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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142110/global-reef-fish-richness-gradients-emerge-from-divergent-and-scale-dependent-component-changes
#1
Shane A Blowes, Jonathan Belmaker, Jonathan M Chase
Biodiversity varies from place to place due to environmental and historical factors. To improve our understanding of how history and the environment influence observed patterns, we need to address the limitations of the most commonly used biodiversity metric, species richness. Here, we show that scale-dependent dissections of species richness into components of total abundance, species relative abundances and spatial aggregations of species reveal that two well-known biogeographic reef fish species richness gradients emerge from very different underlying component patterns...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#2
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132921/empirical-data-demonstrates-risk-tradeoffs-between-landscapes-for-herbivorous-fish-may-promote-reef-resilience
#3
Caitlin R Fong, Matthew Frias, Nicholas Goody, Sarah Joy Bittick, Rachel J Clausing, Peggy Fong
Herbivores balance resource requirements with predation risk, which can differ among landscapes; hence, landscape can shape these trade-offs, influencing herbivore distribution and behavior. While this paradigm has been well established on coral-dominated reefs, tropical reefs worldwide are shifting to algal dominance. If herbivores avoid algae due to higher risk and forage in coral, these algal states may be stabilized. However, if herbivores forage more in resource-rich algal states, this may promote coral recovery...
November 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119574/effects-of-emf-emissions-from-undersea-electric-cables-on-coral-reef-fish
#4
Audie K Kilfoyle, Robert F Jermain, Manhar R Dhanak, Joseph P Huston, Richard E Spieler
The objective of this study was to determine if electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from undersea power cables impacted local marine life, with an emphasis on coral reef fish. The work was done at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Facility of Naval Surface Warfare Center in Broward County, Florida, which has a range of active undersea detection and data transmission cables. EMF emissions from a selected cable were created during non-destructive visual fish surveys on SCUBA. During surveys, the transmission of either alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), or none (OFF) was randomly initiated by the facility at a specified time...
November 9, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118135/mass-extinction-in-tetraodontiform-fishes-linked-to-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#5
Dahiana Arcila, James C Tyler
Integrative evolutionary analyses based upon fossil and extant species provide a powerful approach for understanding past diversification events and for assessing the tempo of evolution across the Tree of Life. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of integrating fossil and extant species for inferring patterns of lineage diversification that would otherwise be masked in analyses that examine only one source of evidence. We infer the phylogeny and macroevolutionary history of the Tetraodontiformes (triggerfishes, pufferfishes and allies), a group with one of the most extensive fossil records among fishes...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117191/detecting-conservation-benefits-of-marine-reserves-on-remote-reefs-of-the-northern-gbr
#6
Carolina Castro-Sanguino, Yves-Marie Bozec, Alexandra Dempsey, Badi R Samaniego, Katie Lubarsky, Stefan Andrews, Valeriya Komyakova, Juan Carlos Ortiz, William D Robbins, Philip G Renaud, Peter J Mumby
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is the largest network of marine reserves in the world, yet little is known of the efficacy of no-fishing zones in the relatively lightly-exploited remote parts of the system (i.e., northern regions). Here, we find that the detection of reserve effects is challenging and that heterogeneity in benthic habitat composition, specifically branching coral cover, is one of the strongest driving forces of fish assemblages. As expected, the biomass of targeted fish species was generally greater (up to 5-fold) in no-take zones than in fished zones, but we found no differences between the two forms of no-take zone: 'no-take' versus 'no-entry'...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116216/juvenile-fish-assemblages-in-temperate-rocky-reefs-are-shaped-by-the-presence-of-macro-algae-canopy-and-its-three-dimensional-structure
#7
Adrien Cheminée, Jérémy Pastor, Olivier Bianchimani, Pierre Thiriet, Enric Sala, Jean-Michel Cottalorda, Jean-Marie Dominici, Pierre Lejeune, Patrice Francour
Arborescent macro-algae forests covering temperate rocky reefs are a known habitat for juvenile fishes. However, in the Mediterranean, these forests are undergoing severe transformations due to pressures from global change. In our study, juvenile fish assemblages differed between pristine arborescent forests (Cystoseira brachycarpa var. balearica) versus an alternate state: bushland (Dictyotales - Sphacelariales). Forests hosted richer and three-fold more abundant juvenile assemblages. This was consistent through space, whatever the local environmental conditions, along 40 km of NW Mediterranean subtidal rocky shores (Corsica, France)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101467/scale-specific-drivers-of-kelp-forest-communities
#8
Thomas Lamy, Daniel C Reed, Andrew Rassweiler, David A Siegel, Li Kui, Tom W Bell, Rachel D Simons, Robert J Miller
Identifying spatial scales of variation in natural communities and the processes driving them is critical for obtaining a predictive understanding of biodiversity. In this study, we focused on diverse communities inhabiting productive kelp forests on shallow subtidal rocky reefs in southern California, USA. We combined long-term community surveys from 86 sites with detailed environmental data to determine what structures assemblages of fishes, invertebrates and algae at multiple spatial scales. We identified the spatial scales of variation in species composition using a hierarchical analysis based on eigenfunctions, and assessed how sea surface temperature (SST), water column chlorophyll, giant kelp biomass, wave exposure and potential propagule delivery strength contributed to community variation at each scale...
