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Childhood trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718998/disconnected-lives-women-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-conflict-with-the-law
#1
Kathryn Ann Levine, Jocelyn Proulx, Karen Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Women with intellectual/developmental disabilities in conflict with the law experience childhood trauma, substance abuse and intimate partner violence but continue to have difficulty accessing appropriate therapeutic services, both within correctional settings and upon discharge. The aim of this study is to explore women's service needs and to critically assess whether the available services are meeting their identified needs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women with intellectual/developmental disabilities who were in the Special Needs Unit of a women's correctional centre from December 2014 to March 2015...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718867/-defeated-by-life-validation-of-a-german-version-of-the-defeat-scale-ds-d
#2
Thomas Forkmann, Jana-Sophie Stenzel, Dajana Rath, Heide Glaesmer, Tobias Teismann
Introduction Defeat and entrapment are transdiagnostic constructs that play an important role in the development of depression, anxiety, suicidality and trauma-associated mental disorders. The present study aimed at presenting and validating a first German version of the Defeat-Scale (DS-d). Material and methods Through a web-based survey, N=480 participants were recruited (74% female; MAge=28.5, SDAge=11.1, Range: 18-80 years); 14.2% reported to currently suffer from a mental disorder, 8.5% reported at least one lifetime suicide attempt...
June 29, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717512/trauma-related-emotions-and-radical-acceptance-in-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#3
Nora Görg, Kathlen Priebe, Jan R Böhnke, Regina Steil, Anne S Dyer, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often associated with a wide range of trauma-related aversive emotions such as fear, disgust, sadness, shame, guilt, and anger. Intense experience of aversive emotions in particular has been linked to higher psychopathology in trauma survivors. Most established psychosocial treatments aim to reduce avoidance of trauma-related memories and associated emotions. Interventions based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) also foster radical acceptance of the traumatic event...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715699/gambling-and-negative-life-events-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-uk-men
#4
Amanda Roberts, Stephen Sharman, Jeremy Coid, Raegan Murphy, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Sean Cowlishaw, Jason Landon
INTRODUCTION: The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years...
July 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713688/childhood-trauma-and-factors-associated-with-depression-among-inpatients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Felipe José Nascimento Barreto, Frederico Duarte Garcia, Paulo Henrique Teixeira Prado, Paulo Marcos Brasil Rocha, Nádia Souza Las Casas, Felipe Barbosa Vallt, Humberto Correa, Maila Castro Lourenço Neves
AIM: To identify factors associated with depressive symptoms among inpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed in a subsample of a large cross-sectional research that investigated affective disorders and suicide behaviour among inpatients hospitalized in non-surgical wards of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais from November 2013 to October 2015. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a structured interview and medical record review...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713332/childhood-maltreatment-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-prediabetic-disturbances-in-glucose-regulation
#6
Li Li, W Timothy Garvey, Barbara A Gower
AIMS: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is shown to be associated with obesity and depression. However, the relationship of CM to prediabetic state is much less studied. We tested the hypothesis that CM increases the risk for prediabetic state due to glucose intolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived metabolic parameters of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function were measured in 121 participants aged 19-60 years...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704173/are-shame-and-self-esteem-risk-factors-in-prolonged-grief-after-death-of-a-spouse
#7
Thomas Dellmann
While many single factors of prolonged grief have been identified in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of predictors is still lacking. This paper argues that shame and low self-esteem, present risk factors in prolonged grief after spousal loss, based on a review of correlational studies. Using a practitioner-scientist approach a developmental model of shame as a core factor in prolonged grief is proposed, outlining the progression from childhood relational trauma, to insecure attachment, shame, self-esteem contingent on spousal approval to eventual prolonged grief...
July 13, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703082/dental-injuries-in-younger-emergency-department-patients
#8
Vigil James, Yona R Vandersluis, Evangeline W J Zhang, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: Dental trauma is a relatively common occurrence in childhood, with an impact exceeding that of periodontal diseases. It places a significant burden on the public health system because of its high frequency, impact on quality of life and consumption of resources. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing trends of dental injury in patients between 0-18 years of age in Canada and provide a detailed assessment of dental injury patterns in patients attending a large pediatric tertiary care hospital...
