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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243332/extrinsic-and-intrinsic-blood-supply-to-the-optic-chiasm
#1
Céline Salaud, Stéphane Ploteau, Pauline Blery, Paul Pilet, Olivier Armstrong, Antoine Hamel
INTRODUCTION: Although there have been many studies of the arterial cerebral blood supply, only seven have described the optic chiasm (OC) blood supply and their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic OC blood supply on cadaveric specimens using dissections and microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen human specimens were dissected and the internal or common carotid arteries were injected with red latex, China Ink with gelatin or barium sulfate...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242174/standard-anatomic-terminologies-comparison-for-use-in-a-health-information-exchange-based-prior-computed-tomography-ct-alerting-system
#2
Anton Oscar Beitia, Tina Lowry, Daniel J Vreeman, George T Loo, Bradley N Delman, Frederick L Thum, Benjamin H Slovis, Jason S Shapiro
BACKGROUND: A health information exchange (HIE)-based prior computed tomography (CT) alerting system may reduce avoidable CT imaging by notifying ordering clinicians of prior relevant studies when a study is ordered. For maximal effectiveness, a system would alert not only for prior same CTs (exams mapped to the same code from an exam name terminology) but also for similar CTs (exams mapped to different exam name terminology codes but in the same anatomic region) and anatomically proximate CTs (exams in adjacent anatomic regions)...
December 14, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241052/hydroxyapatite-chitosan-based-bioactive-hybrid-biomaterials-with-improved-mechanical-strength
#3
A Zima
Composites consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and chitosan (CTS) have recently been intensively studied. In this work, a novel inorganic-organic (I/O) HA/CTS materials in the form of granules were prepared through a simple solution-based chemical method. During the synthesis of these hybrids, the electrostatic complexes between positively charged, protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative phosphate species (HPO42- and H2PO4-) were formed. Our biocomposites belong to the class I of hybrids, which was confirmed by FTIR studies...
December 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238858/spatial-organization-of-chromosome-territories-in-the-interphase-nucleus-of-trisomy-21-cells
#4
Stephan Kemeny, Christophe Tatout, Gaelle Salaun, Céline Pebrel-Richard, Carole Goumy, Natasha Ollier, Eugenie Maurin, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Vago, Laetitia Gouas
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size...
December 14, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234455/vibration-thresholds-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-assessed-by-multiple-frequency-vibrometry-a-case-control-study
#5
Magnus Flondell, Birgitta Rosén, Gert Andersson, Tommy Schyman, Lars B Dahlin, Anders Björkman
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compression neuropathy, but there is no gold standard for establishing the diagnosis. The ability to feel vibrations in the fingertips is dependent on the function in cutaneous receptors and afferent nerves. Our aim was to investigate vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) in patients with CTS using multi-frequency vibrometry. Methods: Sixty-six patients (16 men and 50 women) with CTS, diagnosed from clinical signs and by electroneurography, and 66 matched healthy controls were investigated with multi-frequency vibrometry...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232214/the-comparison-between-effectiveness-of-ultrasound-guided-corticosteroid-injection-above-versus-below-the-median-nerve-in-mild-to-moderate-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Nadere Nikbakht, Bijan Forogh, Gholam Reza Raissi, Tannaz Ahadi, Safoora Ebadi, Peyman Roomizadeh, Hamid Reza Fadavi, Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat, Bina Eftekharsadat
OBJECTIVE: In this study the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection "above" versus "below" the median nerve for treatment of patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was compared. DESIGN: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial included 44 patients with mild to moderate CTS. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups to receive ultrasound-guided injection of 40 mg triamcinolone either "above" or "below" the involved median nerve...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230389/cyclic-tensile-strain-can-play-a-role-in-directing-both-intramembranous-and-endochondral-ossification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Simon F Carroll, Conor T Buckley, Daniel J Kelly
Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226050/determinants-of-computed-tomography-head-scan-ordering-for-patients-with-low-risk-headache-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Meaghan J Mackenzie, Rashi Hiranandani, Dongmei Wang, Tak Fung, Eddy Lang
Background Many specialty societies have found that neuroimaging in headache is a low-value intervention for benign presentations. This study describes factors that influence Emergency Room (ER) physicians' adherence to Choosing Wisely (CW) recommendations for low-risk headache patients presenting to Calgary's Emergency Departments (EDs). Emergency medicine has yet to address imaging in headache as a CW topic; however, this study may inform that decision. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for all patients presenting to Calgary EDs with headaches from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2016...
