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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064029/improving-precision-by-adjusting-for-prognostic-baseline-variables-in-randomized-trials-with-binary-outcomes-without-regression-model%C3%A2-assumptions
#1
Jon Arni Steingrimsson, Daniel F Hanley, Michael Rosenblum
In randomized clinical trials with baseline variables that are prognostic for the primary outcome, there is potential to improve precision and reduce sample size by appropriately adjusting for these variables. A major challenge is that there are multiple statistical methods to adjust for baseline variables, but little guidance on which is best to use in a given context. The choice of method can have important consequences. For example, one commonly used method leads to uninterpretable estimates if there is any treatment effect heterogeneity, which would jeopardize the validity of trial conclusions...
January 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025183/inequality-in-treatment-benefits-can-we-determine-if-a-new-treatment-benefits-the-many-or-the-few
#2
Emily J Huang, Ethan X Fang, Daniel F Hanley, Michael Rosenblum
SUMMARYIn many randomized controlled trials, the primary analysis focuses on the average treatment effect and does not address whether treatment benefits are widespread or limited to a select few. This problem affects many disease areas, since it stems from how randomized trials, often the gold standard for evaluating treatments, are designed and analyzed. Our goal is to learn about the fraction who benefit from a new treatment using randomized trial data. We consider the case where the outcome is ordinal, with binary outcomes as a special case...
December 26, 2016: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009602/ewsr1-fusions-with-creb-family-transcription-factors-define-a-novel-myxoid-mesenchymal-tumor-with-predilection-for-intracranial-location
#3
Yu-Chien Kao, Yun-Shao Sung, Lei Zhang, Chun-Liang Chen, Sumathi Vaiyapuri, Marc K Rosenblum, Cristina R Antonescu
Recurrent gene fusions involving EWSR1 with members of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family (ATF1 and CREB1) have been reported in a diverse group of tumors including angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), soft tissue and gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma, primary pulmonary myxoid sarcoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland. We have recently encountered a group of 5 myxoid mesenchymal tumors positive for EWSR1 fusions with one of the CREB family member (ATF1, CREB1, and CREM), with histologic features distinct from any of the previously described pathologic entities...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007061/the-evolution-of-an-adult-congenital-heart-surgery-program-the-emory-system
#4
REVIEW
Brian Kogon, Joshua Rosenblum, Bahaaldin Alsoufi, Subhadra Shashidharan, Wendy Book
The Emory Adult Congenital Heart (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) program was founded in 2001. In 2004, the surgical component transitioned from a pediatric facility to an adult facility. The aim of this article is characterize the program as a whole, outline changes in the program, and discuss the challenges of the transition process. Between 2001 and 2015, changes in program structure and personnel were evaluated. There has been significant growth of the program between 2001 and 2015. There are currently 19 half-day clinics per week, with 2,700 clinic visits per year...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990783/radiation-exposure-during-videourodynamics-establishing-risk-factors
#5
Benjamin M Brucker, Lysanne Campeau, Eva Fong, Sidhartha Kalra, Nirit Rosenblum, Victor W Nitti
OBJECTIVES: The use of fluoroscopy during urodynamics can be helpful in the evaluation of patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, fluoroscopy introduces the potential hazards of ionizing radiation, including malignancy. In this study we analyzed the data for radiation exposure during videourodynamic study (VUDS) at our center; we have also tried to establish the factors associated with increased exposure to radiation during VUDS. METHODS: We reviewed all VUDS from August 2010 to May 2011...
December 19, 2016: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977520/reliability-and-concurrent-validity-of-the-narrow-path-walking-test-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Uri Rosenblum, Itshak Melzer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: About 90% of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) have gait instability and 50% fall. Reliable and clinically feasible methods of gait instability assessment are needed. The study investigated the reliability and validity of the Narrow Path Walking Test (NPWT) under single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions for PwMS. METHODS: Thirty PwMS performed the NPWT on 2 different occasions, a week apart. Number of Steps, Trial Time, Trial Velocity, Step Length, Number of Step Errors, Number of Cognitive Task Errors, and Number of Balance Losses were measured...
