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Societal impact of research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222735/advancing-gender-equality-through-the-athena-swan-charter-for-women-in-science-an-exploratory-study-of-women-s-and-men-s-perceptions
#1
Pavel V Ovseiko, Alison Chapple, Laurel D Edmunds, Sue Ziebland
BACKGROUND: While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom...
February 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213346/costs-of-family-caregiving-in-palliative-care-cofac-questionnaire-development-and-piloting-of-a-new-survey-tool
#2
Clare Gardiner, Chris McDermott, Claire Hulme
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers play an important role in the care of patients receiving palliative care, yet little is known about the financial impact of family caregiving in this context. A lack of existing validated tools for collecting data on the costs of family caregiving in palliative care has resulted in a weak and limited evidence base. The aim of the study was to describe the development and initial piloting of a new survey tool which captures data on the costs of family caregiving in palliative care: the Costs of Family Caregiving (COFAC) questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212816/social-science-s-curious-war-with-pop-culture-and-how-it-was-lost-the-media-violence-debate-and-the-risks-it-holds-for-social-science
#3
REVIEW
Christopher J Ferguson, Eugene Beresin
For nearly half a century, psychologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists have studied the potential impact of media violence on aggression and societal violence, particularly among youth. Despite hundreds of studies, scholars have failed to find consensus on potential effects. Nonetheless, professional organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychological Association have released policy statements conclusively linking violent media to societal concerns. In reaction, some scholars have accused these professional groups of distorting evidence and failing to inform the public of the inconsistent nature of studies in this field...
February 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212172/cognitive-decline-associated-with-anesthesia-and-surgery-in-the-elderly-does-this-contribute-to-dementia-prevalence
#4
Lisbeth Evered, David A Scott, Brendan Silbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the current state of research investigating the effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in the elderly, including consideration of overlap with cognitive disorders in the community. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed here identify detrimental effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in a proportion of elderly individuals. Animal models demonstrate an association between anesthetic agents and Alzheimer's disease pathology...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207882/improving-brain-computer-interface-research-through-user-involvement-the-transformative-potential-of-integrating-civil-society-organisations-in-research-projects
#5
Bernd Carsten Stahl, Kutoma Wakunuma, Stephen Rainey, Christian Hansen
Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202244/changes-in-land-uses-and-ecosystem-services-under-multi-scenarios-simulation
#6
Jingya Liu, Jing Li, Keyu Qin, Zixiang Zhou, Xiaonan Yang, Ting Li
Social economy of China has been rapidly developing for more than 30years with efficient reforms and policies being issued. Societal developments have resulted in a greater use of many natural resources to the extent that the ecosystem can no longer self-regulate, thus severely damaging the balance of the ecosystem itself. This in turn has led to a deterioration in people's living environments. Our research is based on a combination of climate scenarios presented in the fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and policy scenarios, including the one-child policy and carbon tax policy...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193214/impacts-of-a-navigation-program-based-on-health-information-technology-for-patients-receiving-oral-anticancer-therapy-the-capri-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Fatima Daumas-Yatim, Benoît Lalloué, Anne Girault, Marie Ferrua, Aude Fourcade, François Lemare, Mario Dipalma, Etienne Minvielle
BACKGROUND: The emergence of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics is expected to result in an increased need for better coordination between all treatment stakeholders, mainly to ensure adequate treatment delivery to the patient. There is significant interest in the nurse navigation program's potential to improve transitions of care by improving communication between treatment stakeholders and by providing personalized organizational assistance to patients. The use of health information technology is another strategy aimed at improving cancer care coordination that can be combined with the NN program to improve remote patient follow-up...
February 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169032/microplastics-in-freshwater-and-terrestrial-environments-evaluating-the-current-understanding-to-identify-the-knowledge-gaps-and-future-research-priorities
#8
REVIEW
Alice A Horton, Alexander Walton, David J Spurgeon, Elma Lahive, Claus Svendsen
Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159099/neurologic-diseases-and-sleep
#9
REVIEW
Daniel A Barone, Sudansu Chokroverty
Sleep disorders and neurologic illness are common and burdensome in their own right; when combined, they can have tremendous negative impact at an individual level as well as societally. The socioeconomic burden of sleep disorders and neurologic illness can be identified, but the real cost of these conditions lies far beyond the financial realm. There is an urgent need for comprehensive care and support systems to help with the burden of disease. Further research in improving patient outcomes in those who suffer with these conditions will help patients and their families, and society in general...
March 2017: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153153/cone-beam-computed-tomography-vs-conventional-radiography-in-visualization-of-maxillary-impacted-canine-localization-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-studies
#10
REVIEW
Ehsan Eslami, Hamid Barkhordar, Kenneth Abramovitch, Jessica Kim, Mohamed I Masoud
INTRODUCTION: We systematically reviewed observational, experimental, and diagnostic accuracy studies to assess the comparisons between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and conventional radiography (CR) in the localization of maxillary impacted canines. METHODS: An open-ended electronic search of PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and other databases for both published and unpublished articles up to May 2016 was performed. The reference lists of the included studies were screened...
