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inflammation and myocardial infarction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#2
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340072/hyperbaric-oxygen-protects-against-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-the-modulation-of-autophagy
#3
Chunxia Chen, Wan Chen, Yaoxuan Li, Yanling Dong, Xiaoming Teng, Zhihuan Nong, Xiaorong Pan, Liwen Lv, Ying Gao, Guangwei Wu
Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning protected against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) and improved myocardial infarction. However, HBO's effect on MIRI-induced inflammation and autophagy remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the potential impact and underlying mechanism of HBO preconditioning on an MIRI-induced inflammatory response and autophagy using a ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery rat model. Our results showed that HBO restored myocardial enzyme levels and decreased the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, which were induced by MIRI...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336258/association-of-thrombospondin-1-n700s-and-thrombospondin-4-a387p-gene-polymorphisms-with-the-incidence-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-egyptians
#4
Mohamed Z Gad, Noura Ayman Ahmed Abdelmonem, Nancy Osama Elsayed Turky
BACKGROUND: Thrombospondin (TSP) 1 and 4 are extracellular matrix glycoproteins that mediate cell proliferation, platelet aggregation and inflammatory response. Conflicting data addressed the possible contribution of TSP-1 and TSP-4 gene polymorphisms to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the association of TSP-1 (N700S) and TSP-4 (A387P) genetic variants with the incidence of AMI in Egyptians. It also correlated TSP-1 variants to TSP-1 and TNF-α serum concentrations while TSP-4 variants to IL-8 concentration identifying TSPs' contribution to vascular inflammation...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334841/tocilizumab-in-the-treatment-of-myocardial-infarction
#5
Matthew B Carroll
Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an important biologic response modifier that Rheumatologists routinely employ in the treatment of several systemic autoimmune diseases. TCZ binds to interleukin (IL)-6 receptors, inhibits cellular activation, and mitigates inflammation by IL-6. In mid-2017 TCZ was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for its first non-rheumatologic condition, the treatment of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-induced severe or life-threatening cytokine release syndrome in patients 2 years of age or older...
January 16, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#6
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330938/predictive-value-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-long-term-outcomes-of-left-main-and-or-three-vessel-disease-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
Na Xu, Xiao-Fang Tang, Yi Yao, Xueyan- Zhao, Jue- Chen, Zhan- Gao, Yuejin- Yang, Run-Lin Gao, Bo Xu, Jin-Qing Yuan
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the independent predictive value of left main disease (LMD) and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome resulting from LMD and/or three-vessel disease (LMD/3VD) are at the highest risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk, but the prognostic value of NLR in patients with LMD/3VD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not clearly defined...
January 13, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330085/inflammation-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-multiple-players-dynamic-roles-and-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Sang-Bing Ong, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Gustavo E Crespo-Avilan, Regina T Mukhametshina, Xiu-Yi Kwek, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Derek J Hausenloy
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure that often follows, are major causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new therapies are required to limit myocardial infarct (MI) size, prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and reduce the onset of heart failure following AMI. The inflammatory response to AMI, plays a critical role in determining MI size, and a persistent pro-inflammatory reaction can contribute to adverse post-MI LV remodeling, making inflammation an important therapeutic target for improving outcomes following AMI...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329279/diosgenin-protects-rats-from-myocardial-inflammatory-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion
#9
Hong-Wei Wang, Hua-Jin Liu, Hua Cao, Zeng-Yong Qiao, Ya-Wei Xu
BACKGROUND Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, has anti-inflammatory properties shown to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). However, the specific mechanism by which this is achieved is not clear. This study investigated the protective effects of diosgenin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy adult male SD rats, body weight (b.w.) 250-280 g, were used to model ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and were administered diosgenin (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg b...
January 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328478/arctigenin-exerts-protective-effects-against-myocardial-infarction-via-regulation-of-inos-cox%C3%A2-2-erk1-2-and-ho%C3%A2-1-in-rats
#10
Yanmin Zhang, Yong Yang
The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of arctigenin against myocardial infarction (MI), and its effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Left anterior coronary arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats were ligated, in order to generate an acute MI (AMI) model. Arctigenin was administered to AMI rats at 0, 50, 100 or 200 µmol/kg. Western blotting and ELISAs were performed to analyze protein expression and enzyme activity. Arctigenin was demonstrated to effectively inhibit the levels of alanine transaminase, creatine kinase‑MB and lactate dehydrogenase, and to reduce infarct size in AMI rats...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326144/a-new-secretory-peptide-of-natriuretic-peptide-family-osteocrin-suppresses-the-progression-of-congestive-heart-failure-after-myocardial-infarction
#11
Takahiro Miyazaki, Kentaro Otani, Ayano Chiba, Hirohito Nishimura, Takeshi Tokudome, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Ayaka Matsuo, Hiroyuki Ishikawa, Keiko Shimamoto, Hajime Fukui, Yugo Kanai, Akihiro Yasoda, Soshiro Ogata, Kunihiro Nishimura, Naoto Minamino, Naoki Mochizuki
Rationale: An increase of severe ischemic heart diseases results in an increase of the patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Therefore, new therapies are expected in addition to recanalization of coronary arteries. Previous clinical trials using natriuretic peptides (NPs) prove the improvement of CHF by NPs. Objective: We aimed at investigating whether osteocrin (OSTN) peptide potentially functioning as an NP clearance receptor (NPR3)-blocking peptide can be used as a new therapeutic peptide for treating CHF after myocardial infarction (MI) using animal models...
