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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208070/association-of-medial-prefrontal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-metacognitive-capacity-in-early-phase-psychosis
#1
Michael M Francis, Tom A Hummer, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jenifer L Vohs, Matt G Yung, Nicole F Mehdiyoun, Paul H Lysaker, Alan Breier
Metacognition refers to a range of cognitive processes that allow one to form complex ideas of self and others and to use this information to navigate psychosocial challenges. Several studies in both early-phase and prolonged schizophrenia have demonstrated not only that significant deficits in metacognitive ability are present, but importantly that they are associated with significant functional impairment and decreased quality of life. In spite of the importance of metacognitive impairment in schizophrenia, relatively little is known about the biological substrates that may contribute to this dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196549/mental-health-related-stigma-and-pathways-to-care-for-people-at-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-or-experiencing-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#2
P C Gronholm, G Thornicroft, K R Laurens, S Evans-Lacko
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent help-seeking and service contact. Stigma-related influences on pathways to care in the early stages of psychotic disorders have not been systematically examined. METHOD: This review systematically assessed findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research studies on the relationship between stigma and pathways to care (i.e. processes associated with help-seeking and health service contact) among people experiencing first-episode psychosis or at clinically defined increased risk of developing psychotic disorder...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194003/lower-levels-of-the-glial-cell-marker-tspo-in-drug-naive-first-episode-psychosis-patients-as-measured-using-pet-and-11-c-pbr28
#3
K Collste, P Plavén-Sigray, H Fatouros-Bergman, P Victorsson, M Schain, A Forsberg, N Amini, S Aeinehband, S Erhardt, C Halldin, L Flyckt, L Farde, S Cervenka
Several lines of evidence are indicative of a role for immune activation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and radioligands for the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for glial activation, have yielded inconsistent results. Whereas early studies using a radioligand with low signal-to-noise in small samples showed increases in patients, more recent studies with improved methodology have shown no differences or trend-level decreases. Importantly, all patients investigated thus far have been on antipsychotic medication, and as these compounds may dampen immune cell activity, this factor limits the conclusions that can be drawn...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#4
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188388/longer-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-hinders-improvement-in-treatment-of-chronic-schizophrenia-community-based-early-intervention-is-an-evidence-based-option
#5
Abdülkadir Tabo, Erkan Aydın, Hüseyin Yumrukçal, Sadık Yiğit, Uğraş Erman Uzun, Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
To determine the effects of community-based mental health services on the quality of life and disease symptoms of chronic schizophrenia patients and to determine the effects of duration of untreated psychosis on outcome. The first year records of schizophrenia patients who had been followed up at Zeytinburnu CMHC for at least 12 months, have been used to asses outcome using initial and 12th month quality of life (QoL), positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) scores. Highly significant improvements were shown in the QoL and PANSS scores...
February 10, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184308/the-access-and-waiting-time-standard-for-first-episode-psychosis-an-opportunity-for-identification-and-treatment-of-psychosis-risk-states
#6
EDITORIAL
Richard Whale, Andrew Thompson, Rick Fraser
Expansion of early intervention services to identify and clinically manage at-risk mental state for psychosis has been recently commissioned by NHS England. Although this is a welcome development for preventive psychiatry, further clarity is required on thresholds for definition of such risk states and their ability to predict subsequent outcomes. Intervention studies for these risk states have demonstrated that a variety of interventions, including those with fewer adverse effects than antipsychotic medication, may potentially be effective but they should be interpreted with caution...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177191/development-of-an-implementation-guide-to-facilitate-the-roll-out-of-early-intervention-services-for-psychosis
#7
Sarah E Hetrick, Denise A O'Connor, Heather Stavely, Frank Hughes, Kerryn Pennell, Eoin Killackey, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: Our aim was to develop an implementation guide that was informed by an analysis of context-specific barriers and enablers, behaviour change theory, as well as evidence about the effects of implementation interventions, for the establishment and scaling up of an early intervention model for psychosis (called Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC)). METHODS: We used a systematic approach involving four steps. First, the target behaviours of the EPPIC model for implementation were specified...
