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BUN, creatinine ratio

Yochai Birnbaum, Mandeep Bajaj, Hsiu-Chiung Yang, Yumei Ye
BACGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4I) are used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4) attenuate Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibition reduces inflammation and attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The effects of dapagliflozin (Dapa) on the activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and the combined effect of SGLT2 and DPP4 on T2DM-induced inflammasome activation and progression of DN have not been previously studied...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Jo Murray, Ingrid Scholten, Sebastian Doeltgen
Dysphagia has been strongly associated with poor hydration in acute stroke settings. However, in sub-acute settings, the contribution to dehydration of dysphagia in combination with other common stroke comorbidities has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate which demographic and stroke comorbidities, including dysphagia, contribute most significantly to oral fluid intake, hydration status and specific adverse health outcomes for patients in sub-acute rehabilitation following stroke. Data from 100 inpatients from three Australian rehabilitation facilities (14 with confirmed dysphagia and 86 without dysphagia) were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Dysphagia
Yuanmin Li, Jingping Liu, Guangneng Liao, Jie Zhang, Younan Chen, Lan Li, Li Li, Fang Liu, Bo Chen, Gang Guo, Chengshi Wang, Lichuan Yang, Jingqiu Cheng, Yangrong Lu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and represents the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in DN models by reducing albuminuria and attenuating glomerular injury; however, limited in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanism and a lack of clinical trials hinders its clinical use. Additionally, most of these experimental studies were conducted on the advanced stage of nephropathy, which is difficult to reverse and consequently showed limited therapeutic efficacy...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yu Horiuchi, Jiro Aoki, Kengo Tanabe, Koichi Nakao, Yukio Ozaki, Kazuo Kimura, Junya Ako, Satoshi Yasuda, Teruo Noguchi, Satoru Suwa, Kazuteru Fujimoto, Yasuharu Nakama, Takashi Morita, Wataru Shimizu, Yoshihiko Saito, Atsushi Hirohata, Yasuhiro Morita, Teruo Inoue, Atsunori Okamura, Masaaki Uematsu, Kazuhito Hirata, Yoshisato Shibata, Michikazu Nakai, Kunihiro Nishimura, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Masaharu Ishihara
High levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been demonstrated to significantly predict poor prognosis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. However, this relationship has not been fully investigated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether a high level of BUN is a significant predictor for in-hospital mortality and other clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. The Japanese registry of acute Myocardial INfarction diagnosed by Universal dEfiniTion (J-MINUET) is a prospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 28 institutions, in which 3,283 consecutive AMI patients were enrolled...
February 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Jianjun Huang, Xuping Yao, Guobin Weng, Honggang Qi, Xiaolei Ye
This study explored the potential value of curcumin, a natural product, in the protection of CsA‑induced nephrotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on Cyclosporine A (CsA)‑induced renal oxidative stress and determine the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of the renal protective effects of Cur. HK‑2 human renal cells were co‑treated with CsA and various doses of Cur. Cell survival rate was determined by an MTT assay, total cellular protein was collected and oxidative stress in cell homogenates was evaluated by determining the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px) and catalase (CAT), the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
G-X Li, X-H Jiao, X-B Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between blood uric acid (BUA) level and the incidence, progression and deterioration of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of fifty patients with T2DM alone whose glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were under normal range (4-6.5%) at their admission to our hospital were randomly selected as diabetes mellitus (DM) group. Fifty patients with hyperuricemia alone were randomly selected as hyperuricemia (HUA) group...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Azusa Murata, Takatoshi Kasai, Yuya Matsue, Hiroki Matsumoto, Shoichiro Yatsu, Takao Kato, Shoko Suda, Masaru Hiki, Atsutoshi Takagi, Hiroyuki Daida
Although elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN)-to-creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio at hospital admission has been reported to be associated with poor short-term prognosis, its association to long-term mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains to be elucidated. Moreover, an additive prognostic value to preexisting renal markers including creatinine and BUN has not been well described. A cohort of 557 consecutive ADHF patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit was studied. All cohorts were divided into high and low BUN/Cr ratios according to the median value of BUN/Cr ratio at admission...
February 7, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Tae Dong Jeong, Jaeryuk Kim, Woochang Lee, Sail Chun, Ki Sook Hong, Won Ki Min
The 1B equation is recommended for calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Since few reports have evaluated the performance of the 1B equation, we investigated the performance of estimated GFR (eGFR) equations with the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) variable for pediatric cancer patients. In total, 203 children with cancer who underwent measured GFR (mGFR) assessment were enrolled. The median (range) mGFR and eGFR calculated using the updated Schwartz equation were 118 (43-241) and 135 (34-257) mL/min/1...
May 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Mao Zheng, Shandong Ye, Yan Chen, Meinan Chen
AIM: To study the excretion of urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) with a wide range of urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective investigation was performed in 3,599 adult inpatients with T2DM in Anhui Provincial Hospital of China. Demographic information, urinary THP data, and other lab reports were obtained from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR)...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Yan Cui, Yan Shi, Yan Bao, Shulong Wang, Qiuju Hua, Yun Liu
Diabetes affects a large proportion of population wide across the world and kidney is a main target organ of diabetic complications. Zingerone is a stable active component derived from dry ginger rhizome. We investigated the effect of zingerone on diabetic nephropathy and explored the possible mechanisms. We showed that zingerone decreased the levels of serum insulin, C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urinary albumin content and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were reduced by zingerone...
