subunit
#2
Xiaolei Ma, Lili Xie, Charles Wartchow, Robert Warne, Yongjin Xu, Alexey Rivkin, David Tully, Steven Shia, Kyoko Uehara, Dianna M Baldwin, Gladys Muiru, Weidong Zhong, Isabel Zaror, Dirksen E Bussiere, Vincent H J Leonard
Influenza virus uses a unique mechanism to initiate viral transcription named cap-snatching. The PB2 subunit of the viral heterotrimeric RNA polymerase binds the cap structure of cellular pre-mRNA to promote its cleavage by the PA subunit. The resulting 11-13 capped oligomer is used by the PB1 polymerase subunit to initiate transcription of viral proteins. VX-787 is an inhibitor of the influenza A virus pre-mRNA cap-binding protein PB2. This clinical stage compound was shown to bind the minimal cap-binding domain of PB2 to inhibit the cap-snatching machinery...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833510/a-new-method-to-quantify-the-health-risks-from-sources-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-combined-with-pmf-and-risk-assessment-models
#3
Jiao Xu, Guo-Liang Shia, Chang-Sheng Guo, Hai-Ting Wang, Ying-Ze Tian, Yan-Qi Huangfu, Yuan Zhang, Yin-Chang Feng, Jian Xu
A hybrid model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and Health Risk Assessment Model for assessing risks associated with sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water was for the first time established, and applied at Dianchi Lake to test its applicability. The new method contains two stages: (1) The sources to PFASs were apportioned by PMF model and (2) the contribution of health risks from each source was calculated by the new hybrid model. Two factors were extracted by PMF, with Factor 1 identified as aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs) source, and Factor 2 as fluoropolymer (FP) manufacturing and processing & perfluorooctanoic acid production source...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830649/identification-of-an-imidazopyridine-scaffold-to-generate-potent-and-selective-tyk2-inhibitors-that-demonstrate-activity-in-an-in-vivo-psoriasis-model
#4
Jun Liang, Anne Van Abbema, Mercedesz Balazs, Kathy Barrett, Leo Berezhkovsky, Wade S Blair, Christine Chang, Donnie Delarosa, Jason DeVoss, Jim Driscoll, Charles Eigenbrot, Simon Goodacre, Nico Ghilardi, Calum MacLeod, Adam Johnson, Pawan Bir Kohli, Yingjie Lai, Zhonghua Lin, Priscilla Mantik, Kapil Menghrajani, Hieu Nguyen, Ivan Peng, Amy Sambrone, Steven Shia, Jan Smith, Sue Sohn, Vickie Tsui, Mark Ultsch, Karen Williams, Lawren C Wu, Wenqian Yang, Birong Zhang, Steven Magnuson
Herein we report identification of an imidazopyridine class of potent and selective TYK2 inhibitors, exemplified by prototype 6, through constraint of the rotatable amide bond connecting the pyridine and aryl rings of compound 1. Further optimization led to generation of compound 30 that potently inhibits the TYK2 enzyme and the IL-23 pathway in cells, exhibits selectivity against cellular JAK2 activity, and has good pharmacokinetic properties. In mice, compound 30 demonstrated dose-dependent reduction of IL-17 production in a PK/PD model as well as in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828593/outcomes-of-pharmacist-provided-medication-review-in-collaborative-care-for-adult-singaporeans-receiving-hemodialysis
#5
Bih Yee Chia, McVin Hua Heng Cheen, Xin Yi Gwee, Melissa Mee Yin Chow, Giat Yeng Khee, Wan Chee Ong, Hui Lin Choong, Paik Shia Lim
Background Patients receiving hemodialysis are predisposed to drug related problems (DRPs). While collaborative care (CC) models with pharmacist involvement can reduce DRP occurrence, few have examined its impact on clinical and economic outcomes. Objective To determine whether a CC model with pharmacist-provided medication review can reduce unplanned admissions and healthcare utilization in patients receiving hemodialysis, compared to usual care (UC). Setting Outpatient nephrology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Singapore...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825733/discovery-of-a-cryptic-peptide-binding-site-on-pcsk9-and-design-of-antagonists
#6
Yingnan Zhang, Mark Ultsch, Nicholas J Skelton, Daniel J Burdick, Maureen H Beresini, Wei Li, Monica Kong-Beltran, Andrew Peterson, John Quinn, Cecilia Chiu, Yan Wu, Steven Shia, Paul Moran, Paola Di Lello, Charles Eigenbrot, Daniel Kirchhofer
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels by promoting the degradation of liver LDL receptors (LDLRs). Antibodies that inhibit PCSK9 binding to the EGF(A) domain of the LDLR are effective in lowering LDL-c. However, the discovery of small-molecule therapeutics is hampered by difficulty in targeting the relatively flat EGF(A)-binding site on PCSK9. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to target this site, based on the finding that the PCSK9 P' helix displays conformational flexibility...
