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treatment of acute renal failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076311/biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-the-pathway-from-discovery-to-clinical-adoption
#1
Kianoush Kashani, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of critical illnesses and has a significant impact on outcomes, including mortality and morbidities. Unfortunately, apart from prophylactic measures, no effective treatment for this syndrome is known. Therefore, early recognition of AKI not only can provide better opportunities for preventive interventions, but also opens many gates for research and development of effective therapeutic options. Over the last few years, several new AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve early detection, differential diagnosis, and differentiation of patients into risk groups for progressive renal failure, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), or death...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069685/associations-of-body-mass-index-with-laboratory-and-biomarkers-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#2
Koen W Streng, Jozine M Ter Maaten, John G Cleland, Christopher M O'Connor, Beth A Davison, Marco Metra, Michael M Givertz, John R Teerlink, Piotr Ponikowski, Daniel M Bloomfield, Howard C Dittrich, Hans L Hillege, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A Voors, Peter van der Meer
BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides decline with obesity in patients with heart failure. Whether this is true for other biomarkers is unknown. We investigated a wide range of biomarker profiles in acute heart failure across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 48 biomarkers, assessing multiple pathophysiological pathways, were measured in 2033 patients included in PROTECT (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function), a trial comparing the effects of rolofylline to placebo in patients with acute heart failure...
January 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062617/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-biomarker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Kai C Wollert, Tibor Kempf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is expressed and secreted in response to inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, telomere erosion, and oncogene activation. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major driver of GDF-15 production. GDF-15 has favorable preanalytic characteristics and can be measured in serum and plasma by immunoassay. CONTENT: In community-dwelling individuals higher concentrations of GDF-15 are associated with increased risks of developing CV disease, chronic kidney disease, and cancer, independent of traditional CV risk factors, renal function, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060446/successful-treatment-of-donor-derived-hepatitis-c-viral-infection-in-three-transplant-recipients-from-a-donor-at-increased-risk-for-bloodborne-pathogens
#4
Ashesh P Shah, Andrew Cameron, Pooja Singh, Adam M Frank, Jonathan M Fenkel
We report here the successful treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted from a nucleic acid testing (NAT)-negative donor to 3 HCV-negative recipients - 2 renal transplants and 1 liver. Both renal recipients underwent standard deceased-donor renal transplantation with immediate graft function. The liver recipient underwent standard orthotopic liver transplantation and recovered uneventfully. The donor was a 39-year-old woman with a terminal serum creatinine of 0.7 mg/dL. She was high risk for bloodborne pathogens, based upon a history of sexual contact with an HCV-infected male partner...
January 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054732/liver-transplantation-is-associated-with-good-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-and-acute-liver-failure-due-to-anti-tubercular-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Michele Bartoletti, Giulia Martelli, Sara Tedeschi, Mariacristina Morelli, Valentine Bertuzzo, Marina Tadolini, Paolo Pianta, Francesco Cristini, Maddalena Giannella, Russell E Lewis, Antonio D Pinna, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) is commonly considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT). However, in patients with TB who develop acute liver failure (ALF) due to toxicity induced by anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), LT could be the only opportunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of LT in this scenario. METHODS: We described 2 cases and comprehensively reviewed the literature finding 26 cases of LT performed in patients having a concomitant active TB and liver failure secondary to ATT toxicity...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054280/successful-bypass-operation-for-esophageal-obstruction-after-acute-esophageal-necrosis-a-case-report
#6
Yayoi Sakatoku, Masahide Fukaya, Kazushi Miyata, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is a rare clinical disorder. Esophageal stenosis or obstruction is one of severe complications, but there are a few reports about surgical treatments. In such a situation, it still remains controversial which to choose, esophagectomy or bypass operation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the local hospital for septic shock with diabetic ketoacidosis due to necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh. Three days later, she had hematemesis, and gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed black mucosal coloration throughout the entire esophagus...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049485/the-dangers-of-accepting-a-single-diagnosis-case-report-of-concurrent-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-and-dengue-infection
