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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447373/avoiding-a-crisis-of-motivation-for-ocean-management-under-global-environmental-change
#1
REVIEW
Peter J Mumby, James N Sanchirico, Kenneth Broad, Michael W Beck, Peter Tyedmers, Megan Morikawa, Thomas A Okey, Larry B Crowder, Elizabeth A Fulton, Denny Kelso, Joanie A Kleypas, Stephan B Munch, Polita Glynn, Kathryn Matthews, Jane Lubchenco
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445546/a-coral-algal-phase-shift-in-mesoamerica-not-driven-by-changes-in-herbivorous-fish-abundance
#2
Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Tak Fung, Robert M Seymour, Joaquín Rodrigo Garza-Pérez, Gilberto Acosta-González, Yves-Marie Bozec, Craig R Johnson
Coral-algal phase shifts in which coral cover declines to low levels and is replaced by algae have often been documented on coral reefs worldwide. This has motivated coral reef management responses that include restriction and regulation of fishing, e.g. herbivorous fish species. However, there is evidence that eutrophication and sedimentation can be at least as important as a reduction in herbivory in causing phase shifts. These threats arise from coastal development leading to increased nutrient and sediment loads, which stimulate algal growth and negatively impact corals respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444302/draft-genome-of-the-lined-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#3
Qiang Lin, Ying Qiu, Ruobo Gu, Meng Xu, Jia Li, Chao Bian, Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Yanhong Zhang, Wei Luo, Jieming Chen, Xinxin You, Mingjun Fan, Min Sun, Pao Xu, Byrappa Venkatesh, Junming Xu, Hongtuo Fu, Qiong Shi
Background: The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus , is an Atlantic species and mainly inhabits shallow sea-beds or coral reefs. It has become very popular in China for its wide use in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to improve the aquaculture yield of this valuable fish species, we are trying to develop genomic resources for assistant selection in genetic breeding. Here, we provide whole genome sequencing, assembly and gene annotation of the lined seahorse, which can enrich genome resource and further application for its molecular breeding...
April 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#4
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#5
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#6
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425096/influence-of-coral-cover-and-structural-complexity-on-the-accuracy-of-visual-surveys-of-coral-reef-fish-communities
#7
D J Coker, J P Nowicki, N A J Graham
Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424344/mutualistic-cleaner-fish-maintains-high-escape-performance-despite-privileged-relationship-with-predators
#8
Simon Gingins, Dominique G Roche, Redouan Bshary
Predatory reef fishes regularly visit mutualistic cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) to get their ectoparasites removed but show no interest in eating them. The concept of compensated trait loss posits that characters can be lost if a mutualistic relationship reduces the need for a given trait. Thus, selective pressures on escape performance might have relaxed in L. dimidiatus due to its privileged relationship with predators. However, the cost of failing to escape a predatory strike is extreme even if predation events on cleaners are exceptionally rare...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#9
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411315/contamination-of-marine-fauna-by-chlordecone-in-guadeloupe-evidence-of-a-seaward-decreasing-gradient
#10
Charlotte R Dromard, Mathilde Guéné, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Soazig Lemoine, Sébastien Cordonnier, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide, used in the Lesser Antilles from 1972 to 1993 to fight against a banana weevil. That molecule is very persistent in the natural environment and ends up in the sea with runoff waters. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the level of contamination in several trophic groups of marine animals according to their distance from the source of pollution. Samples of suspended matter, macroalgae, herbivorous fishes, detrivorous crustaceans, zooplanktivorous fishes, first- and second-order of carnivorous fishes, and piscivorous fishes have been collected in two sites, located downstream the contaminated sites (Goyave and Petit-Bourg), in three marine habitats (coastal mangroves, seagrass beds located 1...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404773/not-equal-in-the-face-of-habitat-change-closely-related-fishes-differ-in-their-ability-to-use-predation-related-information-in-degraded-coral
#11
Maud C O Ferrari, Mark I McCormick, Bridie J M Allan, Douglas P Chivers
Coral reefs are biodiversity hotpots that are under significant threat due to the degradation and death of hard corals. When obligate coral-dwelling species die, the remaining species must either move or adjust to the altered conditions. Our goal was to investigate the effect of coral degradation on the ability of coral reef fishes to assess their risk of predation using alarm cues from injured conspecifics. Here, we tested the ability of six closely related species of juvenile damselfish (Pomacentridae) to respond to risk cues in both live coral or dead-degraded coral environments...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396400/social-interactions-among-grazing-reef-fish-drive-material-flux-in-a-coral-reef-ecosystem
#12
Michael A Gil, Andrew M Hein