November 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096975/plastic-debris-collars-an-underreported-stressor-in-tropical-reef-fishes
#9
Joséde Anchieta C C Nunes, Cláudio L S Sampaio, Francisco Barros, Antoine O H C Leduc
Plastic debris collar wrappings (PDCW) are involved in the frequent entanglement of several groups of marine animals. In fishes, however aside from 'ghost fishing', PDCW events are rarely documented, and no record of this occurrence exists in tropical reef fishes. Here, we present records for four species afflicted by plastic debris collars. Observations occurred during snorkeling, and included the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus, Atlantic thread herring Ophistonema oglinum, tomtate grunt Haemulon aurolineatum and gray parrotfish Sparisoma axillare...
October 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093219/predators-indirectly-induce-stronger-prey-through-a-trophic-cascade
#10
Arie J P Spyksma, Nick T Shears, Richard B Taylor
Many prey species induce defences in direct response to predation cues. However, prey defences could also be enhanced by predators indirectly via mechanisms that increase resource availability to prey, e.g. trophic cascades. We evaluated the relative impacts of these direct and indirect effects on the mechanical strength of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus We measured crush-resistance of sea urchin tests (skeletons) in (i) two marine reserves, where predators of sea urchins are relatively common and have initiated a trophic cascade resulting in abundant food for surviving urchins in the form of kelp, and (ii) two adjacent fished areas where predators and kelps are rare...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093217/species-specific-impacts-of-suspended-sediments-on-gill-structure-and-function-in-coral-reef-fishes
#11
Sybille Hess, Leteisha J Prescott, Andrew S Hoey, Shannon A McMahon, Amelia S Wenger, Jodie L Rummer
Reduced water quality, in particular increases in suspended sediments, has been linked to declines in fish abundance on coral reefs. Changes in gill structure induced by suspended sediments have been hypothesized to impair gill function and may provide a mechanistic basis for the observed declines; yet, evidence for this is lacking. We exposed juveniles of three reef fish species (Amphiprion melanopus, Amphiprion percula and Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to suspended sediments (0-180 mg l(-1)) for 7 days and examined changes in gill structure and metabolic performance (i...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083300/fish-larval-recruitment-to-reefs-is-a-thyroid-hormone-mediated-metamorphosis-sensitive-to-the-pesticide-chlorpyrifos
#12
Guillaume Holzer, Marc Besson, Anne Lambert, Loïc François, Paul Barth, Benjamin Gillet, Sandrine Hughes, Gwenaël Piganeau, Francois Leulier, Laurent Viriot, David Lecchini, Vincent Laudet
Larval recruitment, the transition of pelagic larvae into reef-associated juveniles, is a critical step for the resilience of marine fish populations but its molecular control is unknown. Here, we investigate whether thyroid-hormones (TH) and their receptors (TR) coordinate the larval recruitment of the coral-reef-fish Acanthurus triostegus. We demonstrate an increase of TH-levels and TR-expressions in pelagic-larvae, followed by a decrease in recruiting juveniles. We generalize these observations in four other coral reef-fish species...