July 13, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702265/rehabilitation-of-nose-following-chemical-burn-using-cad-cam-made-substructure-for-implant-retained-nasal-prosthesis-a-clinical-report
#9
Saurabh Chaturvedi, Tushar Bhagat, A K Verma, Vishwanath Gurumurthy, Mariyam Ali, Preeti Vadhwani, Mudita Chaturvedi
Insufficient knowledge of medical chemicals and their improper use have destructive effects. Accidental exposure to chemicals on facial tissue may result in large facial defect. For ages the tradition of piercing nose is common but improper use of unknown chemical for piercing has deleterious effect. Mostly rhinectomy defects are acquired caused by trauma or malignant diseases. Prosthetic rehabilitation is the preferred treatment of choice for any large rhinectomy defects as medical and surgical interventions are ineffective in developing esthetics...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700041/association-between-resilience-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-brazilian-victims-of-urban-violence-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#10
Stefania Pigatto Teche, Alcina Juliana Soares Barros, Regis Goulart Rosa, Luciano Pinto Guimarães, Kariny Larissa Cordini, Julia Domingues Goi, Simone Hauck, Lucia Helena Freitas
Introduction: This study investigated the association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Brazilian victims of urban violence. It also compared defense mechanisms, parental bonding, and childhood trauma between those who developed PTSD and those who did not. Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study included 66 adult subjects exposed to recent urban violence in southern Brazil - 33 with PTSD and 33 healthy controls matched by sex and age - who were administered the Resilience Scale, Defense Style Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
April 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699182/amygdala-and-hippocampus-volumes-are-differently-affected-by-childhood-trauma-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-and-healthy-controls
#11
Delfina Janiri, Gabriele Sani, Pietro De Rossi, Fabrizio Piras, Mariangela Iorio, Nerisa Banaj, Giulia Giuseppin, Edoardo Spinazzola, Matteo Maggiora, Elisa Ambrosi, Alessio Simonetti, Gianfranco Spalletta
OBJECTIVES: Volumetric studies on deep gray matter structures in bipolar disorder (BP) have reported contrasting results. Childhood trauma, a relevant environmental stressor for BP, could account for the variability of the results, modulating differences in the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BP compared with healthy controls (HC). Our study aimed to test this hypothesis. METHODS: We assessed 105 outpatients, diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) or bipolar disorder type II (BP-II) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, and 113 HC subjects...
July 12, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697624/evaluating-a-novel-intervention-to-reduce-trauma-symptoms-and-sexual-risk-taking-qualitative-exit-interviews-with-sexual-minority-men-with-childhood-sexual-abuse
#12
S Wade Taylor, Brett M Goshe, Samantha M Marquez, Steven A Safren, Conall O'Cleirigh
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) continues to affect sexual minority men (SMM) at disproportionate levels and contributes to multiple negative health outcomes, including sexual-risk taking and HIV acquisition. This paper presents qualitative evaluative feedback from SMM (N = 9) who participated in a 10-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Trauma and Sexual Health (CBT-TSH) intervention to reduce CSA-related posttraumatic stress reaction and distress. The treatment was designed to increase accurate sexual risk appraisals and to improve self-care health behaviors related to HIV/STI acquisition...
July 12, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694223/-it-s-not-as-easy-as-saying-just-get-them-to-eat-more-veggies-exploring-healthy-eating-in-residential-care-in-australia
#13
Rachael Cox, Ruth Emond, Samantha Punch, Ian McIntosh, Kate Hall, Angela Simpson, Helen Skouteris
Young people living in residential out-of-home care (henceforth OoHC) are at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. Currently, recognition of the everyday mechanisms that might be contributing to excess weight for children and young people in this setting is limited. The aim of this study was to better understand the barriers and complexities involved in the provision of a 'healthy' food environment in residential OoHC. Heightening awareness of these factors and how they might compromise a young person's physical health, will inform the development, refinement and evaluation of more sensitive and tailored weight-related interventions for this population...
