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Societal impact of research

Muhammad Fahim, Thar Baker, Asad Masood Khattak, Babar Shah, Saiqa Aleem, Francis Chow
Sedentary behaviour is increasing due to societal changes and is related to prolonged periods of sitting. There is sufficient evidence proving that sedentary behaviour has a negative impact on people's health and wellness. This paper presents our research findings on how to mine the temporal contexts of sedentary behaviour by utilizing the on-board sensors of a smartphone. We use the accelerometer sensor of the smartphone to recognize user situations (i.e., still or active). If our model confirms that the user context is still, then there is a high probability of being sedentary...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Richard C Mather, Shane J Nho, Andrew Federer, Berna Demiralp, Jennifer Nguyen, Asha Saavoss, Michael J Salata, Marc J Philippon, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher M Larson, J W Thomas Byrd, Lane Koenig
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have increased steadily within the past decade, and research indicates clinically significant improvements after treatment of FAI with hip arthroscopy. PURPOSE: This study examined the societal and economic impact of hip arthroscopy by high-volume surgeons for patients with FAI syndrome aged <50 years with noncontroversial diagnosis and indications for surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Antonius J van Rooij, Christopher J Ferguson, Michelle Colder Carras, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Jing Shi, Espen Aarseth, Anthony M Bean, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Anne Brus, Mark Coulson, Jory Deleuze, Pravin Dullur, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Malte Elson, Peter J Etchells, Anne Fiskaali, Isabela Granic, Jeroen Jansz, Faltin Karlsen, Linda K Kaye, Bonnie Kirsh, Andreas Lieberoth, Patrick Markey, Kathryn L Mills, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Amy Orben, Arne Poulsen, Nicole Prause, Patrick Prax, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Nigel E Turner, Jan van Looy, Andrew K Przybylski
We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Benjamin W Mann
While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
N Ammon, S Mason, J M Corkery
OBJECTIVES: Eighty-two percent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adolescents live in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), adherence levels are suboptimal, leading to poor outcomes. This systematic review investigated factors impacting ART adherence among adolescents in SSA, including religious beliefs and intimate relationships. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted between June and August 2016 using eight electronic databases, including Cochrane and PubMed...
March 1, 2018: Public Health
Pascal Borry, Timothy Caulfield, Xavier Estivill, Sigmund Loland, Michael McNamee, Bartha Maria Knoppers
Through the widespread availability of location-identifying devices, geolocalisation could potentially be used to place athletes during out-of-competition testing. In light of this debate, the WADA Ethics Panel formulated the following questions: (1) should WADA and/or other sponsors consider funding such geolocalisation research projects?, (2) if successful, could they be proposed to athletes as a complementary device to Anti-Doping Administration and Management System to help geolocalisation and reduce the risk of missed tests? and (3) should such devices be offered on a voluntary basis, or is it conceivable that they would be made mandatory for all athletes in registered testing pools? In this position paper, the WADA Ethics Panel concludes that the use of geolocalisation could be useful in a research setting with the goal of understanding associations between genotype, phenotype and environment; however, it recognises that the use of geolocalisation as part of or as replacement of whereabouts rules is replete with ethical concerns...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
I Chanavaz-Lacheray, E Darai, P Descamps, A Agostini, M Poilblanc, P Rousset, P-A Bolze, P Panel, P Collinet, T Hebert, O Graesslin, H Martigny, J-L Brun, H Dechaud, C Mezan De Malartic, L Piechon, A Wattiez, C Chapron, F Golfier
OBJECTIVES: The Collège national des gynécologues obstétriciens français (CNGOF), in agreement with the Société de chirurgie gynécologique et pelvienne (SCGP), has set up a commission in 2017 to define endometriosis expert centres, with the aim of optimizing endometriosis care in France. METHODS: The committee included members from university and general hospitals as well as private facilities, representing medical, surgical and radiological aspects of endometriosis care...
February 25, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Jean-François Dhainaut, Laure Huot, Valérie Bouchara Pomar, Claude Dubray
Connected objects (CO), whether medical devices or not, are used in clinical research for data collection, a specific activity (communication, diagnosis, effector, etc.), or several functions combined. Their validation should be based on three approaches: technical and clinical reliability, data protection and cybersecurity. Consequently, the round table recommends that the typology of COs, their uses and limitations, be known and shared by all, particularly for implementing precise specifications. COs are used in clinical research during observational studies (assessment of the device itself or data collection), randomized studies, where only one group has a CO (assessment of its impact on patient follow-up or management), or randomized studies where both groups have a CO, which is then used as a tool to help with assessment...