October 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821128/biomimetic-composite-scaffolds-based-on-surface-modification-of-polydopamine-on-electrospun-poly-lactic-acid-cellulose-nanofibrils
#7
Zhangqiang Yang, Junhui Si, Zhixiang Cui, Jianhua Ye, Xiaofeng Wang, Qianting Wang, Kaiping Peng, Wenzhe Chen, Shia-Chung Chen
An appropriate surface chemical property is crucial in tissue engineering scaffolds, which promotes cell attachment and proliferation. A biomimetic composite scaffold with a polydopamine (PDA) coating layer on electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) composite nanofiber was developed in this study. PLA/CNF composite nanofibers were fabricated and then coated via treatment with a dopamine solution. The PDA coating layer was successfully formed on the surface of the PLA/CNF composite nanofiber by using a simple, environment-friendly, and effective procedure...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819720/immunohistochemical-null-phenotype-for-mismatch-repair-proteins-in-colonic-carcinoma-associated-with-concurrent-mlh1-hypermethylation-and-msh2-somatic-mutations
#8
Tao Wang, Zsofia K Stadler, Liying Zhang, Martin R Weiser, Olca Basturk, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Efsevia Vakiani, Lenard B Saltz, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Microsatellite instability, a well-established driver pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, can develop in both sporadic and hereditary conditions via different molecular alterations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently widely used for the detection of MMR deficiency in solid tumors. The IHC test, however, can show varied staining patterns, posing challenges in the interpretation of the staining results in some cases. Here we report a case of an 80-year-old female with a colonic adenocarcinoma that exhibited an unusual "null" IHC staining pattern with complete loss of all four MMR proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2)...
August 17, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797904/influence-of-inhibitory-tagging-it-on-emotional-and-cognitive-conflict-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#9
Xudong Zhao, Xiujun Li, Wendian Shi
Inhibitory tagging (IT), a flexible central control mechanism based on the current task goals, reduces the cognitive conflict effect at the cued location by blocking the incompatible stimulus-response (S-R) code. However, it is unknown whether IT has a similar effect on emotional conflict. Thus, we combined the face-word Stroop task with the manipulation of inhibition of return (IOR) and used event-related potential (ERP) technology to simultaneously examine the modulation effect of IT on emotional and cognitive conflict processing...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797187/a-survey-of-physicians-attitudes-toward-uterotonic-administration-in-parturients-undergoing-cesarean-section
#10
Sharon Orbach-Zinger, Sharon Einav, Assaf Yonah, Leonid A Eidelman, Shia Fein, Atara Davis Ba, Alexander Ioscovich
OBJECTIVE: Oxytocin is globally accepted as first line treatment for prevention of post partum hemorrhage. However there is wide variability in its use in clinical practice. In this study we aimed to evaluate obstetricians and anesthesiologists attitudes towards uterotonic practices in Israel. STUDY DESIGN: The current survey was designed to study the preferences of obstetricians and anesthesiologists in seven University hospitals regarding the type, dose and mode of administration of uterotonic drugs, as well as their knowledge regarding the side effects of these drugs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768753/pcsk9-loss-of-function-variants-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-data-from-9-studies-of-blacks-and-whites
#11
Shia T Kent, Robert S Rosenson, Christy L Avery, Yii-Der I Chen, Adolfo Correa, Steven R Cummings, L Adrienne Cupples, Mary Cushman, Daniel S Evans, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, George Howard, Marguerite R Irvin, Suzanne E Judd, J Wouter Jukema, Leslie Lange, Emily B Levitan, Xiaohui Li, Yongmei Liu, Wendy S Post, Iris Postmus, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Monika M Safford, Colleen M Sitlani, Albert V Smith, James D Stewart, Stella Trompet, Fangui Sun, Ramachandran S Vasan, J Michael Woolley, Eric A Whitsel, Kerri L Wiggins, James G Wilson, Paul Muntner