January 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
J Lin, Y Weng, M Li, Y Mo, J Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic hyperglycaemia predisposes patients to dehydration, which may promote neurological deterioration, and to investigate whether dehydration control improves functional outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 355 patients hospitalized with acute ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus who fulfilled the glycaemic gap ≤0. We used the following cut-offs: (i) no chronic hyperglycaemia (glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] < 7%) and (ii) chronic hyperglycaemia (HbA1c ≥ 7%)...
January 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Yusaku Takatori, Motohiko Kato, Yukie Sunata, Yuichiro Hirai, Yoko Kubosawa, Keichiro Abe, Yoshiaki Takada, Tetsu Hirata, Shigeo Banno, Michiko Wada, Satoshi Kinoshita, Hideki Mori, Kaoru Takabayashi, Miho Kikuchi, Masahiro Kikuchi, Masayuki Suzuki, Toshio Uraoka
BACKGROUND: Some scoring systems have been introduced to predict the need for performing urgent endoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). However, in an emergency situation, this intervention is insufficient and cannot easily provide the required treatment. AIM: To identify new risk factors that can predict the need for endoscopic intervention (EI) in UGIB patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Amadeus Lešnik, Nejc Piko, Danica Železnik, Sebastjan Bevc
Dehydration in older adults is an important clinical problem associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. However, in daily clinical practice, no single gold standard marker of hydration status in older adults is available. The aim of the current study was to define the fluid balance status in older adults residing in institutional care or the home. Four hundred ten patients (192 from institutional care and 218 from home care) 65 and older from the region of lower Styria (Slovenia) were included in the study...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Hoon Kim, Kiwon Lee, Huimahn A Choi, Sophie Samuel, Jung Hyn Park, Kwang Wook Jo
Objective: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is frequently related to dehydration, the impact of dehydration on VTE in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is not clear. This study investigated whether dehydration, as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio, influences the occurrence of VTE in patients with AIS. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with AIS between January 2012 and December 2013. Patients with newly diagnosed AIS who experienced prolonged hospitalization for at least 4 weeks were included in this study...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Yun Xu, Liwei Bai, Xuehui Chen, Yan Li, Yan Qin, Xiangyu Meng, Qinggui Zhang
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide and more than two thirds of the patients may develop diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the efficiency of existing approaches on DN progression is limited. 6-Shogaol (6-SG), a major dehydrated derivative of gingerols, possesses various biological properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible effects of 6-SG on DN in db/db mice and to investigate the mechanisms. We revealed that 6-SG reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and systolic blood pressure...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sheng Shen, Jiexue Zhou, Shandong Meng, Jiaqing Wu, Juan Ma, Chunli Zhu, Gengguo Deng, Dong Liu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on rats with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effects on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12) including sham operation (S) group, ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R) group and ischemic preconditioning (IP) group. After anesthesia with intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate, bilateral renal pedicles were clipped for 45 min, followed by perfusion for 6 h to establish the I/R model...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gebran Khneizer, Ahmad Al-Taee, Bahar Bastani
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), such as bevacizumab, are administered intravitreally for the treatment of wet or exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Systemic use of bevacizumab has been linked to a wide range of renal adverse effects including proteinuria and hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male with a past medical history of hypertension, vitamin D deficiency and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who presented to primary care clinic with a 2-week history of bilateral lower extremity edema, 2 months after completing four monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for ARMD...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
Jian Wu, Xiaohong Shao, Kan Lu, Jing Zhou, Miaomiao Ren, Xin Xie, Jibo Liu, Yi Xu, Yaqin Ding, Xiaoyu Shen, Chunling Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The diagnosis of type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) patients is important to prevent the long-term damaging effects of kidney loss in patients with diabetes and is decisive for patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore urine retinol binding protein (RBP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in T2DN patients with and without albuminuria. METHODS: A total of 293 T2DN patients were divided into three groups according to their urine albumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR): normoalbuminuria group (UACR<30 mg/g, n=100), microalbuminuria group (UACR 30-300 mg/g, n=100) and macroalbuminuria group (UACR>300 mg/g, n=93); 50 non-diabetic subjects were recruited as the control group...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Burcu Başarık Aydoğan, Fatma Yıldırım, Avşar Zerman, Kamil Gönderen, Melda Türkoğlu, Gülbin Aygencel
OBJECTIVE: Most significant side effect of colistin therapy which is used for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections is nephrotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the differences of colistin nephrotoxicity between the geriatric age group (≥65 years) and the younger age group (<65 years) in critically ill medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The medical records of the 76 patients who were taken colistin therapy due to multi-resistant Gram-negative infections between January 2010 and June 2014 in the our medical ICU were retrospectively investigated...
September 2, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Mojgan Mortazavi Najafabadi, Firouzeh Moeinzadeh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Awat Feizi, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have specific dietary needs due to recommended dietary restrictions. However, there is no specific index for evaluating the quality of diet in patients with CKD.   OBJECTIVE: To define and compare three specific diet quality indices in patients with CKD. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-one subjects with CKD were selected for this cross-sectional study. The patients' Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire...
August 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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