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Childhood trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#1
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644722/the-effects-of-polyvictimization-and-quality-of-caregiver-attachment-on-disclosure-of-illegal-sexual-behavior
#2
Megan E Harrelson, Apryl A Alexander, Hugo B Morais, Barry R Burkhart
The current study examined the relationship among self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors and two conceptually relevant constructs in psychotherapy: childhood polyvictimization (i.e., cumulative types of victimization experienced during childhood) and caregiver attachment. Participants consisted of 63 adolescent males participating in mandated treatment for illegal sexual behavior. Childhood polyvictimization and caregiver attachment were expected to predict self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors. Quality of caregiver attachment was also expected to mediate the relationship between polyvictimization and disclosure...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641134/adverse-childhood-experiences-ace-and-adult-attachment-interview-aai-in-a-non-clinical-population
#3
Paula Thomson, S Victoria Jaque
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning...
June 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639706/exercise-for-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-for-improving-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Gilles Ceysens, Michel Boulvain
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with both short- and long-term complications for the mother and her baby. Exercise interventions may be useful in helping with glycaemic control and improve maternal and infant outcomes.The original review on Exercise for diabetic pregnant women has been split into two new review titles reflecting the role of exercise for pregnant women with gestational diabetes and for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. Exercise for pregnant women with gestational diabetes for improving maternal and fetal outcomes (this review) Exercise for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes for improving maternal and fetal outcomes OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions for improving maternal and fetal outcomes in women with GDM...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638959/-psychotraumatology-differentiation-extension-and-public-discourse
#5
REVIEW
A Maercker, M Augsburger
The first description of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the 1980s marked the origin of psychotraumatology. Based on the variety of developments in the meantime and being relevant for basic research and clinical application, a differentiation of diagnoses according to the new International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) are presented including PTSD, complex PTSD, prolonged grief disorder and adjustment disorder. In addition, extension towards traumatic and adverse childhood experiences and their significance for lifetime mental and somatic morbidity are described...
June 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#6
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638621/the-role-of-dsm-5-borderline-personality-symptomatology-and-traits-in-the-link-between-childhood-trauma-and-suicidal-risk-in-psychiatric-patients
#7
Bo Bach, Rita Fjeldsted
BACKGROUND: Childhood traumas appear to be linked to suicidal behavior. However, the factors that mediate between these two phenomena are not sufficiently understood. Recent findings suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) may explain some of the association. METHOD: The present study investigated the potential mediating role of BPD symptomatology and traits between reported childhood trauma and suicidal risk in adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 124)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633060/childhood-adversity-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-major-depression
#8
Katharina Dannehl, Winfried Rief, Frank Euteneuer
OBJECTIVE: Major depression is often accompanied by deficits in cognitive functioning and lowered executive functions. However, not all depressed patients show impairments in these domains. The aim of this study was to examine whether different kinds of childhood adversity might account for cognitive deficits in patients with major depression. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with major depression (DSM-IV) and 40 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, processing speed and executive functions...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632345/multiple-traumatic-experiences-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-offending-behaviour-in-female-prisoners
#9
Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Caroline Woolston, Prathima Apurva, Amelie Begley, Carol Quinn, Sally Jowett, Ruth Howard, Allister Purdie
BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that prisoners commonly have histories of childhood trauma, little is known about mediators between exposure to trauma and criminal behaviour. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesised that the experience of trauma in adulthood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional dysregulation would mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic events and later criminal behaviour. METHODS: Eighty-nine female prisoners were interviewed using standardised scales, in a cross-sectional study design...