BACKGROUND: PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants allow for the examination of the effects of lifetime reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on cardiovascular events. We examined the association of PCSK9 LOF variants with LDL-C and incident coronary heart disease and stroke through a meta-analysis of data from 8 observational cohorts and 1 randomized trial of statin therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: These 9 studies together included 17 459 blacks with 403 (2...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768055/harnessing-cxcr4-antagonists-in-stem-cell-mobilization-hiv-infection-ischemic-diseases-and-oncology
#12
REVIEW
Lun Kelvin Tsou, Ying-Huey Huang, Jen-Shin Song, Yi-Yu Ke, Jing-Kai Huang, Kak-Shan Shia
CXCR4 antagonists (e.g., Plerixafor(TM) ) have been successfully validated as stem cell mobilizers for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Applications of the CXCR4 antagonists have heralded the era of cell-based therapy and opened a potential therapeutic horizon for many unmet medical needs such as kidney injury, ischemic stroke, cancer, and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the central role of CXCR4 in diverse cellular signaling pathways and discuss its involvement in several disease progressions...
August 2, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756694/factors-influencing-medical-staff-s-intentions-to-implement-family-witnessed-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-cross-sectional-multihospital-survey
#13
Chien-Liang Chen, Jing-Shia Tang, Meng-Kuan Lai, Chiu-Hsia Hung, Hsiu-Mei Hsieh, Hui-Lin Yang, Chia-Chang Chuang
BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the current status of family-witnessed resuscitation (FWR) and the factors associated with behavioural intentions to implement FWR have not been systematically examined using representative medical staff. AIM: We explored predictive factors for behavioural intentions to implement FWR among medical staff using constructs from the theory of planned behaviour. METHODS: A survey of 1605 medical staff from five hospitals in southern Taiwan was conducted...
August 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734798/barriers-to-conducting-ambulatory-and-home-blood-pressure-monitoring-during-hypertension-screening-in-the-united-states
#14
Ian M Kronish, Shia Kent, Nathalie Moise, Daichi Shimbo, Monika M Safford, Robert E Kynerd, Ronan O'Beirne, Alexandra Sullivan, Paul Muntner
In 2015, the US Preventive Services Task Force updated their hypertension recommendations to advise that adults with elevated office blood pressure (BP) undergo out-of-office BP measurement to exclude white coat hypertension before diagnosis. Our goal was to determine the most important barriers to primary care providers' ordering ambulatory and home BP monitoring in the United States. We enrolled 63 primary care providers into nominal group panels in which participants iteratively listed and ranked barriers to ambulatory and home BP monitoring...
September 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729225/gynura-divaricata-attenuates-tumor-growth-and-tumor-relapse-after-cisplatin-therapy-in-hcc-xenograft-model-through-suppression-of-cancer-stem-cell-growth-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling
#15
Chia-Hung Yen, Chi-Chung Lai, Tsu-Hsiang Shia, Marcelo Chen, Hsin-Che Yu, Yu-Peng Liu, Fang-Rong Chang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gynura divaricata subsp. formosana is a widely used traditional herbal medicine for treating liver disorders such as hepatitis and liver cancer in Taiwan. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer and cancer stabilization effect of water extract of the aerial part of G. divaricata (GD extract) both in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects of GD extract alone and in combination with cisplatin were determined by alamarBlue and clonogenic assay...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649796/lymph-node-yield-in-right-colectomies-for-cancer-a-comparison-of-open-laparoscopic-and-robotic-approaches
#16
Maria Widmar, Metin Keskin, Paul Strombom, Pedro Beltran, Oliver S Chow, J Joshua Smith, Garrett M Nash, Jinru Shia, David Russell, Julio Garcia-Aguilar
AIM: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between lymph node (LN) yield and survival after colectomy for cancer. The impact of surgical technique on lymph node yield has not been well explored. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of right colectomies (RC) for cancer at a single institution from 2012-2014. Exclusion criteria were previous colectomy, emergent and palliative operations. All data were collected by chart review. Primary outcomes were LN yield and the lymph node to length of surgical specimen (LN-LSS) ratio...