January 11, 2018: Thérapie
Rachel Kornhaber, Charmaine Childs, Michelle Cleary
BACKGROUND: A significant burn can severely impact the lives of survivors and their carers. This systematic review sought to incorporate the experiences of guilt, blame and shame across the lifespan for burn survivors, their families as well as the experiences of the parents of burned children. METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of guilt, blame and shame by those affected by burn trauma across the lifespan. The databases, Pubmed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO were systematically searched...
February 14, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Sascha Friesike, Benedikt Fecher, Gert G Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Nature
Vural Özdemir, Simon Springer
Diversity is increasingly at stake in early 21st century. Diversity is often conceptualized across ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual preference, and professional credentials, among other categories of difference. These are important and relevant considerations and yet, they are incomplete. Diversity also rests in the way we frame questions long before answers are sought. Such diversity in the framing (epistemology) of scientific and societal questions is important for they influence the types of data, results, and impacts produced by research...
February 12, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gordon B Bonan, Scott C Doney
Many global change stresses on terrestrial and marine ecosystems affect not only ecosystem services that are essential to humankind, but also the trajectory of future climate by altering energy and mass exchanges with the atmosphere. Earth system models, which simulate terrestrial and marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, offer a common framework for ecological research related to climate processes; analyses of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation; and climate change mitigation. They provide an opportunity to move beyond physical descriptors of atmospheric and oceanic states to societally relevant quantities such as wildfire risk, habitat loss, water availability, and crop, fishery, and timber yields...
February 2, 2018: Science
Donal O'Keeffe, Ann Sheridan, Aine Kelly, Roisin Doyle, Kevin Madigan, Elizabeth Lawlor, Mary Clarke
Little is known about how recovery oriented policy and legislative changes influence service users' perceptions of mental health care over time. Although the recovery approach is endorsed in many countries, qualitative research examining its impact on service use experiences has been lacking. This study aimed to explore this impact as well as experiences of service utilisation and suggestions for change with people diagnosed with a First Episode Psychosis between 1995 and 1999. Participants had used services during the 10 year period prior to, and 10 years post, policy and legislative shifts to the recovery approach...
February 6, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity continue to increase. While it is evident that the increasing incidence of diabetes confers a global societal and economic burden, the mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of T2D are not well understood. Extensive efforts to understand the association of early life perturbations with later onset of metabolic diseases, the founding principle of DOHaD, have been crucial in determining the mechanisms that may be driving the pathogenesis of T2D...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han, James P Allinson, R Graham Barr, Richard C Boucher, Peter Calverley, Bartolome R Celli, Stephanie A Christenson, Ronald G Crystal, Malin Fagerås, Christine M Freeman, Lars Groenke, Eric A Hoffman, Mehmet Kesimer, Konstantinos Kostikas, Robert Paine Iii, Shahin Rafii, Stephen I Rennard, Leopoldo N Segal, Renat Shaykhiev, Christopher Stevenson, Ruth Tal-Singer, Jørgen Vestbo, Prescott G Woodruff, Jeffrey L Curtis, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder with varying presentations and progression, but limited disease-modifying therapies. Trajectories of lung function decline in COPD differ significantly between individuals, with differences detectable in young adulthood. "Early disease" (initial manifestations in young individuals) should be distinguished from "late mild disease" (disease of mild severity in older individuals potentially present for decades). For research purposes, we propose an operational definition of early COPD: ever-smokers (≥10 pack-years) younger than 50 years with any of these abnormalities: (1) FEV1/FVC< lower limit of normal; (2) compatible CT abnormalities (airway abnormality and/or emphysema); or (3) FEV1 decline (≥60 mL/year)...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ian D Graham, Anita Kothari, Chris McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Health research is conducted with the expectation that it advances knowledge and eventually translates into improved health systems and population health. However, research findings are often caught in the know-do gap: they are not acted upon in a timely way or not applied at all. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is advanced as a way to increase the relevance, applicability and impact of research. With IKT, knowledge users work with researchers throughout the research process, starting with identification of the research question...
February 2, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Hyejin Kim, Mi-Kyung Song
BACKGROUND: Adults who lack decision-making capacity and a surrogate ("unbefriended" adults) are a vulnerable, voiceless population in health care. But little is known about this population, including how medical decisions are made for these individuals. OBJECTIVE: This integrative review was to examine what is known about unbefriended adults and identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched using 4 keywords: "unbefriended," "unrepresented patients," "adult orphans," and "incapacitated patients without surrogates...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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