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Societal impact of research

T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Julie A Sorensen, Pamela J Tinc, Rebecca Weil, David Droullard
Risk behaviors are key drivers of occupationally related injuries and illnesses, considerably impacting the uptake and success of injury interventions, technologies, and practices. This is certainly true in the agricultural sector, where farmers often ignore recommended safety practices or have even been known to disable safety technologies. Although research studies have characterized specific individual safety or risk behaviors, few studies have thoroughly examined farmers' risk and safety orientations or how these develop in response to environmental and societal exposures...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Mark Hanson, Mary Barker, Jodie M Dodd, Shiriki Kumanyika, Shane Norris, Eric Steegers, Judith Stephenson, Shakila Thangaratinam, Huixia Yang
Prevention of obesity in women of reproductive age is widely recognised to be important both for their health and for that of their offspring. Weight-control interventions, including drug treatment, in pregnant women who are obese or overweight have not had sufficient impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes, which suggests that the focus for intervention should include preconception or post-partum periods. Further research is needed into the long-term effects of nutritional and lifestyle interventions before conception...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Brent Robert Heard, Shelie A Miller
The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
David J Keene, Dipesh Mistry, Julian Nam, Elizabeth Tutton, Robert Handley, Lesley Morgan, Emma Roberts, Bridget Gray, Andrew Briggs, Ranjit Lall, Tim Js Chesser, Ian Pallister, Sarah E Lamb, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Esther K Choo, Sherry L Emery
As states increasingly liberalize marijuana laws, high-quality research is needed that will inform the public and policymakers about the health and societal impact of these laws. However, there are many challenges to studying marijuana policy, including the heterogeneity of the drug and its use, the variability in the laws and their implementation from state to state, the need to capture a wide variety of relevant outcomes, and the poorly understood influence of marijuana commercialization. Furthermore, current instruments generally fail to distinguish between types of users and lack accurate and detailed measures of use...
October 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
I A Otto, C C Breugem, J Malda, A L Bredenoord
Biofabrication technologies have the potential to improve healthcare by providing highly advanced and personalized biomedical products for research, treatment and prevention. As the combining of emerging techniques and integrating various biological and synthetic components becomes increasingly complex, it is important that relevant stakeholders anticipate the translation of biofabricated 3D tissue products into patients and society. Ethics is sometimes regarded as a brake on scientific progress, yet from our perspective, ethics in parallel with research anticipates societal impacts of emerging technologies and stimulates responsible innovation...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Fausto Guzzetti
Landslides are one of several natural hazards. As other natural hazards, landslides are difficult to predict, and their forecasts are uncertain. The uncertainty depends on the poor understanding of the phenomena that control the slope failures, and on the inherent complexity and chaotic nature of the landslides. This is similar to other natural hazards, including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and droughts. Due to the severe impact of landslides on the population, the environment, and the economy, forecasting landslides is of scientific interest and of societal relevance, and scientists attempting to forecast landslides face known and new problems intrinsic to the multifaceted interactions between science, decision-making, and the society...
October 20, 2016: Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
S Evans-Lacko, M Knapp
PURPOSE: Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Research suggests that by far, the greatest contributor to the overall economic impact of depression is loss in productivity; however, there is very little research on the costs of depression outside of Western high-income countries. Thus, this study examines the impact of depression on workplace productivity across eight diverse countries. METHODS: We estimated the extent and costs of depression-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the workplace across eight countries: Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, South Africa, and the USA...
September 26, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jeffrey Cummings, Paul S Aisen, Bruno DuBois, Lutz Frölich, Clifford R Jack, Roy W Jones, John C Morris, Joel Raskin, Sherie A Dowsett, Philip Scheltens
The global impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to increase, and focused efforts are needed to address this immense public health challenge. National leaders have set a goal to prevent or effectively treat AD by 2025. In this paper, we discuss the path to 2025, and what is feasible in this time frame given the realities and challenges of AD drug development, with a focus on disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Under the current conditions, only drugs currently in late Phase 1 or later will have a chance of being approved by 2025...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Gillian D Sanders, Peter J Neumann, Anirban Basu, Dan W Brock, David Feeny, Murray Krahn, Karen M Kuntz, David O Meltzer, Douglas K Owens, Lisa A Prosser, Joshua A Salomon, Mark J Sculpher, Thomas A Trikalinos, Louise B Russell, Joanna E Siegel, Theodore G Ganiats
IMPORTANCE: Since publication of the report by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine in 1996, researchers have advanced the methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, and policy makers have experimented with its application. The need to deliver health care efficiently and the importance of using analytic techniques to understand the clinical and economic consequences of strategies to improve health have increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To review the state of the field and provide recommendations to improve the quality of cost-effectiveness analyses...
