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Societal impact of research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925295/characteristics-of-patients-with-existing-advance-directives-evaluating-motivations-around-advance-care-planning
#1
Joanne E Genewick, Dorothy M Lipski, Katherine M Schupack, Angela L H Buffington
INTRODUCTION: Although 80% of patients endorse an advance directive (AD), less than 35% of American adults have a documented AD. Much research has been done on barriers to creating ADs; however, there is a paucity of research addressing motivations for creating ADs. Previous research has identified 4 categories of influence for engaging in advance care planning (ACP). This study aimed to quantify the influence of these 4 motivating categories in creating an AD. METHODS: Participants included 238 adults with documented ADs...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892015/the-road-to-hell-is-paved-with-good-intentions-why-harm-benefit-analysis-and-its-emphasis-on-practical-benefit-jeopardizes-the-credibility-of-research
#2
Herwig Grimm, Matthias Eggel, Anna Deplazes-Zemp, Nikola Biller-Andorno
It is our concern that European Union Directive 2010/63/EU with its current project evaluation of animal research in the form of a harm-benefit analysis may lead to an erosion of the credibility of research. The HBA assesses whether the inflicted harm on animals is outweighed by potential prospective benefits. Recent literature on prospective benefit analysis prioritizes "societal benefits" that have a foreseeable, positive impact on humans, animals, or the environment over benefit in the form of knowledge...
September 11, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890706/independent-and-combined-effects-of-socioeconomic-status-ses-and-bilingualism-on-children-s-vocabulary-and-verbal-short-term-memory
#3
Natalia Meir, Sharon Armon-Lotem
The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887873/the-translational-science-benefits-model-a-new-framework-for-assessing-the-health-and-societal-benefits-of-clinical-and-translational-sciences
#4
Douglas A Luke, Cathy C Sarli, Amy M Suiter, Bobbi J Carothers, Todd B Combs, Jae L Allen, Courtney E Beers, Bradley A Evanoff
We report the development of the Translational Science Benefits Model (TSBM), a framework designed to support institutional assessment of clinical and translational research outcomes to measure clinical and community health impacts beyond bibliometric measures. The TSBM includes 30 specific and potentially measurable indicators that reflect benefits that accrue from clinical and translational science research such as products, system characteristics, or activities. Development of the TSBM was based on literature review, a modified Delphi method, and in-house expert panel feedback...
September 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882279/benefit-cost-analysis-of-lane-departure-warning-and-roll-stability-control-in-commercial-vehicles
#5
Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S Hickman, Feng Guo, Matthew C Camden, Richard J Hanowski, Quon Kwan
INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the cost benefits of two different onboard safety systems (OSS) installed on trucks as they operated during normal revenue deliveries. Using a formal economic analysis approach, the study quantified the costs and benefits associated with lane departure warning (LDW) systems and roll stability control (RSC) systems. METHODS: The study used data collected from participating carriers (many of these crashes were not reported to state or Federal agencies), and the research team also reviewed each crash file to determine if the specific OSS would have mitigated or prevented the crash...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879640/creative-tensions-mutual-responsiveness-adapted-to-private-sector-research-and-development
#6
Matti Sonck, Lotte Asveld, Laurens Landeweerd, Patricia Osseweijer
The concept of mutual responsiveness is currently based on little empirical data in the literature of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This paper explores RRI's idea of mutual responsiveness in the light of recent RRI case studies on private sector research and development (R&D). In RRI, responsible innovation is understood as a joint endeavour of innovators and societal stakeholders, who become mutually responsive to each other in defining the 'right impacts' of the innovation in society, and in steering the innovation towards realising those impacts...
September 7, 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857793/initiation-and-termination-of-massive-transfusion-protocols-current-strategies-and-future-prospects
#7
John C Foster, Joshua W Sappenfield, Robert S Smith, Sean P Kiley
The advent of massive transfusion protocols (MTP) has had a significant positive impact on hemorrhaging trauma patient morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, societal MTP guidelines and individual MTPs at academic institutions continue to circulate opposing recommendations on topics critical to MTPs. This narrative review discusses up-to-date information on 2 such topics, the initiation and termination of an MTP. The discussion for each begins with a review of the recommendations and supporting literature presented by MTP guidelines from 3 prominent societies, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American College of Surgeons, and the task force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma...
August 29, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852540/redefining-responsible-research-and-innovation-for-the-advancement-of-biobanking-and-biomedical-research
#8
Helen Yu
One of the core objectives of responsible research and innovation (RRI) is to maximize the value of publicly funded research so that it may be returned to benefit society. However, while RRI encourages innovation through societal engagement, it can give rise to complex and previously untested issues that challenge the existing legal frameworks on intellectual property (IP) and public entitlement to benefits of research. In the case of biobanking, the personal nature of human biological materials and often altruistic intention of participants to donate samples intensifies the need to adhere to RRI principles with respect to the research, development, and commercialization of innovations derived from biobanks...
December 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843725/social-class-risk-preferences-and-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer J Kish-Gephart
This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking...