In human financial and social systems, exchanges of information among individuals cause speculative bubbles, behavioral cascades, and other correlated actions that profoundly influence system-level function. Exchanges of information are also widespread in ecological systems, but their effects on ecosystem-level processes are largely unknown. Herbivory is a critical ecological process in coral reefs, where diverse assemblages of fish maintain reef health by controlling the abundance of algae. Here, we show that social interactions have a major effect on fish grazing rates in a reef ecosystem...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395577/developing-an-apicomplexan-dna-barcodoing-system-to-detect-blood-parasites-of-small-coral-reef-fishes
#13
Lance P Renoux, Maureen Dolan, Courtney Cook, Nico Smit, Paul Sikkel
Apicomplexan parasites are obligate parasites of many species of vertebrates. To date, there is very limited understanding of these parasites in the most diverse group of vertebrates, actinopterygian fishes. While DNA barcoding targeting the eukaryotic 18S small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence has been useful in identifying apicomplexans in tetrapods, identification of apicomplexans infecting fishes has relied solely on morphological identification by microscopy. In this study, a DNA barcoding method was developed that targets the 18S rRNA gene primers for identification apicomplexans parasitizing certain actinopterygian fishes...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391465/resilience-potential-of-an-indian-ocean-reef-an-assessment-through-coral-recruitment-pattern-and-survivability-of-juvenile-corals-to-recurrent-stress-events
#14
Balakrishnan Manikandan, Jeyaraman Ravindran, Pottekkatt Jayabalan Vidya, Selvaraju Shrinivasu, Rajagopal Manimurali, Kaliyaperumal Paramasivam
Coral reefs are degraded by the synergistic action of climate and anthropogenic stressors. Coral cover in the Palk Bay reef at the northern Indian Ocean largely declined in the past decade due to frequent bleaching events, tsunami and increased fishing activities. In this study, we carried out a comparative assessment to assess the differences in the recovery and resilience of three spatially distant reefs viz. Vedhalai, Mandapam and Pamban along Palk Bay affected by moderate, severe and low fishing pressure respectively...
April 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378059/facilitation-in-caribbean-coral-reefs-high-densities-of-staghorn-coral-foster-greater-coral-condition-and-reef-fish-composition
#15
Brittany E Huntington, Margaret W Miller, Rachel Pausch, Lee Richter
Recovery of the threatened staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean reef resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn coral across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn coral and reef fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population...
April 4, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376263/cleaning-service-gaps-in-bermuda-north-atlantic
#16
Cameron A J Walsh, Hudson T Pinheiro, Luiz A Rocha, Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley
Although cleaner fish are essential to the health of reef fish communities (Limbaugh 1961), the nature of cleaner-client relationships have proven to be quite complex (Côté 2000, Vaughn et al. 2016). In reef fish communities, cleaner species are classified into two categories: dedicated (recently suggested to replace the term obligate) and facultative (Vaughn et al. 2016). Dedicated cleaners acquire most of their food from cleaning client fishes, while facultative cleaners usually do not depend on cleaning for food...
April 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370319/historical-spatial-reconstruction-of-a-spawning-aggregation-fishery
#17
Sarah M Buckley, Ruth H Thurstan, Andrew Tobin, John M Pandolfi
Aggregations forming for breeding are a critical ecological process for many species, yet these aggregations are also inherently vulnerable to exploitation. Documenting the decline of exploited populations that form breeding aggregations is becoming increasingly common, but studies tend to focus upon catch rate, often overlooking reductions in geographic range. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that catch rate and occupancy of exploited fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) decline in synchrony over time...
March 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366739/the-evolution-of-fangs-venom-and-mimicry-systems-in-blenny-fishes
#18
Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen C Visser, Kate Baumann, James Dobson, Han Han, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Michael Morgan, Anthony Romilio, Vera Weisbecker, Syed A Ali, Jordan Debono, Ivan Koludarov, Ivo Que, Gregory C Bird, Gavan M Cooke, Amanda Nouwens, Wayne C Hodgson, Simon C Wagstaff, Karen L Cheney, Irina Vetter, Louise van der Weerd, Michael K Richardson, Bryan G Fry
Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355239/temporal-and-spatial-comparisons-of-the-reproductive-biology-of-northern-gulf-of-mexico-usa-red-snapper-lutjanus-campechanus-collected-a-decade-apart
#19
Dannielle H Kulaw, James H Cowan, Melissa W Jackson
In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2-7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352539/antimicrobial-activities-of-secondary-metabolites-and-phylogenetic-study-of-sponge-endosymbiotic-bacteria-bacillus-sp-at-agatti-island-lakshadweep-archipelago
#20
Gopi Mohan, Ajith Kumar Thipparamalai Thangappanpillai, Balagurunathan Ramasamy
Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB) namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
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