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
J D Schold, A I Reed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Aaron M Drucker, Annie R Wang, Wen-Qing Li, Erika Sevetson, Julie K Block, Abrar A Qureshi
To assess the patient-level and societal burden of atopic dermatitis, we comprehensively reviewed the literature related to quality of life, social, economic, academic, and occupational impacts. Atopic dermatitis has profound impacts on patient and family quality of life. A conservative estimate of the annual costs of atopic dermatitis in the United States is $5.297 billion (in 2015 USD). People with atopic dermatitis may change their occupation because of their skin disease. Research gaps include quality of life assessments outside of tertiary care centers, impacts on partners and families of adult patients, and updated comprehensive cost estimates...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Marjolein I Broese van Groenou, Alice De Boer
The ageing of society is leading to significant reforms in long-term care policy and systems in many European countries. The cutbacks in professional care are increasing demand for informal care considerably, from both kin and non-kin. At the same time, demographic and societal developments such as changing family structures and later retirement may limit the supply of informal care. This raises the question as to whether the volume of informal care (in people) will increase in the years ahead. This paper aims to provide a theoretical answer to this question in two steps...
2016: European Journal of Ageing
Louise Caffrey, David Wyatt, Nina Fudge, Helena Mattingley, Catherine Williamson, Christopher McKevitt
OBJECTIVES: Gender inequity has persisted in academic medicine. Yet equity is vital for countries to achieve their full potential in terms of translational research and patient benefit. This study sought to understand how the gender equity programme, Athena SWAN, can be enabled and constrained by interactions between the programme and the context it is implemented into, and whether these interactions might produce unintended consequences. DESIGN: Multimethod qualitative case studies using a realist evaluation approach...
2016: BMJ Open
Georgi Iskrov, Svetlan Dermendzhiev, Tsonka Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Rumen Stefanov
BACKGROUND: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. OBJECTIVE: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bizu Gelaye, Ijala Wilson, Hanna Y Berhane, Negussie Deyessa, Yonas Bahretibeb, Dawit Wondimagegn, Teshome Shibre Kelkile, Yemane Berhane, Jesse R Fann, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) is an ultra-brief questionnaire widely used by researchers and clinicians to detect major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite its individual and societal impact, MDD is often undetected and untreated particularly among sub-Saharan Africans. We conducted this study to evaluate the reliability and validity of using the PHQ-2 as a screen for MDD among Ethiopian adults. METHODS: A total of 926 adults attending outpatient departments in a major referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia participated in this study...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
João L Carapinha
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in South Africa (SA) with other middle- and high-income countries. METHODS: A comparative review of key features of the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in SA was undertaken using the Comparative Table of Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines developed by the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, and published country-level pharmacoeconomics guidelines. A random sample of guidelines in high- and middle-income countries were analyzed if data on all key features were available...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Luise Heinrich, Torsten Krause
Ocean acidification (OA) describes a change in the ocean's carbonate chemistry. Whereas its chemical processes are largely understood, the biological and socioeconomic consequences particularly in relation to fisheries are less known. Norway is a major fishing nation worldwide and is potentially affected by OA. To improve the understanding of the socioeconomic consequences of OA, we conducted a risk assessment among the Norwegian counties using a modified version of a risk assessment framework introduced in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's "Special Report: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation," which considers risk to be the sum of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability...
August 26, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Fiona McKenzie, Annelle Zietsman, Moses Galukande, Angelica Anele, Charles Adisa, Herbert Cubasch, Groesbeck Parham, Benjamin O Anderson, Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani, Joachim Schuz, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Valerie McCormack
INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) women with breast cancer (BC) have low survival rates from this potentially treatable disease. An understanding of context-specific societal, health-systems and woman-level barriers to BC early detection, diagnosis and treatment are needed. METHODS: The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) is a prospective hospital-based study of overall survival, impact on quality of life (QOL) and delays along the journey to diagnosis and treatment of BC in SSA...
2016: BMJ Open
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