October 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221298/the-redax%C3%A2-coaxial-drain-in-pulmonary-lobectomy-a-study-of-efficacy
#9
Ottavio Rena, Sara Parini, Esther Papalia, Fabio Massera, Davide Turello, Guido Baietto, Caterina Casadio
Background: Pleural drainage is required after pulmonary lobectomy to evacuate air-leak and fluid. We compared the performance of the new Redax® Coaxial Drain (CD) (Redax, Mirandola, Italy) with a standard chest tube (CT) in terms of fluid and air-leak evacuation. Methods: Fifty-two patients receiving a 24-F CD under water-seal after pulmonary lobectomy through open surgery or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) were matched according to demographic, clinical and pathological variables with 104 patients receiving a 24-F CT...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218613/can-we-perform-ct-of-the-appendix-with-less-than-1-msv-a-de-escalating-dose-simulation-study
#10
Ji Hoon Park, Jong-June Jeon, Sung Soo Lee, Amar C Dhanantwari, Ji Ye Sim, Hae Young Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee
OBJECTIVES: To systematically explore the lowest reasonably achievable radiation dose for appendiceal CT using an iterative reconstruction (IR) in young adults. METHODS: We prospectively included 30 patients who underwent 2.0-mSv CT for suspected appendicitis. From the helical projection data, 1.5-, 1.0- and 0.5-mSv CTs were generated using a low-dose simulation tool and the knowledge-based IR. We performed step-wise non-inferiority tests sequentially comparing 2...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217497/prevalence-of-hyperdense-paraspinal-vein-sign-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-without-dural-csf-leak-on-standard-ct-myelography
#12
Michael S Clark, Felix E Diehn, Jared T Verdoorn, Vance T Lehman, Greta B Liebo, Jonathan M Morris, Kent R Thielen, John T Wald, Neeraj Kumar, Patrick H Luetmer
PURPOSE: A recently identified and treatable cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-venous fistula, and a recently described computed tomography myelogram (CTM) finding highly compatible with but not diagnostic of this entity is the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign. We aimed to retrospectively measure the prevalence of the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign on CTMs in SIH patients without dural CSF leak, in comparison with control groups. METHODS: Three CTM groups were identified: 1) SIH study group, which included dural CSF leak-negative standard CTMs performed for SIH, with early and delayed imaging; 2) Early control CTMs, which were performed for indications other than SIH, with imaging shortly after intrathecal contrast administration; 3) Delayed control CTMs, which included delayed imaging...
December 7, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215915/perspectives-on-the-relevance-of-the-circadian-time-structure-to-workplace-threshold-limit-values-and-employee-biological-monitoring
#13
Michael H Smolensky, Alain E Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen
The circadian time structure (CTS) and its disruption by rotating and nightshift schedules relative to work performance, accident risk, and health/wellbeing have long been areas of occupational medicine research. Yet, there has been little exploration of the relevance of the CTS to setting short-term, time-weighted, and ceiling threshold limit values (TLVs); conducting employee biological monitoring (BM); and establishing normative reference biological exposure indices (BEIs). Numerous publications during the past six decades document the CTS substantially affects the disposition - absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination - and effects of medications...