February 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169088/mapping-structural-covariance-networks-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-early-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#8
Lisa Buchy, Mariapaola Barbato, Carolina Makowski, Signe Bray, Frank P MacMaster, Stephanie Deighton, Jean Addington
People with psychosis show deficits recognizing facial emotions and disrupted activation in the underlying neural circuitry. We evaluated associations between facial emotion recognition and cortical thickness using a correlation-based approach to map structural covariance networks across the brain. Fifteen people with an early psychosis provided magnetic resonance scans and completed the Penn Emotion Recognition and Differentiation tasks. Fifteen historical controls provided magnetic resonance scans. Cortical thickness was computed using CIVET and analyzed with linear models...
February 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169087/adolescents-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-circadian-rhythm-disturbances-predict-worsened-prognosis-at-1-year-follow-up
#9
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Bruno da Silva Brandão Gonçalves, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Randy P Auerbach, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Individuals with psychotic disorders experience disruptions to both the sleep and circadian components of the sleep/wake cycle. Recent evidence has supported a role of sleep disturbances in emerging psychosis. However, less is known about how circadian rhythm disruptions may relate to psychosis symptoms and prognosis for adolescents with clinical high-risk (CHR) syndromes. The present study examines circadian rest/activity rhythms in CHR and healthy control (HC) youth to clarify the relationships among circadian rhythm disturbance, psychosis symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and the longitudinal course of illness...
February 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168521/does-apolipoprotein-a1-predict-microstructural-changes-in-subgenual-cingulum-in-early-parkinson
#10
Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Higher plasma cholesterol levels are associated with lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) is a surface marker of brain HDL-like particles associated with the time of PD onset. Clinical correlates of serum Apolipoprotein A1 levels with structural brain connectivity in PD-related disorders remains unclear. Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach [Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Connectometry] to explore the association between ApoA-1 and structural brain connectivity in PD...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167435/troponin-t-levels-associated-with-genetic-variants-in-notch2-and-mtnr1b-in-women-with-psychosis
#11
Dzana Sudic Hukic, Catharina Lavebratt, Eric Olsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Sven V Eriksson, David Erlinge, Martin Schalling, Urban Ösby
Psychosis patients have increased prevalence of metabolic disorders, which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Elevated troponin T level is an early biomarker of cardiovascular damage. We tested for association between troponin T levels and genetic risk variants of elevated blood glucose level in psychosis. Glucose and troponin T levels correlated positively. MTNR1B rs10830963 and NOTCH2 rs10923931 associated with troponin T levels in women, adjusted for glucose levels. These findings may indicate metabolic genetic influences on troponin T levels among women with psychosis...
January 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166760/can-cognitive-insight-predict-symptom-remission-in-a-first-episode-psychosis-cohort
#12
Jennifer A O'Connor, Lyn Ellett, Olesya Ajnakina, Tabea Schoeler, Anna Kollliakou, Antonella Trotta, Benjamin D Wiffen, Aurora M Falcone, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Anthony S David
BACKGROUND: The outcome of first episode psychosis (FEP) is highly variable and difficult to predict. Cognitive insight measured at illness onset has previously been found to predict psychopathology 12-months later. The aims of this study were to examine whether the prospective relationship between cognitive insight and symptom severity is evident at four-years following FEP and to examine some psychological correlates of cognitive insight. METHODS: FEP participants (n = 90) completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) at illness onset, and associations between BCIS scores with symptom severity outcomes (4-years after FEP) were assessed...