October 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080371/widespread-hybridization-and-bidirectional-introgression-in-sympatric-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#13
Hugo B Harrison, Michael L Berumen, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Eva Salas, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones
Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus)...
October 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080323/seascape-genomics-reveals-fine-scale-patterns-of-dispersal-for-a-reef-fish-along-the-ecologically-divergent-coast-of-northwestern-australia
#14
Joseph D DiBattista, Michael J Travers, Glenn I Moore, Richard D Evans, Stephen J Newman, Ming Feng, Samuel D Moyle, Rebecca J Gorton, Thor Saunders, Oliver Berry
Understanding the drivers of dispersal among populations is a central topic in marine ecology and fundamental for spatially explicit management of marine resources. The extensive coast of Northwestern Australia provides an emerging frontier for implementing new genomic tools to comparatively identify patterns of dispersal across diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Here, we focused on the stripey snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus), which is important to recreational, charter-based and customary fishers throughout the Indo-West Pacific...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078320/species-richness-accelerates-marine-ecosystem-restoration-in-the-coral-triangle
#15
Susan L Williams, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Christine Sur, Jessica M Abbott, Steven R Limbong
Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076535/spatial-patterns-of-fish-standing-biomass-across-brazilian-reefs
#16
R A Morais, C E L Ferreira, S R Floeter
A large fish-count dataset from the Brazilian province was used to describe spatial patterns in standing biomass and test if total biomass, taxonomic and functional trophic structure vary across nested spatial scales. Taxonomic and functional structure varied more among localities and sites than among regions. Total biomass was generally higher at oceanic islands and remote or protected localities along the coast. Lower level carnivores comprised a large part of the biomass at almost all localities (mean of 44%), zooplanktivores never attained more than 14% and omnivores were more representative of subtropical reefs and oceanic islands (up to 66% of total biomass)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070893/linking-fishes-to-multiple-metrics-of-coral-reef-structural-complexity-using-three-dimensional-technology
#17
M González-Rivero, A R Harborne, A Herrera-Reveles, Y-M Bozec, A Rogers, A Friedman, A Ganase, O Hoegh-Guldberg
Structural complexity strongly influences biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. On coral reefs, structural complexity is typically measured using a single and small-scale metric ('rugosity') that represents multiple spatial attributes differentially exploited by species, thus limiting a complete understanding of how fish associate with reef structure. We used a novel approach to compare relationships between fishes and previously unavailable components of reef complexity, and contrasted the results against the traditional rugosity index...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069096/community-assembly-of-coral-reef-fishes-along-the-melanesian-biodiversity-gradient
#18
Joshua A Drew, Kathryn L Amatangelo
The Indo-Pacific is home to Earth's most biodiverse coral reefs. Diversity on these reefs decreases from the Coral Triangle east through the islands of Melanesia. Despite this pattern having been identified during the early 20th century, our knowledge about the interaction between pattern and process remains incomplete. To evaluate the structure of coral reef fish communities across Melanesia, we obtained distributional records for 396 reef fish species in five taxa across seven countries. We used hierarchical clustering, nestedness, and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the community structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065152/a-deep-transcriptomic-resource-for-the-copepod-crustacean-labidocera-madurae-a-potential-indicator-species-for-assessing-near-shore-ecosystem-health
#19
Vittoria Roncalli, Andrew E Christie, Stephanie A Sommer, Matthew C Cieslak, Daniel K Hartline, Petra H Lenz
Coral reef ecosystems of many sub-tropical and tropical marine coastal environments have suffered significant degradation from anthropogenic sources. Research to inform management strategies that mitigate stressors and promote a healthy ecosystem has focused on the ecology and physiology of coral reefs and associated organisms. Few studies focus on the surrounding pelagic communities, which are equally important to ecosystem function. Zooplankton, often dominated by small crustaceans such as copepods, is an important food source for invertebrates and fishes, especially larval fishes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062597/ongoing-removals-of-invasive-lionfish-in-honduras-and-their-effect-on-native-caribbean-prey-fishes
#20
Friederike Peiffer, Sonia Bejarano, Giacomo Palavicini de Witte, Christian Wild
The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras) a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park) trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations...
2017: PeerJ
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