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low food intake and acute renal failure

Sung-Hwan Kim, In-Chul Lee, Hyung-Seon Baek, Kyeong-Woo No, Dong-Ho Shin, Changjong Moon, Sung-Ho Kim, Seung-Chun Park, Jong-Choon Kim
After the outbreak of acute renal failure associated with melamine-contaminated pet food, melamine and melamine-related compounds have become of great interest from a toxicologic perspective. We investigated the potential effects of melamine in combination with cyanuric acid (M + CA, 1:1) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in rats. M + CA was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational days 6 through 19 at doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of both melamine and cyanuric acid. Maternal toxicity of rats administered 30 mg/kg/day M + CA was manifested as increased incidences of clinical signs and death; gross pathologic findings; higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; lower body weight gain and food intake; decreased thymus weight; and increased heart, lung, and kidney weights...
October 2013: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Jean Lou Dorne, Daniel R Doerge, Marc Vandenbroeck, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Wim Mennes, Helle K Knutsen, Francesco Vernazza, Laurence Castle, Lutz Edler, Diane Benford
Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone...
August 1, 2013: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Gordana Perunicić-Peković, Zorica Rasić-Milutinović, Steva Pljesa
INTRODUCTION: Numerous recent studies have shown increased comorbidity and mortality in dialysis patients with malnutrition. Protein-energy malnutrition with muscle wasting occurs in a large proportion of patients with chronic renal failure and is, in addition to atherosclerosis, a strong risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis. Malnutrition is also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. PATHOGENIC FACTORS OF MALNUTRITION IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS: Malnutrition is associated with a number of metabolic and vascular abnormalities...
March 2004: Medicinski Pregled
M Hoogerwerf
The patient with acute renal failure is a very ill patient suffering from high urea levels causing poor appetite, nausea and vomiting. These patients are usually treated with a low sodium, low protein and, if the potassium in the blood is high, with a low potassium diet (1). This paper discusses whether or not this is the correct treatment. The symptoms of high urea levels in the blood together with increased needs for energy and protein makes it very hard to prevent the patient becoming malnourished. Often energy-enriched drinks are necessary to achieve recommendations and it is prudent to let the patient eat and drink what they desire...
2002: EDTNA/ERCA Journal
R Bellomo, H K Tan, S Bhonagiri, I Gopal, J Seacombe, M Daskalakis, N Boyce
AIMS: To study the effect of combined continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and high (2.5 g/kg/day) parenteral amino acid supplementation on nitrogen balance, amino acid losses and azotemic control in a cohort of patients with severe acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We administered 2.5 grams/kg/day of amino acids intravenously to seven critically ill patients with ARF. We obtained paired blood and ultrafiltrate (UF) samples (n=20) and calculated amino acid clearances and losses, nitrogen balance, protein catabolic rate and total nitrogen losses...
April 2002: International Journal of Artificial Organs
M J Giglio, A Frid, J A Barcat, E Arrizurieta
The effects of acute renal failure on the impeded (IER) and unimpeded (UER) eruption dental rate and attrition rate (AR) were investigated. Adult female Wistar rats were injected with 125 mg/kg b.w of human methemoglobin (M-Hb) in order to induce a first episode of hemodynamically-mediated acute renal failure (H-ARF). Ten days after the injection of M-Hb, other groups of rats received another equal dose of the drug in order to induce a second episode of H-ARF. A group of six animals was pair-fed daily and individually with rats of M-Hb groups...
1994: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
S H Tao, P M Bolger
Germanium-containing dietary supplements became popular in the 1970s in Japan and later in other countries, as elixirs for certain diseases (e.g., cancer and AIDS). Germanium is not an essential element. Its acute toxicity is low. However, at least 31 reported human cases linked prolonged intake of germanium products with renal failure and even death. Signs of kidney dysfunction, kidney tubular degeneration, and germanium accumulation were observed. Other adverse effects were anemia, muscle weakness, and peripheral neuropathy...
June 1997: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
W Herzog, H C Deter, W Fiehn, E Petzold
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) run a high risk of becoming chronically ill and of dying. In the acute phase of their illness they present with numerous physical and laboratory abnormalities. However, little is known about the long-term prognostic value of these findings or about the medical morbidity in large samples of consecutively treated patients in the long-term. METHODS: We evaluated 84 consecutive female patients with AN who were studied again an average of 11...
March 1997: Psychological Medicine
M Montes de Oca, J C Perazzo, A J Monserrat, E E Arrizurieta de Muchnik
The wide range of lesions obtained after feeding weanling rats with hypolipotropic diets underlies the interest of this model in the study of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Renal functional studies (experiment A) show that the more advanced grade of morphological alteration correlates well with a progressively more severe deterioration in renal function. In animals wtih morphological evidence of repair there was an evident rise in the urinary volume of a low osmolality and a reduction in blood urea...
1980: Nephron
H Verdoux, M Bourgeois
Lithium therapy can induce acute toxic reactions especially during overdosage. Exceptionally, permanent neurologic sequelae persist after the acute toxic reaction. These sequelae are more often cerebellar symptoms. Dementia, parkinsonian syndromes, choreoathetosis, brain stem syndromes and peripheral neuropathies have also been described. They are defined as irreversible if they persist more than two months after the interruption of lithium treatment. These neurologic complications occur frequently after voluntary or accidental poisoning but they may be observed even if the serum lithium dosage is below toxic level...
May 1991: L'Encéphale
K Solez, R J D'Agostini, L Stawowy, M T Freedman, W W Scott, S S Siegelman, R H Heptinstall
Acute renal failure caused in the rabbit by clamping one renal pedicle for 1 hour and removing the opposite kidney produced a histologic picture very similar to that observed in "hypotensive" acute renal failure in man. Intravenous infusion of propranolol, a drug which prevents renin release, at 1 mg/kg for 70 minutes beginning at time of pedicle clamping resulted in significantly lower serum creatinine in this model (2.8 +/- 0.2 mg% at 48 hours with propranolol versus 5.2 +/- 0.8 mg% without). Renin stimulation by dehydration or feeding a low-salt diet enhanced the difference between treated and untreated groups (2...
July 1977: American Journal of Pathology
F G Toback, L J Havener, R C Dodd, B H Spargo
Renal function, structure, and membrane metabolism were studied during regeneration of proximal tubular cells in rats. A reversible syndrome of nonoliguric acute renal failure was induced by the intravenous administration of a low dose of mercuric chloride (1.0 mg Hg/kg). At day 1 there was a marked increase in serum urea nitrogen concentration (SUN), decrease in food intake, and a zone of proximal tubular cell necrosis in the inner cortex. By day 3 low cuboidal epithelial cells were seen, indicating that regeneration had been initiated despite decreased food intake and increasing SUN...
February 1977: American Journal of Physiology
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