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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820982/direct-analysis-no-sample-preparation-of-bioavailable-cortisol-in-human-plasma-by-weak-affinity-chromatography-wac
#1
Sten Ohlson, Jagjit Kaur, Manfred Raida, Ulf Niss, Tim Bengala, Chester Lee Drum, Bernhard Boehm, Anthony R Torres
Pre-analytical treatment of blood plasma is a time consuming and often rate limiting step in the workflow of LC/MS analysis. We present in this pilot study a new approach for quantitative LC/MS based on weak affinity chromatography (WAC) of crude plasma. The steroid hormone cortisol was selected as a clinically relevant biomarker, as it currently requires extensive pre-analytical preparation. A WAC unit with saturating, immobilized albumin as a prototypic weak binder was used in combination with an ion-funnel MS/MS detector to perform zonal affinity chromatography of cortisol directly from a plasma sample, followed by quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820452/population-based-study-on-the-effect-of-a-forest-environment-on-salivary-cortisol-concentration
#2
Hiromitsu Kobayashi, Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Bum-Jin Park, Juyoung Lee, Takahide Kagawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a forest environment on salivary cortisol concentration, particularly on the characteristics of its distribution. The participants were 348 young male subjects. The experimental sites were 34 forests and 34 urban areas across Japan. The subjects viewed the landscape (forest or urban environment) for a period of 15 min while sitting in a chair. Saliva was sampled from the participants at the end of this 15-min period and then analyzed for cortisol concentration...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820232/recognizing-and-managing-adrenal-disorders-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L. Barthold
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819984/adherence-to-diurnal-cortisol-sampling-among-mother-child-dyads-from-maltreating-and-nonmaltreating-families
#4
Kristin Valentino, Ashley De Alba, Leah C Hibel, Kaitlin Fondren, Christina G McDonnell
There has been increasing interest in evaluating whether interventions for child maltreatment can improve and/or prevent child physiological dysregulation via measurement of diurnal cortisol. The assessment of diurnal cortisol typically involves the home-based collection of saliva multiple times per day, bringing forth important methodological considerations regarding adherence to collection instructions. To date, there has been no data regarding adherence to home collection of diurnal cortisol among maltreating families...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819949/addison-s-disease-concomitant-with-corticotropin-deficiency-and-pituitary-crh-resistance-a-case-report
#5
Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Katarzyna Malicka, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Andrzej Lewiński
A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. About seven months later she was euthyroid on L-thyroxine (TSH 1.51 mIU/mL) but was admitted with hypotension, hyponatraemia (sodium 109 mmol/L), and low morning cortisol (119 nmol/L)...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819906/correlation-between-adrenal-function-growth-hormone-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-children-with-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency
#6
A Ciresi, S Radellini, E Vigneri, V Guarnotta, J Bianco, M G Mineo, C Giordano
PURPOSE: Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate an increased cortisol/cortisone ratio which could potentially explain the metabolic features of GHD, while GH treatment (GHT) could increase the cortisol metabolism. METHODS: In 35 children (27 M, mean age 10.1 years) with idiopathic GHD at baseline and after 12 months of GHT and in 25 controls, in addition to metabolic parameters, we assessed adrenal function by morning serum cortisol, its peak, and its area under the curve (AUCCOR) during insulin tolerance test (ITT)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819359/screening-for-cushing-syndrome-at-the-primary-care-level-what-every-general-practitioner-must-know
#7
REVIEW
Ernest Yorke, Yacoba Atiase, Josephine Akpalu, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka
Cushing's syndrome is a rare entity, and a high index of suspicion is needed for screening in a primary care setting. The clinical awareness of the primary care physician (PCP) to the highly indicative signs and symptoms such as facial plethora, proximal myopathy, reddish purple striae, and easy bruisability should alert him to look for biochemical evidence of Cushing's syndrome through any of the first-line screening tests, namely, 24-hour urinary free cortisol, overnight dexamethasone suppression test, or late-night salivary cortisol...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819144/predicting-hair-cortisol-levels-with-hair-pigmentation-genes-a-possible-hair-pigmentation-bias
#8
Alexander Neumann, Gerard Noppe, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser, Frank C Verhulst, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Henning Tiemeier
Cortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association arises from local effects, such as increased hormone extractability, or whether the association represents systemic differences arising from population stratification. We tested the hypothesis that hair pigmentation gene variants are associated with varying cortisol levels independent of genetic ancestry...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819015/adrenal-cushing-s-syndrome-during-pregnancy
#9
Corina Andreescu, Rehmat Ali Alwani, Johannes Hofland, Leendert Looijenga, Wouter de Herder, Leo Hofland, Richard A Feelders
Cushing syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis of CS is common because of overlapping features like fatigue, weight gain, striae and emotional changes that can occur during normal pregnancy. Changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of glucocorticoid hormone levels during gestation. CS during pregnancy is most frequently due to an adrenal adenoma and to a lesser degree to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818773/adversity-driven-changes-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-functioning-during-adolescence-the-trails-study
#10
Odilia M Laceulle, Esther Nederhof, Marcel A G van Aken, Johan Ormel
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during adolescence (N=141). HPA-axis functioning (basal cortisol, cortisol awakening response, anticipation of, reaction to and recovery after a stress task) was measured twice, at age 16 and 19. Adversity (i.e., social defeat and loss/illness) since age 16 was measured extensively with the Life Stress Interview at age 19...