January 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959913/executive-functions-time-organization-and-quality-of-life-among-adults-with-learning-disabilities
#7
Kineret Sharfi, Sara Rosenblum
PURPOSE: This study compared the executive functions, organization in time and perceived quality of life (QoL) of 55 adults with learning disabilities (LD) with those of 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years). Furthermore, relationships and predictive relationships between these variables among the group with LD were examined. METHODS: All participants completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A), the Time Organization and Participation (TOPS, A-C) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936038/abuse-and-diversion-of-immediate-release-opioid-analgesics-as-compared-to-extended-release-formulations-in-the-united-states
#8
Janetta L Iwanicki, S Geoff Severtson, Heather McDaniel, Andrew Rosenblum, Chunki Fong, Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Mance E Buttram, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic use and abuse of prescription opioids in the United States increased substantially between 1990 and 2010. The Centers for Disease Control estimated deaths related to pharmaceutical opioids reached nearly 19,000 in 2014. Of prescription opioids sold, 10% are extended release (ER) and 90% immediate release (IR). However, most regulations and interventions have focused on decreasing ER abuse. Our objective was to compare rates of abuse and diversion of ER and IR opioid analgesics over time using multiple surveillance programs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932677/suite-of-clinically-relevant-functional-assays-to-address-therapeutic-efficacy-and-disease-mechanism-in-the-dystrophic-mdx-mouse
#9
Yafeng Song, Shira Tziporah Rosenblum, Leon Morales, Mihail Petrov, Christopher Greer, Samantha Globerman, Hansell H Stedman
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive primary myodegenerative disease caused by a genetic deficiency of the 427 KD cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Despite its single-gene etiology, DMD's complex pathogenesis remains poorly understood, complicating the extrapolation from results of preclinical studies in genetic homologues to the design of informative clinical trials. Here we describe novel phenotypic assays which when applied to the mdx mouse resemble recently used primary endpoints for DMD clinical trials...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922105/interplay-of-coupling-and-common-noise-at-the-transition-to-synchrony-in-oscillator-populations
#10
Anastasiya V Pimenova, Denis S Goldobin, Michael Rosenblum, Arkady Pikovsky
There are two ways to synchronize oscillators: by coupling and by common forcing, which can be pure noise. By virtue of the Ott-Antonsen ansatz for sine-coupled phase oscillators, we obtain analytically tractable equations for the case where both coupling and common noise are present. While noise always tends to synchronize the phase oscillators, the repulsive coupling can act against synchrony, and we focus on this nontrivial situation. For identical oscillators, the fully synchronous state remains stable for small repulsive coupling; moreover it is an absorbing state which always wins over the asynchronous regime...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899114/developing-translational-medicine-professionals-the-marie-sk%C3%A5-odowska-curie-action-model
#11
Alessandra Petrelli, Berent J Prakken, Norman D Rosenblum
End goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines and expertise to eventually promote improvement of the global healthcare system by delivering effective therapies to individuals and society. Well-trained experts of the translational medicine process endowed with profound knowledge of biomedical technology, ethical and clinical issues, as well as leadership and teamwork abilities are essential for the effective development of tangible therapeutic products for patients. In this article we focus on education and, in particular, we discuss how programs providing training on the broad spectrum of the translational medicine continuum have still a limited degree of diffusion and do not provide professional support and mentorship in the long-term, resulting in the lack of well established professionals of translational medicine (TMPs) in the scientific community...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896893/an-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-like-illness-in-the-elderly-neuroimaging-and-neuropathology-findings
#12
Ulrike W Kaunzner, Elliott Salamon, Elena Pentsova, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Nancy Nealon, Ehud Lavi, Dara G Jamieson
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that classically occurs in children and adolescents. It characteristically presents with acute inflammation, resulting in demyelination, often following an infectious disease. ADEM has been described in adult patients, but the incidence in the adult and especially elderly population is low. CASES: We describe five older adults (age 57 to 85) who presented with acute neurological symptoms...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889622/evaluating-uv-c-led-disinfection-performance-and-investigating-potential-dual-wavelength-synergy
#13
Sara E Beck, Hodon Ryu, Laura A Boczek, Jennifer L Cashdollar, Kaitlyn M Jeanis, James S Rosenblum, Oliver R Lawal, Karl G Linden
A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887806/a-comparison-of-two-psychological-interventions-for-newly-diagnosed-gynecological-cancer-patients
#14
Sharon L Manne, Shannon Myers Virtue, Melissa Ozga, Deborah Kashy, Carolyn Heckman, David Kissane, Norman Rosenblum, Mark Morgan, Lorna Rodriquez
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the efficacy of two psychological interventions, a coping and communication-enhancing intervention (CCI) and supportive counseling (SC), in reducing depressive symptoms, cancer-specific distress, fear of recurrence, and emotional well-being of women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Demographic, medical, and psychological moderators of intervention effects were evaluated. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-two women with gynecological cancer were randomly assigned to eight sessions of CCI, eight sessions of SC, or usual care (UC)...
