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Metabolic disorders and renal function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733407/bone-inflammation-and-the-bone-marrow-niche-in-chronic-kidney-disease-what-do-we-know
#2
Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Antonio De Pascalis, Chiara Guglielmo, Pablo A Urena Torres, Jordi Bover, Lida Tartaglione, Marzia Pasquali, Gaetano La Manna
Recent improvements in our understanding of physiology have altered the way in which bone is perceived: no longer is it considered as simply the repository of divalent ions, but rather as a sophisticated endocrine organ with potential extraskeletal effects. Indeed, a number of pathologic conditions involving bone in different ways can now be reconsidered from a bone-centred perspective. For example, in metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis (OP) and renal osteodystrophy (ROD), the association with a worse cardiovascular outcome can be tentatively explained by the possible derangements of three recently discovered bone hormones (osteocalcin, fibroblast growth factor 23 and sclerostin) and a bone-specific enzyme (alkaline phosphatase)...
May 4, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729156/correlations-between-lipid-metabolism-indices-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-hypothyroidism
#3
Lyubov V Olenych, Lesya I Pylypiv, Nataliya S Bek, Olena M Radchenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Hypertension is a major reason behind morbidity, disability and mortality. Elevated blood pressure is a huge risk factor for cardio-vascular diseases. Almost 90% of hypertension patients have internal comorbidities, in particular hypothyroidism. For now, however, the specificities of the clinical course of hypertension in hypothyroid patients are understudied and the data on lipid metabolism in patients with primary hypothyroidism and hypertension are inconclusive...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725779/expansive-renal-osteitis-fibrosa-a-case-report
#4
Gabriel Silva Andrade, Abrahão Cavalcante Gomes de Souza Carvalho, Tibério Gomes Magalhães, Edson Luiz Cetira Filho, Roberta Barroso Cavalcante, Renato Luiz Maia Nogueira
Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is an endocrine metabolic disorder characterized by increased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Untreated secondary HPT leads to renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Facial skeletal abnormalities in patients with ROD are rare. The purpose of this paper is to report a conservative surgical approach of exuberant osteitis fibrosa lesions in patient with chronic kidney disease. A 24-year-old female was referred to maxillofacial surgery department with giants ROD affecting palate, maxilla, and mandible, resulting in esthetic and functional impairment...
May 4, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719529/angptl8-an-important-regulator-in-metabolic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Mengdie Luo, Daoquan Peng
Long-term controversy regarding the role of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) in beta-cell proliferation and diabetes progression made it a research spotlight. Recently, the controversy was resolved. Although ANGPTL8 could not control beta-cell expansion and islet function, ANGPTL8 was still considered as a novel but atypical member in the ANGPTL family because of its unique structure and crucial effects on lipid metabolism. Besides, ANGPTL8 also participated in some other disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and renal dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716795/metformin-prevents-the-development-of-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-and-its-associated-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#6
Ellen Neven, Benjamin Vervaet, Kerstin Brand, Ulrike Gottwald-Hostalek, Britt Opdebeeck, Annelies De Maré, Anja Verhulst, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Said Kamel, Marc E De Broe, Patrick C D'Haese
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes dysregulation of mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and renal osteodystrophy, an entity called 'CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder' (CKD-MBD). Here we determine whether metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, exerts favorable effects on progressive, severe CKD and concomitant mineral metabolism disturbances. Rats with CKD-MBD, induced by a 0.25% adenine diet for eight weeks, were treated with 200 mg/kg/day metformin or vehicle from one week after CKD induction onward. Severe, stable CKD along with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia developed in these rats which led to arterial calcification and high bone turnover disease...
April 28, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714030/calciphylaxis-in-end-stage-liver-and-renal-disease-patients-before-and-after-transplant
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Couri, Matthew Stier, Adam Mikolajczyk, Andrew Aronsohn
Calciphylaxis is a rare vascular disorder characterized by calcification of arterioles which causes tissue inflammation and necrosis. It is associated with the metabolic disturbances seen in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and has also been described in patients with cirrhosis with preserved kidney function. Characteristic calciphylaxis lesions are black eschars surrounded by retiform purpura, and the gold standard for diagnosis is skin biopsy. Reported one-year mortality rates range between 45-80%. No treatment modality has been evaluated in a prospective randomized trial, and reports of treatment efficacy vary...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710548/diosmin-and-crocin-alleviate-nephropathy-in-metabolic-syndrome-rat-model-effect-on-oxidative-stress-and-low-grade-inflammation
#8
Rania El-Fawal, Hassan M El Fayoumi, Mona F Mahmoud
Nephropathy is a serious complication of metabolic syndrome (MS), a global epidemic disorder. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of diosmin and crocin, two natural ingredients, on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of MS and the underlying mechanism(s). Metabolic syndrome was induced by the addition of 10% fructose to drinking water and placing the rats on high-salt diet for 16 weeks. Diosmin and Crocin were orally administrated daily for 10 weeks starting at week 6. At the end of study, arterial blood pressure was non-invasively recorded...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686978/novel-aspects-of-renal-magnesium-homeostasis
#9
REVIEW
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Carlotta Else Schirrmacher, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Dominik Müller
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is indispensable for several vital functions, such as neurotransmission, cardiac conductance, blood glucose, blood pressure regulation, and proper function of more than 300 enzymes. Thus, Mg2+ homeostasis is subject to tight regulation. Besides the fast and immediate regulation of plasma Mg2+ , a major part of Mg2+ homeostasis is realized by a concerted action of epithelial molecular structures that tightly control intestinal uptake and renal absorption. This mechanism is provided by a combination of para- and transcellular pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678287/novel-mechanisms-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-functions-at-1-angiotensin-receptor-acts-as-a-signaling-hub-and-focal-point-of-receptor-cross-talk
#10
REVIEW
András D Tóth, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady, András Balla
AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1 R), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the main receptor, which mediates the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). AT1 R plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt-water homeostasis, and in the development of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, cardiovascular remodeling, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Stimulation of AT1 R leads to pleiotropic signal transduction pathways generating arrays of complex cellular responses...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666405/mediators-of-the-effects-of-gender-on-uric-acid-nephrolithiasis-a-novel-application-of-structural-equation-modeling
#11
Hao-Wei Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Frances M Yang, Wen-Jeng Wu, Ching-Chia Li, Yong-Yuan Chang, Yii-Her Chou
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that male patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis outnumber female patients. To our knowledge, no research exists evaluating the reasons gender affects the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis. We hereby used a novel application of structural equation modeling to analyze the mediators of the effects of gender on uric acid nephrolithiasis. In 1,098 patients with nephrolithiasis between 2012 and 2016, male gender was found to have a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis, which was mediated by lower urine pH (estimate: 0...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663270/molecular-biology-and-gene-therapy-for-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib
#12
Janice Y Chou, Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the ubiquitously expressed glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) transporter (G6PT or SLC37A4). The primary function of G6PT is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inside the ER, G6P is hydrolyzed to glucose and phosphate by either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β. A deficiency in G6Pase-α causes GSD type Ia (GSD-Ia) and a deficiency in G6Pase-β causes GSD-I-related syndrome (GSD-Irs)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628851/renal-oxalate-stones-in-children-with-zellweger-spectrum-disorders
#13
Hamdan Hammad Alhazmi
Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders due to PEX gene defects are classified into many subgroups, of which Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) represent the major subgroup. The ZSDs are clinical and biochemical disorders divided into three phenotypes: neonatal, adolescence, or adult. Clinical presentations vary with severity of the condition. Metabolic abnormalities occur due to functional peroxisomal defects that could be detected in blood and urine. No cure or definitive management exists to date; only supportive and palliative measures are applied to prevent worse sequelae...
April 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627839/genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-pediatric-patients-with-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#14
Eujin Park, Myung Hyun Cho, Hye Sun Hyun, Jae Il Shin, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Hyun Jin Choi, Hee Gyung Kang, Hae Il Cheong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in children is a rare genetic disorder, and three causative mutated genes have been identified: SLC4A1, ATP6V1B1, and ATP6V0A4. We analyzed the prevalence and phenotypic differences of genetic mutations in children with dRTA. METHODS: A total of 17 children with dRTA were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent genetic testing for all three candidate genes. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations, including six novel mutations, were detected in 15 (88...
March 29, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604340/a-case-of-pitt-hopkins-syndrome-with-de-novo-mutation-in-tcf4-clinical-features-and-treatment-for-epilepsy
#15
Yedan Liu, Ya Guo, Peipei Liu, Fei Li, Chengqing Yang, Jie Song, Jingfei Hu, Dandan Xin, Zongbo Chen
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), belonging to the group of 18q-syndromes, is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in TCF4. PTHS is characterized by distinctive facial appearance, intermittent hyperventilation, intellectual disability and developmental delay. Although patients with PTHS generally have various systemic symptoms, most of themwith a TCF4 mutation manifest the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We described the first Chinese case with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome based on clinical presentations and genetic findings...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602400/targeting-glucosylceramide-synthesis-in-the-treatment-of-rare-and-common-renal-disease
#16
REVIEW
James A Shayman
Sphingolipids, including ceramides, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have been recognized as important molecules that regulate critical cellular functions. Although originally studied in the context of lysosomal storage diseases, the roles of these compounds in more common disorders involving metabolism, vascular disease, and aberrant growth has been the focus of recent studies, including in disorders that affect the kidneys. These efforts have led to new insights into Fabry disease, a classic disorder of lysosomal function that results in renal failure as well as in more common renal diseases including diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590132/glp-1-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-obesity-induced-chronic-kidney-injury-via-restoring-renal-metabolism-homeostasis
#17
Chengshi Wang, Ling Li, Shuyun Liu, Guangneng Liao, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
Increasing evidence indicates that obesity is highly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist has shown benefits on kidney diseases, but its direct role on kidney metabolism in obesity is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the protection and metabolic modulation role of liraglutide (Lira) on kidney of obesity. Rats were induced obese by high-fat diet (HFD), and renal function and metabolism changes were evaluated by metabolomic, biological and histological methods...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587296/the-relationships-of-the-fractional-excretion-of-uric-acid-with-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity-and-ankle-brachial-index-in-chinese-young-adults
#18
Jia-Wen Hu, Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Yu Yan, Keke Wang, Wenling Zheng, Qiong Ma, Yong-Bo Lv, Yin Deng, Bo Yan, Jian-Jun Mu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elevated serum uric acid (UA) was intimately correlated with vascular stiffness and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) in various populations. These correlations lost significance after adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), indicating that the association of UA and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) or ABI might be driven by kidney function. UA is predominantly eliminated through the kidneys, and metabolic disorders can influence the clearance of UA...
2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582958/-ckd-mbd-in-peritoneal-dialysis
#19
Anna Rachele Rocca, Tania Gnerre Musto, Sandro Mazzaferro
CKD-MBD is a systemic disorder of the mineral and bone metabolism as a result of CKD. The clinical relevance of this syndrome has led to the identification of the biochemical targets to be achieved in order to improve the outcome of the patient. However, in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (DP) patients, these targets are not reached. Hyperphosphatemia is a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In DP the removal of phosphorus (P) occurs by diffusion and convection, with a contribution of ultrafiltration of about 11%...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545872/high-calcium-diet-alleviates-5-6-nephrectomy-induced-bone-deteriorations-of-lumbar-vertebrae-in-mice
#20
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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