June 26, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635408/assisted-reproductive-technologies-and-the-iranian-community-attitude-towards-infertility
#17
Aliyar Ahmadi, Sara Bamdad
Since the late 1990s, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been legitimized in Iran through an official religious endorsement. Iran, under the dominant authority of the Shia sect, is now the most enthusiastic adopter of ARTs in the Muslim world, permitting all forms of treatments, including third party donation. This study examined the public perception of assisted conception and its influence on the adoption of these methods in Iran. The study was questionnaire-based and conducted in 2012 in Shiraz, the most populated city in the south of Iran...
February 7, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624171/race-and-sex-differences-in-ambulatory-blood-pressure-measures-among-hiv-adults
#18
Shia T Kent, Joseph E Schwartz, Daichi Shimbo, Edgar T Overton, Greer A Burkholder, Suzanne Oparil, Michael J Mugavero, Paul Muntner
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can identify phenotypes that cannot be measured in the clinic. Determining race and sex disparities in ABPM measures among HIV+ individuals may improve strategies to diagnose and treat hypertension in this high-risk population. We compared ABPM measures between 24 African-American and 25 white HIV+ adults (36 men and 13 women). Awake systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were similar in African-Americans and whites. After multivariable adjustment, sleep SBP and DBP were 9...
July 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581724/targeting-tumor-associated-phosphatidylserine-with-new-zinc-dipicolylamine-based-drug-conjugates
#19
Yu-Wei Liu, Kak-Shan Shia, Chien-Huang Wu, Kuan-Liang Liu, Yu-Cheng Yeh, Chen-Fu Lo, Chiung-Tong Chen, Yun-Yu Chen, Teng-Kuang Yeh, Wei-Han Chen, Jiing-Jyh Jan, Yu-Chen Huang, Chen-Lung Huang, Ming-Yu Fang, Brian D Gray, Koon Y Pak, Tsu-An Hsu, Kuan-Hsun Huang, Lun K Tsou
A series of zinc(II) dipicolylamine (ZnDPA)-based drug conjugates have been synthesized to probe the potential of phosphatidylserine (PS) as a new antigen for small molecule drug conjugate (SMDC) development. Using in vitro cytotoxicity and plasma stability studies, PS-binding assay, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, and maximum tolerated dose profiles, we provided a roadmap and the key parameters required for the development of the ZnDPA based drug conjugate. In particular, conjugate 24 induced tumor regression in the COLO 205 xenograft model and exhibited a more potent antitumor effect with a 70% reduction of cytotoxic payload compared to that of the marketed irinotecan when dosed at the same regimen...
July 19, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560599/computed-tomography-image-texture-a-noninvasive-prognostic-marker-of-hepatic-recurrence-after-hepatectomy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#20
Amber L Simpson, Alexandre Doussot, John M Creasy, Lauryn B Adams, Peter J Allen, Ronald P DeMatteo, Mithat Gönen, Nancy E Kemeny, T Peter Kingham, Jinru Shia, William R Jarnagin, Richard K G Do, Michael I D'Angelica
BACKGROUND: Recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) occurs in up to 75% of patients. Preoperative prediction of hepatic recurrence may inform therapeutic strategies at the time of initial resection. Texture analysis (TA) is an established technique that quantifies pixel intensity variations (heterogeneity) on cross-sectional imaging. We hypothesized that tumoral and parenchymal changes that are predictive of overall survival (OS) and recurrence in the future liver remnant (FLR) can be detected using TA on preoperative computed tomography (CT) images...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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