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Childhood trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145914/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-retrospective-indigenous-childhood-enrichment-scale-rice
#1
Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144990/effects-of-childhood-trauma-on-cortisol-levels-in-suicide-attempters-and-ideators
#2
Daryl B O'Connor, Jessica A Green, Eamonn Ferguson, Ronan E O'Carroll, Rory C O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a global health issue. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, has been identified as one potential risk factor for suicide. Recent evidence has indicated that blunted cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with suicidal behavior. The current study investigated whether childhood trauma was associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor and resting cortisol levels in suicide attempters and ideators...
November 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144189/clinical-and-personality-disorders-in-a-danish-treatment-seeking-sample-of-intimate-partner-violence-perpetrators
#3
Ask Elklit, Siobhan Murphy, Christine Jacobsen, Morgan Kezia Jensen
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with profound psychological consequences. Perpetrators often have a history of childhood trauma and a range of co-occurring psychiatric problems, which may have implications for treatment. This study examines the prevalence of psychiatric and personality disorders (PD) among perpetrators and the association between a range of demographic, childhood trauma, and adult criminality variables for the most prominent disorders. Data were collected from IPV perpetrators ( n = 529) engaging in a treatment program, ' Dialogue Against Violence'...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141785/environmental-adversities-and-psychotic-symptoms-the-impact-of-timing-of-trauma-abuse-and-neglect
#4
Inga Schalinski, Susanne Breinlinger, Vanessa Hirt, Martin H Teicher, Michael Odenwald, Brigitte Rockstroh
BACKGROUND: Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139608/current-state-of-screening-high-ace-youth-and-emerging-adults-in-primary-care
#5
Michelle Pardee, Elizabeth Kuzma, Chin Hwa Gina Y Dahlem, Nicole Boucher, Cynthia S Darling-Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma comes in many forms, including interpersonal, community, and institutional trauma. The adverse childhood event (ACE) studies demonstrated that adverse experiences in childhood can have a profound, cumulative impact on the course of health and development over a lifetime. It is critical for healthcare providers, such as nurse practitioners (NPs), working in primary care to screen adolescents and emerging adults for a history of ACEs and trauma. A review of current assessment tools used in assessing this population in health settings is needed to determine how screening for ACEs is being performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130493/trajectories-of-resting-frontal-brain-activity-and-psychopathology-in-female-adolescents-exposed-to-child-maltreatment
#6
Alva Tang, Vladimir Miskovic, Ayelet Lahat, Masako Tanaka, Harriet MacMillan, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry patterns reflecting different affective and motivational tendencies have been proposed as a putative mechanism underlying resilience among maltreated youth. This 2-year prospective study examined whether developmental stability of resting frontal alpha asymmetry moderated the relation between child maltreatment severity and psychopathology in female adolescents (n = 43; ages 12-16) recruited from child protection agencies. Results identified two trajectories of resting frontal asymmetry: 60...
November 12, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130379/trauma-complexity-and-child-abuse-a-qualitative-study-of-attachment-narratives-in-adult-refugees-with-ptsd
#7
Karin Riber
The present study aimed to identify trauma types over the life course among adult refugees and to explore their accounts of childhood maltreatment. A sample of 43 Arabic-speaking refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attending a treatment context in Denmark were interviewed. Using a "Trauma Coding Manual" developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27)...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129318/does-childhood-trauma-moderate-polygenic-risk-for-depression-a-meta-analysis-of-5765-subjects-from-the-psychiatric-genomics-consortium
#8
Wouter J Peyrot, Sandra Van der Auwera, Yuri Milaneschi, Conor V Dolan, Pamela A F Madden, Patrick F Sullivan, Jana Strohmaier, Stephan Ripke, Marcella Rietschel, Michel G Nivard, Niamh Mullins, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Andrew C Heat, Helen L Fisher, Erin C Dunn, Enda M Byrne, Tracy A Air, Bernhard T Baune, Gerome Breen, Douglas F Levinson, Cathryn M Lewis, Nick G Martin, Elliot N Nelson, Dorret I Boomsma, Hans J Grabe, Naomi R Wray, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129039/combined-diet-and-exercise-interventions-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Emily Shepherd, Judith C Gomersall, Joanna Tieu, Shanshan Han, Caroline A Crowther, Philippa Middleton
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child...
November 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128740/motivational-capacities-after-prolonged-interpersonal-childhood-trauma-in-institutional-settings-in-a-sample-of-austrian-adult-survivors
#10
Dina Weindl, Matthias Knefel, Tobias M Glück, Ulrich S Tran, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the aversive impact of prolonged interpersonal childhood trauma, but data on possible associations with motivational concepts (self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control) in adult survivors is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate specific coherences between childhood abuse and adult life events with (a) motivational concepts (MC), (b) the emotion regulation strategy "goal-directed behavior" and (c) the possible mediation of emotion regulation (ER) on motivational concepts...
