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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429110/inhibition-of-the-crf1-receptor-influences-the-activity-of-antidepressant-drugs-in-the-forced-swim-test-in-rats
#1
Andrzej Wróbel, Anna Serefko, Aleksandra Szopa, Karol Rojek, Ewa Poleszak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarosław Dudka
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and impairment of the central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system are factors in the pathogenesis of depression. Though several antagonists of the CRF1 receptor were effective in the recognized behavioral tests for antidepressant activity, there is still little information on the potential interactions between CRF1 receptor inhibitors and conventional antidepressant therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of SN003, a CRF1 receptor blocker, on the activity of imipramine and fluoxetine in the forced swim test (FST) in rats which presented some signs of depression...
April 20, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425739/sleep-duration-partially-accounts-for-race-differences-in-diurnal-cortisol-dynamics
#2
Laurel M Peterson, Karissa G Miller, Patricia M Wong, Barbara P Anderson, Thomas W Kamarck, Karen A Matthews, Clemens Kirschbaum, Stephen B Manuck
OBJECTIVE: Emerging research demonstrates race differences in diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis functioning associated with morbidity and mortality, with African Americans showing flatter diurnal slopes than their White counterparts. Sleep characteristics are associated with both race and with HPA-axis functioning. The present report examines whether sleep duration may account for race differences in cortisol dynamics. METHOD: Participants were 424 employed African American and White adults (mean age = 42...
May 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421200/detection-of-urine-metabolites-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-before-and-after-exercise
#3
Changzhuan Shao, Yiming Ren, Zinan Wang, Chenzhe Kang, Hongke Jiang, Aiping Chi
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413046/heat-stress-decreases-expression-of-the-cytokines-avian-%C3%AE-defensins-4-and-6-and-toll-like-receptor-2-in-broiler-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-enteritidis
#4
W M Quinteiro-Filho, A S Calefi, D S G Cruz, T P A Aloia, A Zager, C S Astolfi-Ferreira, J A Piantino Ferreira, S Sharif, J Palermo-Neto
A high ambient temperature is a highly relevant stressor in poultry production. Heat stress (HS) has been reported to reduce animal welfare, performance indices and increase Salmonella susceptibility. Salmonella spp. are major zoonotic pathogen that cause over 1 billion of human infections worldwide annually. Therefore, the current study was designed to analyze the effect of heat stress on Salmonella infection in chickens through modulation of the immune responses. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated via gavage at one day of age (10(6)cfu/mL)...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412090/pituitary-gland-in-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression-evidence-from-structural-mri-studies
#5
G Delvecchio, A C Altamura, J C Soares, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411412/individual-differences-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-relations-to-age-and-cumulative-risk-in-early-childhood
#6
Steven J Holochwost, Jean-Louis Gariépy, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Cathi B Propper, Jacek Kolacz, Douglas A Granger
This study examined individual differences in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with regard to age and cumulative risk during challenging laboratory tasks administered at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Saliva samples were collected from a majority-minority sample of N=185 children (57% African American, 50% female) prior to and following these tasks and later assayed for cortisol. Cumulative distal risk was indexed via a composite of maternal marital status, maternal education, income-to-needs ratio, the number of children in the household, and maternal age at childbirth...
March 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#7
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404594/health-related-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysregulations-a-cohort-study
#8
Charlotte De Bucy, Laurence Guignat, Tanya Niati, Jerome Bertherat, Joel Coste
OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is increasingly considered to be an important outcome of care for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of type of HPA axis dysregulation and cortisol status on HrQOL and its evolution with time and treatment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between September 2007 and April 2014, HrQoL questionnaires were administered during routine management to all patients with HPA axis dysregulation hospitalized in a single department and this was repeated after 6- 12-, 24- and 36-month during standard follow-up...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#9
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396906/the-lausanne-geneva-cohort-study-of-offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders-methodology-findings-current-sample-characteristics-and-perspectives
#10
Caroline L Vandeleur, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Enrique Castelao, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, François Ferrero, Pierre Marquet, Jean-Michel Aubry, Martin Preisig
PURPOSE: Studies focusing on the offspring of affected parents utilize the well-established familial aggregation of mood disorders as a powerful tool for the identification of risk factors, early clinical manifestations, and prodromes of mood disorders in these offspring. The major goals of the Lausanne-Geneva mood cohort study are to: (1) assess the familial aggregation of bipolar and unipolar mood disorders; (2) prospectively identify risk factors for mood disorders as well as their early signs and prodromes; (3) identify their endophenotypes including cognitive features, alterations in brain structure, HPA-axis dysregulation, and abnormalities of the circadian rhythm of activity...
April 10, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393139/effects-of-acute-confinement-stress-induced-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-and-concomitant-peripheral-and-central-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-measures-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Jeremy D Coplan, Srinath Gopinath, Chadi G Abdallah, Jeffrey Margolis, Wei Chen, Bruce A Scharf, Leonard A Rosenblum, Olcay A Batuman, Eric L P Smith
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective properties. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system exert bidirectional influences on each other, via cortisol and TGF-β1, but the exact nature of the interaction is not well characterized. The current study examined the effects, in bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), of two consecutive acute confinement stress periods in an unfamiliar room while mildly restrained, first without and then with dexamethasone pretreatment (0...