January 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321822/pursuing-meaningful-end-points-for-stem-cell-therapy-assessment-in-ischemic-cardiac-disease
#13
REVIEW
Maria Dorobantu, Nicoleta-Monica Popa-Fotea, Mihaela Popa, Iulia Rusu, Miruna Mihaela Micheu
Despite optimal interventional and medical therapy, ischemic heart disease is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although not included in standard of care rehabilitation, stem cell therapy (SCT) could be a solution for prompting cardiac regeneration. Multiple studies have been published from the beginning of SCT until now, but overall no unanimous conclusion could be drawn in part due to the lack of appropriate end-points. In order to appreciate the impact of SCT, multiple markers from different categories should be considered: Structural, biological, functional, physiological, but also major adverse cardiac events or quality of life...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320324/spectrum-of-coronary-artery-aneurysms-from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives
#14
Jean Jeudy, Charles S White, Seth J Kligerman, Jonathan L Killam, Allen P Burke, Jacob W Sechrist, Amar B Shah, Rydhwana Hossain, Aletta Ann Frazier
Advances in medical diagnosis reveal that coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) may develop in several clinical scenarios and manifest variable symptoms, imaging appearances, and outcomes. Aneurysms are pathologically classified into three groups: atherosclerotic, inflammatory, and noninflammatory. The last category is associated with congenital, inherited, and connective tissue disorders. Overlap exists among the groups, because secondary atherosclerotic change may be present in an aneurysm of any cause. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CAAs in adults, and inflammation is considered the underlying mechanism...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316855/the-role-of-noninvasive-cardiovascular-testing-applied-clinical-nutrition-and-nutritional-supplements-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-coronary-heart-disease
#15
Mark Houston
Numerous clinical trials suggest that we have reached a limit in our ability to decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) utilizing the traditional diagnostic evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. About 80% of heart disease (heart attacks, angina, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure) can be prevented by optimal nutrition, optimal exercise, optimal weight and body composition, mild alcohol intake and avoiding smoking...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316215/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-in-inflammation-driven-thrombosis
#16
Georg Obermayer, Taras Afonyushkin, Christoph J Binder
Thrombosis is the defining feature of the most prevalent causes of cardiovascular mortality, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and pulmonary artery embolism. While platelet activation as well as activation of the plasmatic coagulation system are the hallmarks of thrombus formation, inflammatory processes and the cellular responses involved are increasingly recognized as critical modulators of thrombosis. In the context of many chronic inflammatory diseases that are associated with a high thrombotic risk, oxidized lipoproteins represent a prominent sterile trigger of inflammation...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310992/interleukin-1-genotypes-modulate-the-long-term-effect-of-lipoprotein-a-on-cardiovascular-events-the-ioannina-study
#17
Katerina K Naka, Aris Bechlioullis, Aikaterini Marini, Dimitrios Sionis, Konstantinos Vakalis, Georgios Triantis, Leon Wilkins, John Rogus, Kenneth S Kornman, Joseph L Witztum, Lynn Doucette-Stamm, Lampros K Michalis, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and proinflammatory interleukin-1 (IL-1) genotypes may influence Lp(a)-mediated CVD events. The genotype IL-1(+) is associated with higher rates of inflammation than IL-1(-) genotype. Targeting IL-1β was recently shown to decrease CVD events independent of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the modulatory effect of IL-1 genotypes on risk mediated by Lp(a) METHODS: We assessed whether IL-1 genotypes modulate the effect of Lp(a) on major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack) and angiographically determined coronary artery disease (CAD)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303551/engineering-bioinspired-antioxidant-materials-promoting-cardiomyocyte-functionality-and-maturation-for-tissue-engineering-application
#18
Parvaiz Ahmad Shiekh, Anamika Singh, Ashok Kumar
Oxidative stress plays an important role in various pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation, myocardial infarction and biocompatibility of the materials. Antioxidant polymers to attenuate oxidative stress is an emerging field of biomaterial research with a huge impact in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We describe here the fabrication and evaluation of an elastomeric antioxidant polyurethane (PUAO) for tissue engineering applications. Uniaxial and cyclic tensile testing, thermal analysis, degradation, cytotoxicity and antioxidant analysis was carried out...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302208/morroniside-on-anti-inflammation-activities-in-rats-following-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Bangxing Yu, Guoxing Zhang, Yi An, Wen Wang
Our previous studies have confirmed that morroniside has neuroprotective effects. However, the effects of morroniside on cardiac myocardium remain unknown. Rats were anaesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (0.35~0.4 mL/kg) and an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Following AMI, morroniside was administered intragastrically for 3 consecutive days at doses of 45, 90 and 180 mg/kg, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in AMI rats in the serum were detected with commercial kits...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298899/epoxide-hydrolase-1-ephx1-hydrolyzes-epoxyeicosanoids-and-impairs-cardiac-recovery-after-ischemia
#20
Matthew L Edin, Behin Gholipour Hamedani, Artiom Gruzdev, Joan P Graves, Fred B Lih, Samuel J Arbes, Rohanit Singh, Anette C Orjuela Leon, J Alyce Bradbury, Laura M DeGraff, Samantha L Hoopes, Michael Arand, Darryl Zeldin
Stimuli such as inflammation or hypoxia induce cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-mediated production of arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs have cardioprotective, vasodilatory, angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, which are diminished by EET hydrolysis yielding biologically less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Previous in vitro assays have suggested that epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) is responsible for nearly all EET hydrolysis; EPHX1, which exhibits slow EET hydrolysis in vitro, is thought to contribute only marginally to EET hydrolysis...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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