December 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214391/stroking-and-tapping-the-skin-behavioral-and-electrodermal-effects
#14
Roberta Etzi, Carlotta Carta, Alberto Gallace
Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212687/comparative-study-on-the-effectiveness-of-a-corticosteroid-injection-for-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-in-patients-with-and-without-raynaud-s-phenomenon
#15
Y H Roh, J H Noh, H S Gong, G H Baek
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a corticosteroid injection for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with and without Raynaud's phenomenon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, 139 patients with CTS were treated with a corticosteroid injection (10 mg triamcinolone acetonide); 34 had Raynaud's phenomenon and 105 did not (control group). Grip strength, perception of touch with a Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires (BCTQ) were assessed at baseline and at six, 12 and 24 weeks after the injection...
December 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209627/thermosensitive-chitosan-hydrogels-containing-polymeric-microspheres-for-vaginal-drug-delivery
#16
Ting-Ting Yang, Yuan-Zheng Cheng, Meng Qin, Yong-Hong Wang, Hong-Li Yu, An-Lin Wang, Wei-Fen Zhang
Thermosensitive hydrogels have increasingly received considerable attention for local drug delivery based on many advantages. However, burst release of drugs is becoming a critical challenge when the hydrogels are employed. Microspheres- (MS-) loaded thermosensitive hydrogels were thus fabricated to address this limitation. Employing an orthogonal design, the spray-dried operations of tenofovir (TFV)/Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP)/chitosan (CTS) MS were optimized according to the drug loading (DL). The physicochemical properties of the optimal MS (MS F) were characterized...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208486/controlled-release-biodegradable-nanoparticles-from-preparation-to-vaginal-applications
#17
Beatriz Martínez-Pérez, David Quintanar-Guerrero, Melina Tapia-Tapia, Ricardo Cisneros-Tamayo, María L Zambrano-Zaragoza, Sergio Alcalá-Alcalá, Néstor Mendoza-Muñoz, Elizabeth Piñón-Segundo
This study aimed to prepare poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with chitosan (CTS) surface modification to be used as a vaginal delivery system for antimycotic drugs. Clotrimazole was encapsulated with entrapment efficiencies of 86.1 and 68.9% into Clotrimazole-PLGA-NPs (CLT-PLGA-NPs) and PLGA-NPs with CTS-modified surface (CLT-PLGA-CTS-NPs), respectively. The later NPs exhibited a larger size and higher positive zeta potential (Z potential) in comparison to unmodified NPs. In vitro release kinetic studies indicated that Clotrimazole was released in percentages of >98% from both nanoparticulate systems after 18days...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206764/pet-ct-in-critically-ill-patients-diagnosing-the-unsuspected
#18
Romain Fort, Stanislas Ledochowski, Arnaud Friggeri
OBJECTIVE: Quick identification of septic source is fundamental in patients with severe sepsis of unknown origin. The purpose of this case report was to assess the benefit and feasibility of an early PET-CT in critically ill patients with undiagnosed sepsis. DATA SOURCES: Clinical observations of two patients. STUDY SELECTION: Case reports. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extracted from medical records, after patient's consent...
December 4, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206598/is-there-unmeasured-indication-bias-in-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-from-studies-of-computed-tomography
#19
Johanna M Meulepas, Michael Hauptmann, Jay H Lubin, Igor Shuryak, David J Brenner
Recently reported studies have associated radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scanning with small excess cancer risks. However, since existing medical records were used in these studies, they could not control for reasons for the CT scans and therefore, the results may have been confounded by indication. Here we conducted a study to estimate potential indication bias that could affect hazard ratios for colorectal, lung and female breast cancers by reasons for a CT scan. This involved a retrospective cohort study of electronic records from all patients aged 18-89 years without previous cancer diagnoses, who received at least one CT scan at Columbia University Medical Center in the period of 1994-2014...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205073/effects-of-citronella-oil-cymbopogon-winterianus-jowitt-ex-bor-on-spodoptera-frugiperda-j-e-smith-midgut-and-fat-body
#20
Cts Silva, V Wanderley-Teixeira, F M Cunha, J V Oliveira, K A Dutra, Dma Ferraz Navarro, Aac Teixeira
The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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