July 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693577/somatoform-dissociation-and-posttraumatic-stress-syndrome-two-sides-of-the-same-medal-a-comparison-of-symptom-profiles-trauma-history-and-altered-affect-regulation-between-patients-with-functional-neurological-symptoms-and-patients-with-ptsd
#14
Johanna Kienle, Brigitte Rockstroh, Martin Bohus, Johanna Fiess, Silke Huffziger, Astrid Steffen-Klatt
BACKGROUND: History of traumatic experience is common in dissociative disorder (DD), and similarity of symptoms and characteristics between DD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) encouraged to consider DD as trauma-related disorder. However, conceptualization of DD as a trauma-related syndrome would critically affect diagnosis and treatment strategies. The present study addressed overlap and disparity of DD and PTSD by directly comparing correspondence of symptoms, adverse/traumatic experience, and altered affect regulation between patients diagnosed with dissociative disorder (characterized by negative functional neurological symptoms) and patients diagnosed with PTSD...
July 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693402/fix-my-child-the-importance-of-including-siblings-in-clinical-assessments
#15
Steve Farnfield
AIMS: This study examined concordance in the attachment strategies of school-aged siblings with reference to environmental risk in terms of poverty and maltreatment. It also investigated the effect of child maltreatment and maternal mental illness on children's psychosocial functioning in terms of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM) including unresolved trauma and the DMM Depressed modifier. METHODS: The attachment strategies of 30 sibling pairs, aged 5-14 years, were assessed using the School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA)...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693401/formulating-autism-systemically-part-1-a-review-of-the-published-literature-and-case-assessments
#16
Patricia M Crittenden
Autism is a psychiatric disorder of unknown aetiology. In this article, the literature on genetic, neurological, psychological, relational and cultural causes of autism is reviewed, beginning with the 2014 review of Crittenden, Dallos, Landini et al. (pp. 64-70) up to and including recent publications in 2017. Some of the findings were unexpected; others led to new questions. The unexpected findings were the minimal contribution of genes to autism, the extremely evident neurological differences, the interpersonal quality of the psychological findings (that lacked evidence of parents' behaviour), the relational evidence that mothers' childhood trauma, perinatal stress and marital stress increased the risk of autism, and the reciprocal relation between funding for treatment of autism and diagnoses of autism...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691361/impact-of-childhood-trauma-on-cognitive-profile-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Esther Jiménez, Brisa Solé, Bárbara Arias, Marina Mitjans, Cristina Varo, María Reinares, Caterina Del Mar Bonnín, Victoria Ruíz, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, M Paz García-Portilla, Patricia Burón, Julio Bobes, Benedikt L Amann, Anabel Martínez-Arán, Carla Torrent, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Benabarre
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive impairment even during remission periods. Nonetheless, this impairment seems to adjust to different profiles of severity. Our aim was to examine the potential impact of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive performance and, more specifically, on neurocognitive profile membership. METHODS: Using a data-driven strategy, 113 euthymic bipolar patients were grouped according to their cognitive performance using a hierarchical clustering technique...
July 10, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690565/evidence-for-anger-saliency-during-the-recognition-of-chimeric-facial-expressions-of-emotions-in-underage-ebola-survivors
#18
Martina Ardizzi, Valentina Evangelista, Francesca Ferroni, Maria A Umiltà, Roberto Ravera, Vittorio Gallese
One of the crucial features defining basic emotions and their prototypical facial expressions is their value for survival. Childhood traumatic experiences affect the effective recognition of facial expressions of negative emotions, normally allowing the recruitment of adequate behavioral responses to environmental threats. Specifically, anger becomes an extraordinarily salient stimulus unbalancing victims' recognition of negative emotions. Despite the plethora of studies on this topic, to date, it is not clear whether this phenomenon reflects an overall response tendency toward anger recognition or a selective proneness to the salience of specific facial expressive cues of anger after trauma exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689644/childhood-stress-and-adversity-is-associated-with-late-life-dementia-in-aboriginal-australians
#19
Kylie Radford, Kim Delbaere, Brian Draper, Holly A Mack, Gail Daylight, Robert Cumming, Simon Chalkley, Cecilia Minogue, Gerald A Broe
OBJECTIVES: High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. SETTING: Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689495/machine-learning-methods-to-predict-child-posttraumatic-stress-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Glenn N Saxe, Sisi Ma, Jiwen Ren, Constantin Aliferis
BACKGROUND: The care of traumatized children would benefit significantly from accurate predictive models for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), using information available around the time of trauma. Machine Learning (ML) computational methods have yielded strong results in recent applications across many diseases and data types, yet they have not been previously applied to childhood PTSD. Since these methods have not been applied to this complex and debilitating disorder, there is a great deal that remains to be learned about their application...
July 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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