August 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833101/nurses-perceptions-of-health-beliefs-and-impact-on-teaching-and-practice-a-q-sort-study
#10
R Cao, T E Stone, M A Petrini, S Turale
AIM: To understand Chinese nurses' perceptions of health beliefs, their content, origin and the influence of sociocultural factors, as a basis of their evidence-based practice. This study contributes to a larger study to establish the health beliefs of Japanese, Australian, Chinese, South Korean and Thai nurses. BACKGROUND: Registered nurses teach patients and students about maintaining or attaining health are subject to the same range of influences and their health beliefs may be antithetical to current health evidence...
August 22, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819494/functioning-and-disability-in-recent-research-from-cameroon-a-narrative-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
Minal Ray, Lorena Wallace, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Lynn Cockburn
INTRODUCTION: People living with disabilities in Cameroon face many barriers to daily functioning and social participation. However, there is limited research on disabilities and their impact. We sought to examine the research related to disability from Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, bibliometric analysis, and narrative synthesis of research related to disability, functioning, and social participation from Cameroon published during 2005-2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815009/strategies-for-dementia-prevention-latest-evidence-and-implications
#12
REVIEW
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Steven T Szabo, George S Alexopoulos, Anthony S Zannas
Dementia is a common and debilitating syndrome with enormous impact on individuals and societies. Preventing disease onset or progression would translate to public health and societal benefits. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on interventions that may show promise for the prevention of cognitive decline. We appraise existing evidence primarily drawn from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, but also highlight observational studies in humans and relevant work in model organisms...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792957/assessing-the-impact-of-healthcare-research-a-systematic-review-of-methodological-frameworks
#13
REVIEW
Samantha Cruz Rivera, Derek G Kyte, Olalekan Lee Aiyegbusi, Thomas J Keeley, Melanie J Calvert
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+), the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774750/advances-in-nonhuman-primate-models-of-autism-integrating-neuroscience-and-behavior
#14
REVIEW
M D Bauman, C S Schumann
Given the prevalence and societal impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is an urgent need to develop innovative preventative strategies and treatments to reduce the alarming number of cases and improve core symptoms for afflicted individuals. Translational efforts between clinical and preclinical research are needed to (i) identify and evaluate putative causes of ASD, (ii) determine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms, (iii) develop and test novel therapeutic approaches and (iv) ultimately translate basic research into safe and effective clinical practices...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765336/new-directions-in-cancer-control-and-population-sciences
#15
Robert A Hiatt
Cancer control science has been evolving since it first became a focus for cancer research and program activities a century ago. The evolution of the field has responded to historical megatrends along the way that keep it relevant to the cancer-related needs of society. This commentary describes some of the key trends and developments now influencing cancer control and population sciences that reflect societal change and new tools and concepts in modern biomedical science. New directions include the impact of climate change, health care delivery research, the growth of population health science, data science, precision medicine, data sharing, implementation science, and new technologies, including social media and new geospatial methodologies...
August 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752018/project-house-water-a-novel-interdisciplinary-framework-to-assess-the-environmental-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-flood-related-impacts
#16
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745578/cost-effectiveness-of-g5-mobile-continuous-glucose-monitoring-cgm-device-compared-with-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-smbg-alone-for-people-with-type-1-diabetes-from-the-canadian-societal-perspective
#17
Shraddha Chaugule, Claudia Graham
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) alone in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDI) from the Canadian societal perspective. METHODS: The IMS CORE Diabetes Model (v.9.0) was used to assess the long-term (50 years) cost-effectiveness of real-time CGM (G5 Mobile CGM System; Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) compared with SMBG alone for a cohort of adults with poorly-controlled T1DM...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742989/agricultural-leaders-influence-on-the-safety-culture-of-workers
#18
Frank A Gasperini
Most US farmers are small, independent owner-operators, many of whom are exempt from safety regulation and enforcement, as well as age restrictions relative to family members performing hazardous tasks. These smaller farms account for a disproportionate share of the total fatality and injury statistics from farming incidents, contributing to an agriculture-industry death rate that is seven times greater than all occupations combined. In contrast, large agricultural enterprises that employ larger numbers of non-family workers are more regulated and more highly incentivized by economic, supply chain, and societal factors to implement cultures of safety, and are more readily influenced by agricultural opinion leaders, agribusinesses, farm organizations, and agricultural media...
2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738825/broadening-measures-of-success-results-of-a-behavioral-health-translational-research-training-program
#19
Julie A Baldwin, Heather J Williamson, Emery R Eaves, Bruce L Levin, Donna L Burton, Oliver T Massey
BACKGROUND: While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects...
July 24, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735447/cost-benefit-analysis-of-two-child-abuse-and-neglect-primary-prevention-programs-for-us-states
#20
Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Robert Thomas, Joanne Klevens
We assessed the US state-level budget and societal impact of implementing two child abuse and neglect (CAN) primary prevention programs. CAN cost estimates and data from two prevention programs (Child-Parent Centers and Nurse-Family Partnership) were combined with current population, cost, and CAN incidence data by US state. A cost-benefit mathematical model for each program by US state compared program costs with the future monetary value of benefits from reduced CAN. The models used a lifetime time horizon from government payer and societal perspectives...
July 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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