June 20, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631695/-chronic-stress-and-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-systemic-scleroderma-results-of-an-interdisciplinary-study
#10
O F Seravina, T A Lisitsyna, M N Starovoytova, O V Desinova, O B Kovalevskaya, D Yu Veltishchev
AIM: To analyze of the prevalence of stressful factors and mental disorders (MDs), as well as their clinical psychopathological and clinical psychological characteristics to improve the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of systemic scleroderma (SSD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were performed in 110 patients (predominantly women (n=97 (88.2%); mean age, 49.9±2.47 years) with a documented diagnosis of SSD (its mean duration, 7.25±0.42 years). 62 (56...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627921/risk-factors-for-concurrent-suicidal-ideation-and-violent-impulses-in-military-veterans
#11
Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Nathan A Kimbrel, Mira Brancu, Jennifer Naylor, Robert Graziano, Eric Crawford
Suicide and violence are significant problems in a subset of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. This study investigates how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and resilience in veterans are associated with suicidal ideation and violent impulses while controlling for known covariates of both adverse outcomes. Structured clinical interviews were conducted of N = 2,543 Iraq/Afghanistan-era U.S. veterans. Compared with veterans denying suicidal ideation or violent impulses (n = 1,927), veterans endorsing both (n = 171) were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD, report childhood abuse, combat exposure, physical pain symptoms, and drug misuse, and less likely to endorse self-direction/life purpose...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627899/parenting-stress-as-a-mediator-of-trauma-exposure-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-young-children
#12
Melissa L Whitson, Joy S Kaufman
Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) significantly impacts outcomes for children in behavioral health systems of care (SOCs). The present study built on previous research that found parenting stress influences outcomes for children exposed to PTEs. The sample included 184 young children and their families who were enrolled in an early childhood SOC. Path analyses demonstrated that parenting stress mediated the relationship between the number of PTEs a child experienced and caregiver-reported internalizing/externalizing problem behaviors at baseline...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625692/implementation-of-clinical-effectiveness-guidelines-for-solid-organ-injury-after-trauma-10-year-experience-at-a-level-1-pediatric-trauma-center
#13
Christine M Leeper, Isam Nasr, Abigail Koff, Christine McKenna, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic imaging of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma is evolving in light of increased attention to radiation exposure. We hypothesize that the implementation of imaging guidelines has reduced total CT scans without missing clinically significant injury. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed blunt trauma patients age 0-17 with solid organ injury who underwent CT scan at our academic level 1 pediatric trauma center between 2005 and 2014. Variables including total annual trauma admissions and CT scans, demographics, injury characteristics, and procedures were recorded...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624866/update-on-psychological-trauma-other-severe-adverse-experiences-and-eating-disorders-state-of-the-research-and-future-research-directions
#14
REVIEW
Kathryn Trottier, Danielle E MacDonald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620868/osteoporosis-in-children-with-chronic-illnesses-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Monica Grover, Laura K Bachrach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoporosis is an under-recognized complication of chronic illness in childhood. This review will summarize recent literature addressing the risk factors, evaluation, and treatment for early bone fragility. RECENT FINDINGS: Criteria for the diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis include the presence of low trauma vertebral fractures alone or the combination of low bone mineral density and several long bone fractures. Monitoring for bone health may include screening for vertebral fractures that are common but often asymptomatic...
June 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620339/the-stress-acceleration-hypothesis-of-nightmares
#16
Tore Nielsen
Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619856/childhood-trauma-ptsd-and-the-cautious-forensic-expert
#17
Lance Amols, Spencer Eth
For centuries, medicine and psychiatry mirrored society's equivocations regarding childhood trauma. Those conflicts have mostly resolved, with widespread agreement that children are commonly exposed to traumatic events that may lead to PTSD and other mental conditions. The psychiatric and legal arguments should no longer be about the reality of childhood trauma in general; instead, experts should focus on the methodology of translating a particular child's narrative truth of maltreatment into a historical account, so that the expert can be qualified to offer criminal or civil court testimony after examining the child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619247/childhood-maltreatment-severity-is-associated-with-elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-body-mass-index-in-adult-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-diagnoses
#18
Monica Aas, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Eva Hoseth, Ragni Mørch, Elina Reponen, Nils Eiel Steen, Jannicke F Anderssen, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (<50 participants), and the severity of abuse and the putative influence of body mass index (BMI) have not been properly investigated. METHODS: The combined effects of childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs)...
June 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619017/borderline-personality-disorder-and-childhood-trauma-exploring-the-affected-biological-systems-and-mechanisms
#19
Nadia Cattane, Roberta Rossi, Mariangela Lanfredi, Annamaria Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: According to several studies, the onset of the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) depends on the combination between genetic and environmental factors (GxE), in particular between biological vulnerabilities and the exposure to traumatic experiences during childhood. We have searched for studies reporting possible alterations in several biological processes and brain morphological features in relation to childhood trauma experiences and to BPD. We have also looked for epigenetic mechanisms as they could be mediators of the effects of childhood trauma in BPD vulnerability...
June 15, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618290/defining-trauma-in-complex-care-management-safety-net-providers-perspectives-on-structural-vulnerability-and-time
#20
Ariana Thompson-Lastad, Irene H Yen, Mark D Fleming, Meredith Van Natta, Sara Rubin, Janet K Shim, Nancy J Burke
In this paper, we delineate how staff of two complex care management (CCM) programs in urban safety net hospitals in the United States understand trauma. We seek to (1) describe how staff in CCM programs talk about trauma in their patients' lives; (2) discuss how trauma concepts allow staff to understand patients' symptoms, health-related behaviors, and responses to care as results of structural conditions; and (3) delineate the mismatch between long-term needs of patients with histories of trauma and the short-term interventions that CCM programs provide...
June 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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