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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781967/qualitative-research-in-correctional-settings-researcher-bias-western-ideological-influences-and-social-justice
#1
Morgan Wadams, Tanya Park
Within correctional settings, justice, health, and academic systems overlap for forensic nurse researchers. Within an environment that stresses social control, a researcher's implicit views, perspectives, and biases can lead to altering the authentic (re)presentation of a participant's experience. Researcher bias may be influenced by predominately western ideologies and societal discourses. Qualitative methods to mitigate and raise awareness around researcher biases include bracketing, unstructured interviews, diverse peer review, thinking inductively, investigator responsiveness, and critical reflexivity...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772397/grandmother-and-health-care-professional-breastfeeding-perspectives-provide-opportunities-for-health-promotion-in-an-american-indian-community
#2
Bailey Houghtaling, Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Elizabeth Rink
RATIONALE: While breastfeeding is well recognized as beneficial, rates of breastfeeding among American Indian women are below average and contribute to health inequities. Culturally specific approaches to breastfeeding research are called for to inform appropriate interventions in American Indian communities. Specifically, a grandmother's role in breastfeeding promotion is of great import particularly in American Indian (AI) groups, although is an understudied topic to date. OBJECTIVE: This research seeks to fill a prominent literature gap by utilizing a grounded theory and community-based research approach to inform breastfeeding practices from the voices of grandmothers and health care professionals in a rural AI community in the United States...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757076/economic-evaluation-of-concussion-programs-in-the-state-of-idaho-the-collective-potential-of-prevention-and-clinical-care
#3
Susie Bergeron, Hilary Flint, Zeynep Hansen
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, especially among young children, teenagers, and young adults, is a significant problem in Ada County, Idaho, and the United States. Although much has been learned about concussion, considerable controversy and gaps in knowledge still exist in many areas of research, leading to variation in concussion assessment, treatment, and management protocols. Health systems can positively impact concussion outcomes through community education and outreach, and provision of timely, coordinated, evidence-based clinical care...
May 14, 2018: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754324/cost-utility-analysis-of-an-intervention-designed-to-reduce-the-critical-handling-error-of-insufficient-inspiratory-effort
#4
Rebecca Forster, Aran Ratcliffe, Megan Lewis, Amy Crossley, Julio López Bastida, William C N Dunlop
OBJECTIVES: Up to 70-80% of patients use inhalers incorrectly. Dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) require forceful inhalation for optimal delivery, and approximately 40% of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined Step-3+ patients inhale corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist through DPIs. The CRITIKAL study (Price et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 5:1071-e9-1081-e9, 2017) found a statistically significant association between 'insufficient inspiratory effort' error and increased risk of uncontrolled asthma and hospitalisation-requiring exacerbations...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749346/hierarchical-nanostructures-for-functional-materials
#5
Zhao Qin, Markus J Buehler
Naturally occurring biomaterials often have amazing functions, such as mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, biological, optical and acoustic. These superior performances are often due to their hierarchical organizations of natural materials, starting from the nanoscopic scale and extending all the way to the macroscopic level. This topical issue features articles dedicated to understanding, designing and characterizing complex de novo hierarchical materials for a variety of applications. This research area is quickly evolving, and we hope that future work will drive the rational designs of innovative functional materials and generate deep impacts to broad engineering fields that address major societal challenges and needs...
May 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748342/impact-investigating-the-impact-of-models-of-practice-for-allied-health-care-in-subacute-settings-a-protocol-for-a-quasi-experimental-mixed-methods-study-of-cost-effectiveness-and-outcomes-for-patients-exposed-to-different-models-of-allied-health-care
#6
Freya Coker, Cylie M Williams, Nicholas F Taylor, Kirsten Caspers, Fiona McAlinden, Anita Wilton, Nora Shields, Terry P Haines
INTRODUCTION: This protocol considers three allied health staffing models across public health subacute hospitals. This quasi-experimental mixed-methods study, including qualitative process evaluation, aims to evaluate the impact of additional allied health services in subacute care, in rehabilitation and geriatric evaluation management settings, on patient, health service and societal outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This health services research will analyse outcomes of patients exposed to different allied health models of care at three health services...
