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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633054/men-and-women-with-psychosis-and-the-impact-of-illness-duration-on-sex-differences-the-second-australian-national-survey-of-psychosis
#2
Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Natalie Single, Clare Coleman, Vera A Morgan, Susan M Cotton, Helen J Stain, David J Castle
We aimed to examine and compare sex-differences in people receiving treatment for psychotic illnesses in community settings, based on long or short duration of illness; expecting association between longer illness-duration and worse outcomes in women and men. Clinical, demographic and service-use data from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis were analysed by sex and duration of illness (≤5 years; ≥6 years), using independent t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and Cramer's V. Of the 1825 participants, 47% had schizophrenia, 17...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631967/reasons-for-referral-and-findings-of-clinical-neuropsychological-assessment-in-youth-with-mental-illness-a-clinical-file-audit
#3
Tina-Marie Proffitt, Warrick J Brewer, Emma M Parrish, Patrick D McGorry, Kelly A Allott
Study aims were to 1) determine the characteristics and reasons for referral for Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment (CNA) and 2) characterize the findings and recommendations contained in the CNA reports, of clients attending a youth mental health service. File audit of all CNA reports (N = 140) of youth attending a mental health service. Cognitive performances on neuropsychological tests that were administered to >50% of clients were examined. Referral reasons, findings, and recommendations for future treatment were coded and described from neuropsychological files...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628791/recent-life-events-and-psychosis-the-role-of-childhood-adversities
#4
Giovanni Mansueto, Carlo Faravelli
Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#5
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627097/stability-of-outcomes-after-5-years-of-treatment-in-an-early-intervention-programme
#6
Ross M G Norman, Kelly K Anderson, Arlene MacDougall, Rahul Manchanda, Raj Harricharan, Priya Subramanian, Julie Richard, Sandra Northcott
AIM: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years are critical in determining long-term recovery from psychotic disorders. We examine stability in recovery indices after 5 years for 56 patients treated in an early intervention programme for psychosis. METHODS: Assessments of symptom remission and functional recovery were carried out 5 and 10 years after initiation of treatment. RESULTS: Although overall rates of recovery were comparable at both times, there were significant changes for individuals reflecting both improvement and deterioration...
June 19, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626431/artificial-intelligence-assisted-online-social-therapy-for-youth-mental-health
#7
Simon D'Alfonso, Olga Santesteban-Echarri, Simon Rice, Greg Wadley, Reeva Lederman, Christopher Miles, John Gleeson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Introduction: Benefits from mental health early interventions may not be sustained over time, and longer-term intervention programs may be required to maintain early clinical gains. However, due to the high intensity of face-to-face early intervention treatments, this may not be feasible. Adjunctive internet-based interventions specifically designed for youth may provide a cost-effective and engaging alternative to prevent loss of intervention benefits. However, until now online interventions have relied on human moderators to deliver therapeutic content...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625743/time-consumption-in-mind-reading-a-potentially-important-factor-for-social-cognition-assessment-in-early-psychosis
#8
Tianhong Zhang, Xiaoli Guo, Yingying Tang, Huiru Cui, Yanyan Wei, Lihua Xu, Xiaochen Tang, Xiaohua Liu, Chunbo Li, Kaida Jiang, Zeping Xiao, Jijun Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625185/deterioration-of-visuospatial-associative-memory-following-a-first-psychotic-episode-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#9
C M J Wannan, C F Bartholomeusz, V L Cropley, T E Van Rheenen, A Panayiotou, W J Brewer, T M Proffitt, L Henry, M G Harris, D Velakoulis, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619187/safety-and-efficacy-of-long-term-use-of-sodium-oxybate-for-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-in-routine-clinical-practice
#10
Panagis Drakatos, Dimosthenis Lykouras, Grainne D'Ancona, Sean Higgins, Nadia Gildeh, Raluca Macavei, Ivana Rosenzweig, Joerg Steier, Adrian J Williams, Rexford Muza, Brian D Kent, Guy Leschziner
BACKGROUND: Sodium oxybate is licensed in Europe for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of sodium oxybate in clinical practice in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy refractory to other treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single centre study including patients with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy refractory to other treatments, who were initiated on sodium oxybate between 2009 and 2015...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617204/is-the-clinical-high-risk-state-a-valid-concept-retrospective-examination-in-a-first-episode-psychosis-sample
#11
Jai L Shah, Anne Crawford, Sally S Mustafa, Srividya N Iyer, Ridha Joober, Ashok K Malla
OBJECTIVE: One reason for worldwide interest in the clinical high-risk (CHR) state for psychosis is its potential as a target for prevention. However, the feasibility and utility of early intervention initiatives that are focused on this stage involve an untested assumption: that most patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) experience earlier CHR symptoms. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the proportion of FEP patients who had experienced such symptoms prior to the onset of their psychosis...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614301/microglia-dependent-synapse-loss-in-type-i-interferon-mediated-lupus
#12
Allison R Bialas, Jessy Presumey, Abhishek Das, Cees E van der Poel, Peter H Lapchak, Luka Mesin, Gabriel Victora, George C Tsokos, Christian Mawrin, Ronald Herbst, Michael C Carroll
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody deposition in tissues such as kidney, skin and lungs. Notably, up to 75% of patients with SLE experience neuropsychiatric symptoms that range from anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment to seizures and, in rare cases, psychosis-collectively this is referred to as central nervous system (CNS) lupus. In some cases, certain autoantibodies, such as anti-NMDAR or anti-phospholipid antibodies, promote CNS lupus...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613411/outcome-in-patients-converting-to-psychosis-following-a-treated-clinical-high-risk-state
#13
Ashok Malla, Marianne de Bonneville, Jai Shah, Gerald Jordan, Marita Pruessner, Kia Faridi, Mark Rabinovitch, Srividya N Iyer, Ridha Joober
AIM: We explored 2-year outcomes in a sample of clinical high risk (CHR) patients who converted to psychosis despite receiving interventions. METHODS: Of 167 CHR patients, 18 had converted to psychosis and received treatment for their first episode of psychosis in an early intervention service over 2 years. RESULTS: Compared to patients admitted directly to the same early intervention service without having been identified as CHR prior to onset of psychosis, CHR converters were in remission for fewer months (M = 5 vs M = 10); were more likely to be prescribed more than 1 antipsychotic medication (90% vs 68%) and to receive clozapine treatment (38% vs 2%) over 2 years...