February 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155207/prodrome-or-risk-syndrome-what-s-in-a-name
#13
Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, an increasing number of publications have examined the precursors of bipolar disorders (BD) and attempted to clarify the early origins and illness trajectory. This is a complex task as the evolution of BD often shows greater heterogeneity than psychosis, and the first onset episode of BD may be dominated by depressive or manic features or both. To date, most of the published reviews have not clarified whether they are focused on prodromes, risk syndromes or addressing both phenomena...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154283/postpartum-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Tadashi Doden, Yoshiki Sekijima, Junji Ikeda, Kazuki Ozawa, Nobuhiko Ohashi, Minori Kodaira, Akiyo Hineno, Naoko Tachibana, Shu-Ichi Ikeda
We describe a 24-year-old woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis that developed 3 weeks after normal delivery. She was treated with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, in addition to teratoma excision. However, her recovery was slow, and dysmnesia and mental juvenility persisted even two years after onset. To date, five patients with postpartum anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been reported. All of those patients showed psychotic symptoms and were suspected of having postpartum psychosis in the early period of the encephalitis...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142064/cannabis-use-comt-bdnf-and-age-at-first-episode-psychosis
#15
Anna Mané, Daniel Bergé, Maria Jose Penzol, Mara Parellada, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Iluminada Corripio, Bibiana Cabrera, Ana Maria Sánchez-Torres, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo, PEPs Group
Although an interaction between COMT Val158Met and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms with cannabis use has been proposed with respect to the risk of psychosis emergence, findings remain inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different possible associations between these polymorphisms and early cannabis use and the age at the first episode of psychosis. The relationship between age at psychosis onset and COMT Val158Met and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms with early cannabis use as well as those factors associated with early cannabis use were investigated...
January 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138903/the-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#16
REVIEW
Imran Jivraj, Madhura Tamhankar
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis affecting medium and large vessels with potentially sight and life-threatening complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are imperative in order to prevent vision loss and progression of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are inflammatory markers which are elevated in the majority of patients and support the diagnosis of GCA among patients who present with typical symptoms. GCA is confirmed with superficial temporal artery biopsy which demonstrates characteristic pathological findings...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138113/increased-levels-of-c1q-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation-prevention-by-7-8-dihydroxyflavone
#17
Mei Han, Ji-Chun Zhang, Kenji Hashimoto
Objective: Prenatal infection is implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The objective of this paper is to study the role of complement protein C1q in the psychosis of adult offspring after maternal immune activation (MIA). In addition, effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF: a tropomyosin receptor kinase B [TrkB] agonist) was also examined. Methods: Western blot analysis of C1q in the brain regions from adult offspring after prenatal poly(I:C) (5.0 mg/kg/day from E12 to E17) exposure was performed...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131598/early-motor-developmental-milestones-and-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
S Filatova, H Koivumaa-Honkanen, N Hirvonen, A Freeman, I Ivandic, T Hurtig, G M Khandaker, P B Jones, K Moilanen, J Miettunen
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that impaired brain development is a cause of the illness. Early motor developmental milestones, such as learning to walk, are predictors of later schizophrenia but studies have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the association between early motor developmental milestones and the risk of adult schizophrenia. In addition, we updated a systematic review on motor function and risk of schizophrenia...
January 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127907/persistence-of-psychosis-spectrum-symptoms-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort-a-prospective-two-year-follow-up
#19
Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Daniel H Wolf, Bruce I Turetsky, David R Roalf, Kathleen R Merikangas, Kosha Ruparel, Christian G Kohler, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
Prospective evaluation of youths with early psychotic-like experiences can enrich our knowledge of clinical, biobehavioral and environmental risk and protective factors associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We aimed to investigate the predictors of persistence or worsening of psychosis spectrum features among US youth through the first large systematic study to evaluate subclinical symptoms in the community. Based on Time 1 screen of 9,498 youth (age 8-21) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a subsample of participants was enrolled based on the presence (N=249) or absence (N=254) of baseline psychosis spectrum symptoms, prior participation in neuroimaging, and current neuroimaging eligibility...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125984/the-youth-mental-health-risk-and-resilience-study-your-study
#20
Peter J Uhlhaas, Ruchika Gajwani, Joachim Gross, Andrew I Gumley, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer
BACKGROUND: The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with the emergence of psychosis and other mental health problems, highlighting the importance of this developmental period for the understanding of developing psychopathology and individual differences in risk and resilience. The Youth Mental Health Risk and Resilience Study (YouR-Study) aims to identify neurobiological mechanisms and predictors of psychosis-risk with a state-of-the-art neuroimaging approach (Magnetoencephalography, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in combination with core psychological processes, such as affect regulation and attachment, that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of severe mental health problems...
January 26, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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