May 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736277/why-miltefosine-a-life-saving-drug-for-leishmaniasis-is-unavailable-to-people-who-need-it-the-most
#7
REVIEW
Temmy Sunyoto, Julien Potet, Marleen Boelaert
Miltefosine, the only oral drug approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis-a parasitic disease transmitted by sandflies-is considered as a success story of research and development (R&D) by a public-private partnership (PPP). It epitomises the multiple market failures faced by a neglected disease drug: patients with low ability to pay, neglect by authorities and uncertain market size. Originally developed as an anticancer agent in the 1990s, the drug was registered in India in 2002 to treat the fatal visceral leishmaniasis...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732255/herbarium-data-global-biodiversity-and-societal-botanical-needs-for-novel-research
#8
REVIEW
Shelley A James, Pamela S Soltis, Lee Belbin, Arthur D Chapman, Gil Nelson, Deborah L Paul, Matthew Collins
Building on centuries of research based on herbarium specimens gathered through time and around the globe, a new era of discovery, synthesis, and prediction using digitized collections data has begun. This paper provides an overview of how aggregated, open access botanical and associated biological, environmental, and ecological data sets, from genes to the ecosystem, can be used to document the impacts of global change on communities, organisms, and society; predict future impacts; and help to drive the remediation of change...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731262/wasp-write-a-scientific-paper-plagiarism-and-the-ethics-of-dealing-with-colleagues
#9
Josanne Vassallo
This paper aims to define and discuss the various forms and degrees of plagiarism. The potential consequences of this particular form of scientific misconduct will be highlighted. The overarching principles in ensuring adherence to research and work ethics are reviewed and the necessity for honesty, objectivity, integrity, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality as well as responsible publication emphasised. The "Publish or Perish" mantra has led to an increasing need for an understanding of the responsibilities related to authorship, acknowledgments and what these encompass...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713258/researcher-and-author-impact-metrics-variety-value-and-context
#10
REVIEW
Armen Yuri Gasparyan, Marlen Yessirkepov, Akmaral Duisenova, Vladimir I Trukhachev, Elena I Kostyukova, George D Kitas
Numerous quantitative indicators are currently available for evaluating research productivity. No single metric is suitable for comprehensive evaluation of the author-level impact. The choice of particular metrics depends on the purpose and context of the evaluation. The aim of this article is to overview some of the widely employed author impact metrics and highlight perspectives of their optimal use. The h -index is one of the most popular metrics for research evaluation, which is easy to calculate and understandable for non-experts...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712800/advances-in-risk-assessment-for-climate-change-adaptation-policy
#11
W Neil Adger, Iain Brown, Swenja Surminski
Climate change risk assessment involves formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and the options for addressing these under societal constraints. Conventional approaches to risk assessment are challenged by the significant temporal and spatial dynamics of climate change; by the amplification of risks through societal preferences and values; and through the interaction of multiple risk factors. This paper introduces the theme issue by reviewing the current practice and frontiers of climate change risk assessment, with specific emphasis on the development of adaptation policy that aims to manage those risks...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712795/transmission-of-climate-risks-across-sectors-and-borders
#12
REVIEW
Andy J Challinor, W Neil Adger, Tim G Benton, Declan Conway, Manoj Joshi, Dave Frame
Systemic climate risks, which result from the potential for cascading impacts through inter-related systems, pose particular challenges to risk assessment, especially when risks are transmitted across sectors and international boundaries. Most impacts of climate variability and change affect regions and jurisdictions in complex ways, and techniques for assessing this transmission of risk are still somewhat limited. Here, we begin to define new approaches to risk assessment that can account for transboundary and trans-sector risk transmission, by presenting: (i) a typology of risk transmission that distinguishes clearly the role of climate versus the role of the social and economic systems that distribute resources; (ii) a review of existing modelling, qualitative and systems-based methods of assessing risk and risk transmission; and (iii) case studies that examine risk transmission in human displacement, food, water and energy security...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712528/markov-modeling-for-the-neurosurgeon-a-review-of-the-literature-and-an-introduction-to-cost-effectiveness-research
#13
Arvin R Wali, Michael G Brandel, David R Santiago-Dieppa, Robert C Rennert, Jeffrey A Steinberg, Brian R Hirshman, James D Murphy, Alexander A Khalessi
OBJECTIVE Markov modeling is a clinical research technique that allows competing medical strategies to be mathematically assessed in order to identify the optimal allocation of health care resources. The authors present a review of the recently published neurosurgical literature that employs Markov modeling and provide a conceptual framework with which to evaluate, critique, and apply the findings generated from health economics research. METHODS The PubMed online database was searched to identify neurosurgical literature published from January 2010 to December 2017 that had utilized Markov modeling for neurosurgical cost-effectiveness studies...