August 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818733/effects-of-childhood-trauma-exposure-and-cortisol-levels-on-cognitive-functioning-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#11
Charles Kamen, Caroline Scheiber, Michelle Janelsins, Booil Jo, Hanyang Shen, Oxana Palesh
Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive)...
August 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818539/playing-a-rigged-game-inequality-s-effect-on-physiological-stress-responses
#12
Martin S Shapiro, Rhanda Rylant, Amanda de Lima, Andrea Vidaurri, Herman van de Werfhorst
High income and wealth inequality corresponds with high rates of various health and social problems. One possible factor that could be contributing to this correlation is stress experienced by those being treated unfairly in an unequal society. The present experiment attempted to simulate aspects of income inequality in a lab setting while recording several measures of stress. Participants (n=96) were assigned to one of four groups and played a memory game against a confederate opponent to earn "money" to spend in a lab market...
August 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#13
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817114/trauma-informed-care-in-the-newborn-intensive-care-unit-promoting-safety-security-and-connectedness
#14
M R Sanders, S L Hall
Both babies and their parents may experience a stay in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) as a traumatic or a 'toxic stress,' which can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and ultimately to poorly controlled cortisol secretion. Toxic stresses in childhood or adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are strongly linked to poor health outcomes across the lifespan and trauma-informed care is an approach to caregiving based on the recognition of this relationship. Practitioners of trauma-informed care seek to understand clients' or patients' behaviors in light of previous traumas they have experienced, including ACEs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817109/dysfunctional-natural-killer-cells-in-the-aftermath-of-cancer-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Leonard Angka, Sarwat T Khan, Marisa K Kilgour, Rebecca Xu, Michael A Kennedy, Rebecca C Auer
The physiological changes that occur immediately following cancer surgeries initiate a chain of events that ultimately result in a short pro-, followed by a prolonged anti-, inflammatory period. Natural Killer (NK) cells are severely affected during this period in the recovering cancer patient. NK cells play a crucial role in anti-tumour immunity because of their innate ability to differentiate between malignant versus normal cells. Therefore, an opportunity arises in the aftermath of cancer surgery for residual cancer cells, including distant metastases, to gain a foothold in the absence of NK cell surveillance...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815660/absorption-and-tolerability-of-taste-masked-hydrocortisone-granules-in-neonates-infants-and-children-under-6-years-of-age-with-adrenal-insufficiency
#16
Uta Neumann, Martin J Whitaker, Susanna Wiegand, Heiko Krude, John Porter, Madhu Davies, Dena Digweed, Bernard Voet, Richard J Ross, Oliver Blankenstein
OBJECTIVES: There is no licensed, dose-appropriate formulation of hydrocortisone for children with adrenal insufficiency (AI) and patients rely on compounded adult medication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption, palatability and safety of Infacort(®) , an immediate-release, granule formulation of hydrocortisone with taste masking. STUDY DESIGN: Single site with satellites attended by a "flying" doctor from investigator site. Open-label, single-dose study in three consecutive child cohorts (n=24) with AI; Cohort 1, children aged 2 to <6 years (n=12); Cohort 2, infants aged 28 days to <2 years (n=6); Cohort 3, neonates aged 1 to <28 days (n=6)...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815484/diagnostic-performance-of-a-newly-developed-salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-measurement-using-an-lc-ms-ms-method-with-simple-and-rapid-sample-preparation
#17
K Mészáros, G Karvaly, Z Márta, B Magda, J Tőke, N Szücs, M Tóth, K Rácz, A Patócs
BACKGROUND: Late-night salivary cortisol level is one of the first-line tests recommended by the Endocrine Society for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism. Most routine laboratories measure cortisol levels using immunoassay tests which fail to determine low cortisol levels accurately due to the numerous interfering substances. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with simple and rapid sample preparation was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone and its performance in the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism was evaluated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815392/strategy-for-cyp3a-induction-risk-assessment-from-preclinical-signal-to-human-a-case-example-of-a-late-stage-discovery-compound
#18
Jialin Mao, Peter Fan, Susan Wong, Jianshuang Wang, Moulay Hicham Alaoui Ismaili, Brian Dean, Cornelis E C A Hop, Matthew Wright, Yuan Chen
PURPOSE: The exposure of G2917 decreased by four-fold at oral doses of 100 mg/kg twice daily for seven days in cynomolgus monkeys. Additional investigative work was conducted to understand: (1) the causes for the significant reduction in G2917 exposure in monkeys; (2) the extrapolation of in vitro induction data to in vivo findings in monkeys, and (3) the relevance of this pre-clinical finding to humans at the projected human efficacious dose. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic and induction potency (in vitro and in vivo) of G2917 in monkeys, and the in vitro human induction potency were studied...
August 16, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#19
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814584/examining-self-reported-and-biological-stress-and-near-misses-among-emergency-medicine-residents-a-single-centre-cross-sectional-assessment-in-the-usa
#20
Bengt B Arnetz, Philip Lewalski, Judy Arnetz, Karen Breejen, Karin Przyklenk
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between perceived and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents. DESIGN: Self-rated stress and stress biomarkers were assessed in residents in Emergency Medicine before and after a day shift. The supervising physicians and residents reported numbers of near misses. SETTING: The study took place in the Emergency Department of a large trauma 1 centre, located in Detroit, USA...
August 15, 2017: BMJ Open
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