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Weight loss

Taiki Sugimoto, Akinori Nakamura, Takashi Kato, Kaori Iwata, Naoki Saji, Yutaka Arahata, Hideyuki Hattori, Masahiko Bundo, Kengo Ito, Shumpei Niida, Takashi Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. OBJECTS: To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI. METHODS: The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Haruna Furukawa, Yukinori Kurokawa, Shuji Takiguchi, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Tomoki Makino, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Makoto Yamasaki, Kiyokazu Nakajima, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
BACKGROUND: Total or proximal gastrectomy is usually performed for early proximal gastric carcinoma, but the optimal type of gastrectomy is still unknown. We evaluated short-term outcomes and nutritional status after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LsTG) in comparison with laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) and laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). METHODS: We analyzed 113 patients who underwent LsTG (n = 38), LTG (n = 48), or LPG (n = 27) for cStage I gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach...
August 20, 2017: Gastric Cancer
Bahattin Kemah, Burak Özturan, Bilge Bilgic, Korhan Özkan, Fuat Akpınar, Bulent Kılıc
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, noncaseating granulomatous disorder with wide systemic involvement. It is encountered widely around the world and it affects both sexes, all the races in all age groups. Lungs, eyes, and skin are the organs most commonly affected. Constitutional features such as weight loss, fatigue, and myalgia are the most common symptoms. Bone involvement, which is very rare, was reported as present in 3 to 13% of effected cases, and it is most commonly seen in hands and feet, compared with long bone involvement, which is extremely rare...
April 2017: Surg J (N Y)
Felipe Q da Luz, Jessica Swinbourne, Amanda Sainsbury, Stephen Touyz, Marly Palavras, Angelica Claudino, Phillipa Hay
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of overweight or obesity in people with eating disorders. However, therapies for eating disorders, namely binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, do not address weight management. Conversely, weight loss treatments for people with overweight or obesity do not address psychological aspects related to eating disorders. Thus we developed a new treatment for overweight or obesity with comorbid binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, entitled HAPIFED (a Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
Jian Liang, Jiwang Liang, Hairong Hao, Huan Lin, Peng Wang, Yanfang Wu, Xiaoli Jiang, Chaodi Fu, Qian Li, Ping Ding, Huazhen Liu, Qingping Xiong, Xiaoping Lai, Lian Zhou, Shamyuen Chan, Shaozhen Hou
Morinda officinalis is beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The hairy root with higher genetic and biochemical stability cultured from M. officinalis might have similar effects to treat IBD. In this study, the main chemical composition of the root extracts of M. officinalis (MORE) native plant and the hairy root extract of M. officinalis (MOHRE) was compared by quantitative HPLC. The difference of their therapeutic effects and potential mechanism was evaluated using 3% dextran sodium sulfate-induced chronic colitis in mice and T lymphocytes in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
C E Dumont, M J Keel, V Djonov, P C Haefeli, T Schmid, R Olariu, J L Cullmann, J D Bastian
BACKGROUND: The feasibility of harvesting a vascularized iliac crest utilizing the Pararectus approach was assessed in cadavers and then this new technique was implemented in a clinical case. METHODS: Bilaterally in five cadavers the branches of both external iliac arteries were injected with colored silicone to assess their position to each other and to harvest a bone graft vascularized by the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) through the Pararectus approach...
August 8, 2017: Injury
K E Horak, S J Bursian, C K Ellis, K M Dean, J E Link, K C Hanson-Dorr, F L Cunningham, K E Harr, C A Pritsos, K L Pritsos, K A Healy, D Cacela, S A Shriner
The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig released, millions of gallons of oil into the environment, subsequently exposing wildlife, including numerous bird species. To determine the effects of MC252 oil to species relevant to the Gulf of Mexico, studies were done examining multiple exposure scenarios and doses. In this study, laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla, LAGU) were offered fish injected with MC252 oil at target doses of 5 or 10mL/kg bw per day. Dosing continued for 27 days. Of the adult, mixed-sex LAGUs used in the present study, ten of 20 oil exposed LAGUs survived to the end of the study; a total of 10 of the oil exposed LAGUs died or were euthanized within 20 days of initiation of the study...