February 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871772/identifying-play-characteristics-of-pre-school-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-via-parental-questionnaires
#15
Sara Rosenblum, Pola Waissman, Gary W Diamond
: Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. METHOD: Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development...
November 18, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866958/use-of-concomitant-stress-incontinence-surgery-at-time-of-pelvic-organ-prolapse-surgery-since-release-of-the-2011-fda-health-notification-on-serious-complications-associated-with-transvaginal-mesh
#16
Alice Drain, Aqsa Khan, Erin L Ohmann, Benjamin M Brucker, Scott Smilen, Nirit Rosenblum, Victor W Nitti
PURPOSE: There is controversy regarding performing concomitant anti-incontinence procedures at the time of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. Data supports improvement in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with concomitant sling, but increased adverse events. We assessed trends in preoperative SUI evaluation, concomitant anti-incontinence procedure at POP surgery, and post-operative anti-incontinence procedures at our institution before and after the 2011 FDA Public Health Notification pertaining to vaginal mesh...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860219/a-case-report-curriculum-to-promote-scholarship
#17
Behdad Besharatian, Jorge Velez, Michael Rosenblum, Mihaela Stefan, Gina Luciano
BACKGROUND: Engaging in scholarly activity during residency can facilitate the acquisition of important skills; however, residents may encounter barriers such as unclear expectations as to what constitutes scholarship, a paucity of dedicated time and a lack of mentorship. OBJECTIVE: In July 2013, we developed a Case Report Curriculum (CRC) for first-year residents to guide them towards creating a high-quality case report and helping them to achieve the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education scholarly activity requirement...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816880/rare-presentation-of-ewing-sarcoma-metastasis-to-the-sella-and-suprasellar-cistern
#18
Michael T Starc, Marc K Rosenblum, Paul A Meyers, Vaios Hatzoglou
We present an exceedingly rare case of a Ewing sarcoma metastasis manifesting as a sellar mass mimicking a pituitary adenoma. The differential diagnosis of the young adult with a sellar mass is presented and correlated with a review of available literature, demonstrating this case's unique potential for clinical teaching. More specifically, this case illustrates that in a patient with a clinical history of Ewing sarcoma, a metastasis may involve the sella and suprasellar cistern without apparent osseous involvement...
January 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812792/polymorphous-low-grade-neuroepithelial-tumor-of-the-young-plnty-an-epileptogenic-neoplasm-with-oligodendroglioma-like-components-aberrant-cd34-expression-and-genetic-alterations-involving-the-map-kinase-pathway
#19
Jason T Huse, Matija Snuderl, David T W Jones, Carole D Brathwaite, Nolan Altman, Ehud Lavi, Richard Saffery, Alexandra Sexton-Oates, Ingmar Blumcke, David Capper, Matthias A Karajannis, Ryma Benayed, Lukas Chavez, Cheddhi Thomas, Jonathan Serrano, Laetitia Borsu, Marc Ladanyi, Marc K Rosenblum
Epileptogenic tumors affecting children and young adults are a morphologically diverse collection of neuroepithelial neoplasms that, as a group, exhibit varying levels of glial and/or neuronal differentiation. Recent advances in molecular profiling technology, including comprehensive DNA sequencing and methylation analysis, have enabled the application of more precise and biologically relevant classification schemes to these tumors. In this report, we describe a morphologically and molecularly distinct epileptogenic neoplasm, the polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY), which likely accounts for a sizable portion of oligodendroglioma-like tumors affecting the pediatric population...
November 3, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805897/scientific-overview-csci-citac-annual-general-meeting-and-young-investigators-forum-2015
#20
Eric Y Zhao, Tianwei Ellen Zhou, Matthew G K Benesch, Ayan Dey, Peter Liu, Patrick E Steadman, Kirill Zaslavsky, Raphael Schneider, Alexandra Kuzyk
The 2015 Annual General Meeting of The Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) and Clinician Investigator Trainee Association of Canada/Association des Cliniciens-Chercheurs en Formation du Canada (CITAC/ACCFC) was held in Toronto November 23-25, 2015, in conjunction with The University of Toronto Clinician Investigator Program Research Day. The theme for this year's meeting was "It takes a village" and the focus was the various support systems necessary to train a successful clinician scientist...
October 14, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
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