November 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125800/the-trauma-factor-examining-the-relationships-among-different-types-of-trauma-dissociation-and-psychopathology
#11
Adriano Schimmenti
Extensive research has reported a dose-response relationship between exposure to trauma and the severity of both dissociation and psychopathology. However, certain types of trauma may co-occur more frequently than others and specific combinations of traumatic experiences may relate differently to dissociative processes and psychiatric symptoms. In the current study, 359 adult participants completed questionnaires on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and psychopathology. A correlation network analysis showed that some types of trauma are more likely to co-occur and that especially traumatic experiences in attachment relationships during childhood were significantly associated with other trauma in life...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117877/post-traumatic-symptomatology-and-compulsions-as-potential-mediators-of-the-relation-between-child-sexual-abuse-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#12
Simon McCarthy-Jones
BACKGROUND: Whilst evidence is mounting that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be a cause of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), it is unclear what factors mediate this relation. Recent evidence suggests that post-traumatic symptomatology may mediate the CSA-AVH relation in clinical populations, although this hypothesis has not yet been tested in the general population. There is also reason to believe that obsessive ideation could mediate the CSA-AVH relation. AIMS: To test for evidence to falsify the hypotheses that post-traumatic symptomatology, obsessions, compulsions, anxiety and depression mediate the relation between CSA and AVH in a general population sample...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114160/clinical-characteristics-of-troublesome-pediatric-tinnitus
#13
Annett Szibor, Topi Jutila, Antti Mäkitie, Antti Aarnisalo
Objectives: The frequency of tinnitus in children and adults is practically the same. However, although adults reveal their symptoms and seek for medical aid, the suffering often remains unrecognized in the young. This is due to both the inability of children to properly describe their symptoms and the lack of recognition. Materials and methods: Among 5768 patients entering our department with complaints of tinnitus between 2010 and 2015, there were only 112 children...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110702/partially-absorbed-cataractous-lens-in-the-anterior-chamber-revealing-neglected-severe-ocular-contusion-a-case-report
#14
Viola Andin Dohvoma, Steve Robert Ebana Mvogo, Pepin Williams Atipo-Tsiba, Emilienne Epee, Paul Jean Adrien Atangana, Samuel Amvene Nko'o, Côme Ebana Mvogo
BACKGROUND: Ocular contusion can produce severe lesions, which if not treated appropriately and promptly, can lead to visual impairment. Ocular contusion in childhood may not be reported by children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27 year old female presented with a partially absorbed cataractous lens that was dislocated into the anterior chamber of her left eye. There was mild anterior chamber reaction. She reported no history of ocular trauma; but associated findings and further investigations were in favour of a post-traumatic aetiology...
November 6, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108366/neural-correlates-of-childhood-trauma-with-executive-function-in-young-healthy-adults
#15
Shaojia Lu, Fen Pan, Weijia Gao, Zhaoguo Wei, Dandan Wang, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Yi Xu, Lingjiang Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among childhood trauma, executive impairments, and altered resting-state brain function in young healthy adults. Twenty four subjects with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched subjects without childhood trauma were recruited. Executive function was assessed by a series of validated test procedures. Localized brain activity was evaluated by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method and compared between two groups. Areas with altered fALFF were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104801/childhood-adversities-are-not-a-predictors-of-sstr4met-in-alcoholics
#16
Dominika Berent, Michał Pogórski, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Ewa Kusideł, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
Background: Genome methylation may modulate synaptic plasticity, being a potential background for mental disorder. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), known to be frequently reported by patients with alcohol dependence (AD), have been proposed as one of environmental inequities influencing DNA methylation. The study is aiming 1.To assess a promoter region methylation in gene for somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4), a receptor for somatostatin, a neurotransmitter engaged in neuroplasticity and memory formation, in patients with AD; 2...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102835/the-differential-association-between-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-body-mass-index-in-early-and-late-stages-of-bipolar-disorder
#18
Emilie Leclerc, Rodrigo B Mansur, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Quirino Cordeiro, Flavio Kapczinski, Roger S McIntyre, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: History of distal stressors such as childhood trauma is a well-established, non-specific vulnerability factor for multiple mental illnesses. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between history of childhood trauma and body mass index (BMI) in individuals in early and late stages of bipolar disorder (BD) and to verify is there was any difference in the association of sexual abuse history and obesity in early versus late stages of BD. METHODS: Seventy-one euthymic BD-type I patients and eighty-one healthy controls were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and body mass index (BMI)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101603/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-variants-and-childhood-trauma-influence-anxiety-sensitivity-in-south-african-adolescents
#19
Jacqueline S Womersley, Lindi I Martin, Lize van der Merwe, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is characterised by the fear of anxiety-related symptoms and is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders. We examined whether genetic variation in three stress response genes, CRHR1, NR3C1, and FKBP5, interact with childhood trauma (CT) to predict AS in South African adolescents. Xhosa (n = 634) and Coloured (n = 317) students completed self-report measures of AS and CT, and a total of eighteen polymorphisms within CRHR1, NR3C1, and FKBP5 were genotyped. Differences in AS based on genetic variation and CT were analysed within population and gender groups using multiple linear regression...
November 4, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099549/which-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-trauma-types-and-substances-correlate-with-suicide-attempts-in-trauma-survivors
#20
Jeffrey Guina, Ramzi W Nahhas, Nicholas Mata, Seth Farnsworth
Objective: To examine among trauma survivors several potential suicide risk factors, some of which have never been studied in this population (eg, DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, benzodiazepines). Methods: Using a cross-sectional self-report survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma (N = 480), we examined relationships between suicide attempts and demographics, trauma types, PTSD symptoms, substance-related problems, and benzodiazepine prescriptions...
October 26, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
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