February 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148207/clinical-cancer-advances-2017-annual-report-on-progress-against-cancer-from-the-american-society-of-clinical-oncology
#11
Harold J Burstein, Lada Krilov, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Nancy N Baxter, E Gabriela Chiorean, Warren Allen Chow, John Frederick De Groot, Steven Michael Devine, Steven G DuBois, Wafik S El-Deiry, Andrew S Epstein, John Heymach, Joshua Adam Jones, Deborah K Mayer, Rebecca A Miksad, Nathan A Pennell, Michael S Sabel, Richard L Schilsky, Lynn Mara Schuchter, Nadine Tung, Karen Marie Winkfield, Lori J Wirth, Don S Dizon
A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I am pleased to present Clinical Cancer Advances 2017, which highlights the most promising advances in patient-oriented cancer research over the past year. The report gives us an opportunity to reflect on what an exciting time it is for cancer research and how swiftly our understanding of cancer has improved. One year ago, the White House announced the national Cancer Moonshot program to accelerate progress against cancer. This shared vision of progress has reinvigorated the research community, identified new areas of scientific collaboration, and raised our ambitions regarding what may be possible beyond the progress we have already made...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128048/responsible-leader-behavior-in-health-sectors
#12
Beaufort Longest
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors...
February 6, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125370/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cancer-treatment-on-work-productivity-of-patients-and-caregivers
#13
Khalid M Kamal, Jordan R Covvey, Ankur Dashputre, Somraj Ghosh, Surbhi Shah, Monali Bhosle, Christopher Zacker
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death with substantial financial costs. While significant data exist on the economic burden of care, less is known about the indirect costs of treatment and, specifically, the effect on work productivity of patients and their caregivers. To examine the full effect of cancer and the potential value of new therapies, all aspects of care, including indirect costs and patient-reported outcomes, should be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature examining the effect of cancer treatment on work productivity in patients and their caregivers...
February 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070918/stereotype-threat-and-social-function-in-opioid-substitution-therapy-patients
#14
Courtney von Hippel, Julie D Henry, Gill Terrett, Kimberly Mercuri, Karen McAlear, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. METHODS: Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059698/uk-national-data-guardian-for-health-and-care-s-review-of-data-security-trust-better-security-and-opt-outs
#15
Tom Chan, Concetta Tania Di Iorio, Simon De Lusignan, Daniel Lo Russo, Craig Kuziemsky, Siaw-Teng Liaw
Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051842/the-use-of-auricular-acupuncture-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Tanya E Baker, Grace Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disease with significant personal, societal, and public health consequences. Even for the minority who receive the most effective evidence-based treatments, morbidity, and mortality remain significant. These facts, along with the recovery movement calling for individualized, holistic, culturally sensitive care, have led to the exploration of adjunctive interventions including acupuncture. Despite hundreds of international trials, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding its efficacy in OUD due in large part to methodological issues of trials to date...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049469/discontools-a-database-to-identify-research-gaps-on-vaccines-pharmaceuticals-and-diagnostics-for-the-control-of-infectious-diseases-of-animals
#17
Declan O'Brien, Jim Scudamore, Johannes Charlier, Morgane Delavergne
BACKGROUND: The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. METHOD: Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals...
January 3, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039575/the-high-cost-of-stroke-and-stroke-cytoprotection-research
#18
Paul A Lapchak, John H Zhang
Acute ischemic stroke is inadequately treated in the USA and worldwide due to a lengthy history of neuroprotective drug failures in clinical trials. The majority of victims must endure life-long disabilities that not only affect their livelihood, but also have an enormous societal economic impact. The rapid development of a neuroprotective or cytoprotective compound would allow future stroke victims to receive a treatment to reduce disabilities and further promote recovery of function. This opinion article reviews in detail the enormous costs associated with developing a small molecule to treat stroke, as well as providing a timely overview of the cell-death time-course and relationship to the ischemic cascade...
December 30, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034595/improving-the-use-of-economics-in-animal-health-challenges-in-research-policy-and-education
#19
Jonathan Rushton
The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031581/suicide-in-india-distinct-epidemiological-patterns-and-implications
#20
REVIEW
Starlin Vijay Mythri, Johann Alex Ebenezer
Suicide is a societal crisis which also deeply impacts the personal and family realms. Indian suicidal data present distinctive epidemiological patterns when we compare it with the global suicide rates and trends. Higher proportions of young individuals are resorting to suicide compared to any other country in the world, and Indian suicide rates, especially South Indian rates, are one of the highest in the world. In this article, we present various historical aspects and theories of Indian suicide and review of available Indian research from various sources such as community, hospitals, schools and forensic settings...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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