August 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
De-Cai Tian, Lei Su, Moli Fan, Jian Yang, Rui Zhang, Peng Wen, Yujuan Han, Changlu Yu, Chao Zhang, Honglei Ren, Kaibin Shi, Zilong Zhu, Yinhua Dong, Yaou Liu, Fu-Dong Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether bidirectional degeneration occurs within the visual pathway and, if so, the extent of such changes in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: In total, 36 NMOSD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were used to analyze damage to the posterior visual pathway. Damage to the anterior visual pathway was measured by optical coherence tomography...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Xiangdong Zhu, Yuchen Liu, Feng Qian, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang, Shicheng Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zhiyong Jason Ren
Hydrochar derived from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been recognized as a promising carbonaceous material for environmental remediation. Organic solvents are widely used to extract bio-oil from hydrochar after HTC, but the effects of solvent extraction on hydrochar characteristics have not been investigated. This study comprehensively analyzed the effects of different washing times and solvent types on hydrochar properties. Results indicate that the weight loss of hydrochar by tetrahydrofuran washing occurred mainly in the first 90 min, and the loss ratios of elements followed a descending order of H > C > O, resulting in a decrease in H/C atomic ratio while an increase in O/C atomic ratio...
August 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yue Zheng, Shizhi Wang, Peishi Yan
Objective: This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental × Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Methods: Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB) and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results: The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Saeed Shoar, Lauren Poliakin, Rebecca Rubenstein, Alan A Saber
BACKGROUND: Owing to the possibility of weight regain after the long-term follow-up of gastric bypass patients and because of the high morbidity of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADIS) has emerged as a rescue procedure in bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature data on SADIS. SETTING: University Hospital, NY. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed through October 2016 to identify English studies on SADIS performed in human subjects...
August 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Arash Khojasteh, Saeed Farzamfar, Korosh Mansouri, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Véronique Provencher, François Béland, Louise Demers, Johanne Desrosiers, Nathalie Bier, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Claude Galand, Dominic Julien, John D Fletcher, Lise Trottier, Benyahia Hami
Current studies show the relevance of geriatric prevention and rehabilitation programs to slow down the development of disability in community-dwelling older adults who are becoming frail. This evidence reveals the importance of improving knowledge on how individual components of frailty and specific disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) are related, to offer early, targeted, and tailored interventions. The objective was to examine the association between each of the five frailty phenotype components (weakness, slowness, exhaustion, low physical activity, weight loss) and disability in specific ADL pertaining to physical aspects (bathing, dressing, cutting toe nails, transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) and cognitive aspects (finances, telephone, medication)...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
Han Na Kim, Betiel Fesseha, Laura Anzaldi, Allison Tsao, Panagis Galiatsatos, Aniket Sidhaye
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Features suggesting severe insulin resistance include acanthosis nigricans, hyperandrogenism, weight loss, and recurrent hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis. In rare circumstances, hyperglycemia persists despite administration of massive doses of insulin. In these cases, it is important to consider autoimmune etiologies for insulin resistance such as type B insulin resistance and insulin antibody-mediated extreme insulin resistance, which carry high morbidity and mortality if untreated...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Y Han, S Zhang, J Zhang, C Ji, H-H Eckstein
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to highlight the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to assess safety and effectiveness in patients older than 80 years of age compared with younger patients. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were used; quality was appraised, and data were extracted and analysed following the Cochrane collaboration. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched on December 31, 2016...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
H Zhu, W Gao
Objective: To analyze the risk factors of nosocomial infection after liver transplantation in children, so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data of 223 pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation between January 2014 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to investigate the risk factors of infection after transplantation. Result: Totally 51 children were infected among the 223 patients, the infection rate was 22...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ester Marco, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Xavier Duran, Josep M Muniesa
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between malnutrition and nutrition-related conditions according to the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus and guidelines and clinical outcomes in postacute rehabilitation. METHODS: Of 102 eligible inpatients, 95 (84.5 years old, 63.2% women) fulfilled inclusion criteria: aged ≥70 years, body mass index <30kg/m(2), admission for rehabilitation. Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF≤11) identified patients "at risk" and ESPEN basic and etiology based definitions were applied...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Kazuki Kato, Tamotsu Kamishima, Eiji Kondo, Tomohiro Onodera, Shota Ichikawa
In previous studies, numerous approaches were proposed that assess knee cartilage volume quantitatively using 3D magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the clinical use of these approaches is limited because 3D MR is prone to metal artifacts in postoperative cases. Our purpose in this study was to validate a method for knee cartilage volume quantification using conventional MR imaging in patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. The study included 16 patients who underwent MR imaging before and 1 year after ACL reconstruction surgery...
August 18, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
Wahiba Elhag, Walid El Ansari, Sama Abdulrazzaq, Ali Abdullah, Mohamed Elsherif, Israa Elgenaied
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular treatment for adolescent morbid obesity. Research on LSG outcomes among adolescents assessed a narrow range of anthropometric, nutritional, or cardiometabolic parameters, leading to an incomplete picture of these changes. We examined a wide variety of anthropometric, nutritional, and cardiometabolic parameters among adolescents before and after LSG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all obese adolescents who underwent LSG at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, between January 2011 and June 2015 (N = 102)...
August 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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