#7
Soon Eu Chong, Rhendra Hardy Mohamad Zaini, Siti Suraiya, Kok Tong Lee, Jo Anne Lim
BACKGROUND: Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040612/association-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-adverse-pregnancy-related-outcomes-in-military-hospitals
#8
Dennis L Spence, Rhonda C Allen, Monica A Lutgendorf, Virginia R Gary, John D Richard, Sara C Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in non-obstetrical and obstetrical patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of OSA and its relationship with pregnancy-related complications in a general obstetric population of Department of Defense beneficiaries receiving direct-care at military treatment facilities. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of all women (N=305,001) who gave birth at a military treatment facility from 2008 to 2014...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039098/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-interferon-free-antiviral-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#9
Inmaculada Fernández, Raquel Muñoz-Gómez, Juan M Pascasio, Carme Baliellas, Natalia Polanco, Nuria Esforzado, Ana Arias, Martín Prieto, Lluis Castells, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Olga Hernández, Javier Crespo, José L Calleja, Xavier Forns, María-Carlota Londoño
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is a major step forward in the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of DAAs in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. METHODS: Hepa-C is a Spanish registry of patients treated with DAAs in which clinical, virological and analytical data were prospectively included. RESULTS: We report on the data from 103 KT recipients who received DAAs...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032307/intravenous-enalaprilat-for-treatment-of-acute-hypertensive-heart-failure-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Syed Imran Ayaz, Craig M Sharkey, Gregory M Kwiatkowski, Suprat Saely Wilson, Reba S John, Rosa Tolomello, Arushi Mahajan, Scott Millis, Phillip D Levy
BACKGROUND: Afterload reduction with bolus enalaprilat is used by some for management of acute hypertensive heart failure (HF) but existing data on the safety and effectiveness of this practice are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of bolus enalaprilat when administered to patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. FINDINGS: We performed an IRB-approved retrospective cohort study of patients who presented to the emergency department of a large urban academic hospital...
December 2016: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027991/successful-treatment-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-administration-of-crushed-fidaxomicin-via-a-nasogastric-tube-in-a-critically-ill-patient
#11
Sven Arends, Jerome Defosse, Cori Diaz, Frank Wappler, Samir G Sakka
OBJECTIVE: To report the successful use of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube for treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection in a critically ill patient. DATA SOURCES: Clinical observation of a patient, images of abdominal computed tomography, antimicrobial therapy and course of infection parameters. DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant information contained in the medical observation of the patient and selection of image and laboratory parameters performed in the patient...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025372/a-pooled-analysis-evaluating-renal-safety-in-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled-phase-iii-trials-of-multiple-dose-injectable-hp%C3%AE-cd-diclofenac-in-subjects-with-acute-postoperative-pain
#12
Stephen E Daniels, Tong J Tj Gan, Douglas A Hamilton, Neil Singla, Peter G Lacouture, Olufunmibi Johnson, Lauren H Min, Christian R D Reyes, Daniel B Carr
OBJECTIVE : While injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a key component of postoperative multimodal analgesia, renal safety concerns may limit use in some patients. This study examined the renal safety of injectable HPβCD-diclofenac when given for ≤ 5 days following orthopedic or abdominal/pelvic surgery. METHODS : Pooled analysis of data from two randomized, placebo- and active comparator-controlled phase III trials in 608 total patients was conducted. Renal safety was assessed by examining treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and postoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine shifts...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018458/successful-treatment-of-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-uveitis-with-steroid-and-azathioprine-in-a-12-year-old-boy
#13
Ji Eun Kim, Se Jin Park, Ji Young Oh, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Il Shin
Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in children. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented to Severance Hospital with a 1-month history of bilateral conjunctival injection. He was first evaluated by an Ophthalmologist in another hospital and diagnosed with panuveitis. Laboratory tests indicated renal failure, and a renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. An extensive exclusion of all possible causes allowed a diagnosis of TINU syndrome...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017176/levosimendan-as-a-treatment-for-acute-renal-failure-associated-with-cardiogenic-shock-after-hip-fracture
#14