February 2017: Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392758/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-perk-atf4-chop-pathway-is-associated-with-hypothalamic-neuronal-injury-in-different-durations-of-stress-in-rats
#12
Shanyong Yi, Weibo Shi, He Wang, Chunling Ma, Xiaojing Zhang, Songjun Wang, Bin Cong, Yingmin Li
The hypothalamus, which is the initial part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, plays a critical role in regulating stress in the central nervous system. The present study aimed to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum stress in hypothalamic neurons is differentially stimulated by varying durations of stress exposure, which ultimately leads to pathological changes in neurons by affecting HPA axis function. There is a need for better morphological evidence of the mechanisms involved in stress-induced neuron injury...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392296/anxious-behavior-induces-elevated-hippocampal-cb2-receptor-gene-expression
#13
James M Robertson, Justin K Achua, Justin P Smith, Melissa A Prince, Clarissa D Staton, Patrick J Ronan, Tangi R Summers, Cliff H Summers
Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389369/prenatal-stress-and-depression-associated-neuronal-development-in-neonates
#14
REVIEW
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385552/intranasal-insulin-decreases-circulating-cortisol-concentrations-during-early-sleep-in-elderly-humans
#15
Matthias Thienel, Ines Wilhelm, Christian Benedict, Jan Born, Manfred Hallschmid
Aging is associated with increases in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that can predispose to metabolic and cognitive impairments. We investigated in elderly and young subjects whether intranasal insulin administration to the human brain reduces early-sleep nadir concentrations of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol, that is, indicators of baseline HPA axis activity. In within-subject comparisons, intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo was administered to 14 elderly (mean age 70.0 years) and 30 young (23...
March 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385509/effect-of-central-and-peripheral-injection-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-on-feeding-and-the-crop-emptying-rate-in-chicks
#16
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yasua Nakai, Ryosuke Makino, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to cause several physiological changes in mammals including anorexia, awakening and sleeping, change in digestive function, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of PGs on physiological parameters in birds. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, and corticosterone release in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
April 3, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384955/a-comparative-study-of-pituitary-volume-variations-in-mri-in-acute-onset-of-psychiatric-conditions
#17
Brijesh Kumar Soni, Upendra Kumar Joish, Hirdesh Sahni, Raju A George, Rajeev Sivasankar, Rohit Aggarwal
INTRODUCTION: The growing belief that endocrine abnormalities may underlie many mental conditions has led to increased use of imaging and hormonal assays in patients attending to psychiatric OPDs. People who are in an acute phase of a psychiatric disorder show Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the precise underlying central mechanisms are unclear. AIM: To assess the pituitary gland volume variations in patients presenting with new onset acute psychiatric illness in comparison with age and gender matched controls by using MRI...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384542/gene-expression-in-blood-of-children-and-adolescents-mediation-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Leticia Maria Spindola, Pedro Mario Pan, Patricia Natalia Moretti, Vanessa Kiyomi Ota, Marcos Leite Santoro, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Ary Gadelha, Giovanni Salum, Gisele Gus Manfro, Jair Jesus Mari, Helena Brentani, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Elisa Brietzke, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, João Ricardo Sato, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Sintia Iole Belangero
Investigating major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood and adolescence can help reveal the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to MDD, since early stages of disease have less influence of illness exposure. Thus, we investigated the mRNA expression of 12 genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, neurodevelopment and neurotransmission in the blood of children and adolescents with MDD and tested whether a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) affects MDD through gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380330/to-stress-or-not-to-stress-physiological-responses-to-tetrodotoxin-in-resistant-gartersnakes-vary-by-sex
#19
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Edmund D Brodie, Tyler Hansen, Edmund D Brodie, Susannah S French
The activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most important physiological processes in coping with any deviation in an organism's homeostasis. This activation and the secretion of glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone, allow organisms to cope with perturbations and return to optimal physiological functioning as quickly as possible. In this study, we examined the HPA axis activation in Common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as a response to a natural toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX)...
April 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379217/comparison-of-the-influence-of-two-models-of-mild-stress-on-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophin-factor-bdnf-immunoreactivity-in-old-age-rats
#20
Ewa Badowska-Szalewska, Beata Ludkiewicz, Rafał Krawczyk, Natalia Melka, Janusz Moryś
The way hippocampal neurons function during stress in old age (critical times of life) is dependent on brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF). This study examined the influence of acute and chronic forced swim (FS) or high-light open field (HL‑OF) stimulation on the density of BDNF immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the hippocampal pyramidal layers of CA1, CA2, CA3 regions and the granular layer of dentate gyrus (DG) in old (postnatal day 720; P720) Wistar Han rats. Our data showed that in comparison with non-stressed rats, acute FS caused a significant increase in the density of BDNF-ir neurons in CA2 and CA3, while acute HL-OF led to an increase in this factor in all hippocampal subfields with the exception of DG...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
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