June 14, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612979/research-and-practice-for-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-national-survey-of-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services-in-england
#14
Helen J Stain, Lauren Mawn, Stephanie Common, Marie Pilton, Andrew Thompson
BACKGROUND: Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials show interventions for young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis are effective both clinically and economically. While research evidence has begun to be integrated into clinical guidelines, there is a lack of research on the implementation of these guidelines. This paper examines service provision for UHR individuals in accordance with current clinical guidelines within the National Health Service (NHS) in England...
June 14, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608852/risk-of-psychosis-in-refugees-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
J Dapunt, U Kluge, A Heinz
Conflicts and precarious living conditions resulted in the arrival of large numbers of refugees in Europe and especially in Germany. Evidence suggests that immigrant populations are at elevated risk of psychotic disorders. Considering the traumatic pre- and post-migratory adversities refugees may have encountered, people granted refugee status may even be more susceptible to psychosis than non-refugee migrants. The aim of this literature review is to summarise and interpret recent research on the incidence or prevalence of psychotic disorders in refugees, additionally focusing on the aspects of gender and Middle Eastern provenance...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601717/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-illness-and-brain-volume-changes-in-early-psychosis
#16
Charlotte Rapp, Carlos Canela, Erich Studerus, Anna Walter, Jacqueline Aston, Stefan Borgwardt, Anita Riecher-Rössler
The time period during which patients manifest psychotic or unspecific symptoms prior to treatment (duration of untreated psychosis, DUP, and the duration of untreated illness, DUI) has been found to be moderately associated with poor clinical and social outcome. Equivocal evidence exists of an association between DUP/DUI and structural brain abnormalities, such as reduced hippocampus volume (HV), pituitary volume (PV) and grey matter volume (GMV). Thus, the goal of the present work was to examine if DUP and DUI are associated with abnormalities in HV, PV and GMV...
June 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#17
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598957/childhood-adversity-cortisol-levels-and-psychosis-a-retrospective-investigation
#18
Carlo Faravelli, Giovanni Mansueto, Sara Palmieri, Carolina Lo Sauro, Francesco Rotella, Francesco Pietrini, Giulia Fioravanti
Although it has been proposed that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may act as a possible pathway linking early life stress to psychosis, this relationship has not yet been fully confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood adversity (CA), cortisol levels, and psychosis. Eighty-five patients with psychosis and 170 control subjects were enrolled in the study. CA was evaluated using the Florence Psychiatric Interview, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591137/increasing-medication-adherence-and-income-assistance-access-for-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#19
Jason Randall, Dan Chateau, James M Bolton, Mark Smith, Laurence Katz, Elaine Burland, Carole Taylor, Nathan C Nickel, Jennifer Enns, Alan Katz, Marni Brownell
BACKGROUND: Assertive community treatment for first-episode psychosis programs have been shown to improve symptoms and reduce service use. There is little or no evidence on whether these programs can increase access to income assistance and improve medication adherence in first episode psychosis patients. This research examines the impact of the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Service (EPPIS) on these outcomes. METHODS: We extracted data on EPPIS patients held in the Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589683/early-detection-and-integrated-care-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-psychotic-disorders-the-access-iii-study
#20
M Lambert, D Schöttle, F Ruppelt, A Rohenkohl, M Sengutta, D Luedecke, L A Nawara, B Galling, A-L Falk, L Wittmann, V Niehaus, G Sarikaya, L Rietschel, C Gagern, M Schulte-Markwort, H-P Unger, S Ott, G Romer, A Daubmann, K Wegscheider, C U Correll, B G Schimmelmann, K Wiedemann, T Bock, J Gallinat, A Karow
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether a combined intervention composed of early detection plus integrated care (EDIC) enhances outcomes in patients with early psychosis compared to standard care (SC). METHODS: ACCESS III is a prospective non-randomized historical control design 1-year study examining the efficacy of EDIC (n = 120) vs. SC (n = 105) in patients aged 12-29 years. Primary outcome was the rate of ≥6 months combined symptomatic and functional remission...
June 6, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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