Fabiola Quinteros Hinojosa, Margarita Revelo, Alexander Salazar, Genaro Maggi, Renato Schiraldi, Nicolas Brogly, Fernando Gilsanz
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008296/point-of-care-ultraportable-echocardiography-predicts-diuretic-response-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#15
Dena K Krishnan, Barbara Pawlaczyk, Peter A McCullough, Susan Enright, Arvind Kunadi, Thomas E Vanhecke
BACKGROUND: Routine management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) requires careful attentiveness to fluid status and diuretic treatment efficacy. New advances in ultrasound have made ultraportable echocardiography (UE) available to physicians for point-of-care use. The purpose of this study is to explore physiologic measures of intravascular fluid volume derived from UE and explore predictors of diuretic response in ADHF. METHODS: Various echocardiography imaging measurements, particularly diameter and collapse of inferior vena cava (IVC), were collected from 77 patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of ADHF...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007064/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-congenital-heart-surgery-database-public-reporting-initiative
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Jacobs
Three basic principles provide the rationale for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) public reporting initiative: (1) Variation in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes exist. (2) Patients and their families have the right to know the outcomes of the treatments that they will receive. (3). It is our professional responsibility to share this information with them in a format they can understand. The STS CHSD public reporting initiative facilitates the voluntary transparent public reporting of congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes using the STS CHSD Mortality Risk Model...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999929/acute-heart-failure-with-mid-range-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-clinical-profile-in-hospital-management-and-short-term-outcome
#17
Dimitrios Farmakis, Panagiotis Simitsis, Vasiliki Bistola, Filippos Triposkiadis, Ignatios Ikonomidis, Spyridon Katsanos, George Bakosis, Erifili Hatziagelaki, John Lekakis, Alexandre Mebazaa, John Parissis
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF) is a poorly characterized population as it has been studied either in the context of HF with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) depending on applied LVEF cutoffs. We sought to investigate the clinical profile, in-hospital management, and short-term outcome of HFmrEF patients in comparison with those with HFrEF or HFpEF in a large acute HF cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Acute Heart Failure Global Registry of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF) included 4953 patients hospitalized for HF in nine countries in Europe, Latin America, and Australia...
December 20, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999513/choosing-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-practical-considerations-we-need-to-know
#18
REVIEW
Alpesh Amin
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is a well-established agent for use in the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic event (SEE) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, management of patients requiring oral anticoagulation with warfarin can be complicated by the need for frequent monitoring, drug-drug and drug-food interactions, and a variable response based on genetic polymorphisms. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed as alternatives to warfarin; they do not require routine monitoring and have predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug-drug interactions, and limited drug-food interactions...
2016: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998370/understanding-delirium-trajectory-and-its-importance-in-care-provision-for-older-people
#19
Guk-Hee Suh, Lina Gega
Delirium significantly increases morbidity and mortality in older people, especially those affected by other organic disorders, notably dementia (Siddiqi et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2012; Martins and Fernandes, 2012). Both delirium and dementia are characterized by cognitive decline through disintegration of brain functions, i.e. a "brain failure." Delirium has been described as an acute brain failure, in contrast to dementia being a chronic brain failure (Berrios, 1981). If we consider any other organ failure, for example that of kidneys, delirium superimposed on dementia resembles acute renal exacerbation superimposed on chronic renal failure...
January 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994895/surgical-management-of-multiple-valve-endocarditis-associated-with-dialysis-catheter
#20
R Zea-Vera, M Sanchez, E Castañeda, L Soto-Arquiñigo
Endocarditis associated with dialysis catheter is a disease that must be suspected in every patient with hemodialysis who develops fever. Multiple valve disease is a severe complication of endocarditis that needs to be managed in a different way. There is very limited data for treatment and every case must be considered individually. We present a patient with this complication and describe the medical treatment and surgical management. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with acute renal failure that develops trivalvular endocarditis after the hemodialysis catheter was placed, with multiple positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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