May 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709284/the-lancet-countdown-on-health-benefits-from-the-uk-climate-change-act-a-modelling-study-for-great-britain
#14
Martin L Williams, Melissa C Lott, Nutthida Kitwiroon, David Dajnak, Heather Walton, Mike Holland, Steve Pye, Daniela Fecht, Mireille B Toledano, Sean D Beevers
BACKGROUND: Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. METHODS: In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes...
May 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705929/pharmacomicrobiomics-a-novel-route-towards-personalized-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Marwah Doestzada, Arnau Vich Vila, Alexandra Zhernakova, Debby P Y Koonen, Rinse K Weersma, Daan J Touw, Folkert Kuipers, Cisca Wijmenga, Jingyuan Fu
Inter-individual heterogeneity in drug response is a serious problem that affects the patient's wellbeing and poses enormous clinical and financial burdens on a societal level. Pharmacogenomics has been at the forefront of research into the impact of individual genetic background on drug response variability or drug toxicity, and recently the gut microbiome, which has also been called the second genome, has been recognized as an important player in this respect. Moreover, the microbiome is a very attractive target for improving drug efficacy and safety due to the opportunities to manipulate its composition...
April 28, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700832/-ingredients-of-a-supportive-web-of-caring-relationships-at-the-end-of-life-findings-from-a-community-research-project-in-austria
#16
Klaus Wegleitner, Patrick Schuchter, Sonja Prieth
In accordance with the pluralisation of life plans in late modernity, the societal organisation of care at the end of life is diverse. Although the public discourse in western societies is dominated by questions about optimising specialised palliative care services, public health approaches, which take into account the social determinants and inequalities in end-of-life care, have gained in importance over the last decade. Conceptual aspects, dimensions of impact and benefit for the dying and their communities are well discussed in the public health end-of-life care research literature...
April 27, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700615/sociodemographic-differences-in-10-year-time-trends-of-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-among-adolescents-attending-secondary-schools-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#17
Cornelia Leontine van Vuuren, Daan G Uitenbroek, Marcel F van der Wal, Mai J M Chinapaw
Societal change in western societies may impact emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents. Firm epidemiological evidence of changes in emotional and behavioural problems during the last decade is lacking. Insight into secular changes in emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents from various sociodemographic groups is crucial for adequate and targeted policy making. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine 10-year time trends in emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents, and potential differences in time trends between sociodemographic groups...
April 26, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683382/public-health-system-delivered-mental-health-preventive-care-links-to-significant-reduction-of-health-care-costs
#18
Jie Chen, Priscilla Novak, Howard Goldman
The objective was to estimate the association between health care expenditures and implementation of preventive mental health programs by local health departments (LHDs). Multilevel nationally representative data sets were linked to test the hypothesis that LHDs' provision of preventive mental health programs was associated with cost savings. A generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution and state-fixed effects was used to estimate the association between LHDs' mental illness prevention services and total health care expenditures per person per year for adults aged 18 years and older...
April 23, 2018: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672243/sovereignty-and-social-justice-how-the-concepts-affect-federal-american-indian-policy-and-american-indian-health
#19
Donalee Unal
The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty...
April 19, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652175/the-work-programme-of-neris-in-post-accident-recovery
#20
T Schneider, S Andronopoulos, J Camps, T Duranova, E Gallego, F Gering, O Isnard, M Maître, C Murith, D Oughton, W Raskob
NERIS is the European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery. Created in 2010 with 57 organisations from 28 different countries, the objectives of the platform are to: improve the effectiveness and coherency of current approaches to preparedness; identify further development needs; improve 'know how' and technical expertise; and establish a forum for dialogue and methodological development. The NERIS Strategic Research Agenda is now structured with three main challenges: (i) radiological impact assessments during all phases of nuclear and radiological events; (ii) countermeasures and countermeasure strategies in emergency and recovery, decision support, and disaster informatics; and (iii) setting up a multi-faceted framework for preparedness for emergency response and recovery...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
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