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HPA axis

Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 10, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Henry Reyer, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Ellen Kanitz, Ralf Pöhland, Klaus Wimmers, Eduard Murani
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a central player in the neuroendocrine stress response; it mediates feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and physiological actions of glucocorticoids in the periphery. Despite intensive investigations of GR in the context of receptor-ligand interaction, only recently the first naturally occurring gain-of-function substitution, Ala610Val, of the ligand binding domain was identified in mammals. We showed that this mutation underlies a major quantitative trait locus for HPA axis activity in pigs, reducing cortisol production by about 40-50 percent...
2016: PloS One
Nese Direk, Marieke J H J Dekker, Annemarie I Luik, Clemens Kirschbaum, Yolanda B de Rijke, Albert Hofman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier
Determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are increasingly explored in population-based studies. However, functional tests measuring the negative feedback of the HPA axis cannot easily be implemented into large observational studies. Furthermore, high doses of dexamethasone often completely suppress the HPA axis in healthy persons. This study aimed to detect the effects of the health, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric problems and cognitive functions on the negative feedback of the HPA axis using a very low-dose (0...
2016: PloS One
Dea Seidenfaden, Ulla Knorr, Mia Greisen Soendergaard, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Anders Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. AIMS: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
S Cohen, G Ifergane, E Vainer, M A Matar, Z Kaplan, J Zohar, A A Mathé, H Cohen
Pharmacotherapeutic intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to alleviate or even prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We recently reported that, in a controlled, prospective animal model, depriving rats of sleep following stress exposure prevents the development of a PTSD-like phenotype. Here, we report that administering the wake-promoting drug modafinil to rats in the aftermath of a stressogenic experience has a similar prophylactic effect, as it significantly reduces the prevalence of PTSD-like phenotype...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Hideaki Kato, Minoru Tsuji, Kazuya Miyagawa, Kotaro Takeda, Hiroshi Takeda
The present study was designed to ascertain the effects of repeated exposure to stress and the acute administration of corticosterone (1, 3, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) on the ethanol withdrawal-induced impairment of novel object recognition in mice. Mice were chronically treated with 3% ethanol for 7 d, with or without exposure to restraint stress for 1 h/d. A significant decrease in cognitive function was observed in the ethanol plus no stress group at 48 h after the discontinuation of ethanol treatment...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Rafael Carvalho Torres, Nathalia Santos Magalhães, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats...
October 8, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Jeroen Melief, Jan W Koper, Erik Endert, Holger J Møller, Jörg Hamann, Bernard M Uitdehaag, Inge Huitinga
As high cortisol levels are implicated in suppressed disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms that affect glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity may impact on this by changing local immunomodulation or regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. In this post-mortem study, we investigated whether GR haplotypes affect MS disease course and production of cortisol and soluble CD163 (sCD163), a molecule induced by GC on microglia/macrophages. We found that GR haplotypes that confer high GC sensitivity are associated with more aggressive MS but do not affect levels of cortisol secreted by the HPA-axis or shedding of CD163...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Rebecca Lyndsey Hardiman, Alison Bratt
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is characterised by features including anxiety and autistic-like behaviour, which led to early hypotheses that aberrant physiological arousal may underlie the behavioural phenotype. In line with this, several lines of evidence suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be altered in the syndrome. This review collates evidence to determine the nature of HPA axis baseline activity and reactivity (as measured by glucocorticoid levels) differences in FXS, and its relationship to behaviour...
October 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
K Roelofs, J Pasman
Conversion disorder (CD) has traditionally been ascribed to psychologic factors such as trauma, stress, or emotional conflict. Although reference to the psychologic origin of CD has been removed from the criteria list in DSM-5, many theories still incorporate CD as originating from adverse events. This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on stressful life events in CD and discusses current cognitive and neurobiologic models linking psychologic stressors with conversion symptomatology. In addition, we propose a neurobiologic stress model integrating those cognitive models with neuroendocrine stress research and propose that stress and stress-induced changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may result in cognitive alterations, that in turn contribute to experiencing conversion symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Cezary Skobowiat, Arnold E Postlethwaite, Andrzej T Slominski
The back skin of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to a single 400 mJ/cm(2) dose of ultraviolet B (UVB), and parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in relation to immune activity were tested after 30-90 min following irradiation. Levels of brain and/or plasma corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) were enhanced by UVB. Hypophysectomy had no effect on UVB-induced increases of CORT. Mitogen induced IFNγ production by splenocytes from UVB-treated mice was inhibited at 30, 90 min and after 24 h...
September 26, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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