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Nervus vagus

Konstanze Plaschke, Thuc Quyen Monica Do, Florian Uhle, Thorsten Brenner, Markus A Weigand, Jürgen Kopitz
Acetylcholine is the main transmitter of the parasympathetic vagus nerve. According to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) concept, acetylcholine has been shown to be important for signal transmission within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. The spleen is thought to play an important role in regulating the CAP. In contrast, the existence of a "non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system" that influences cardiac innervation during inflammation has been hypothesized, with recent publications introducing the heart instead of the spleen as a possible interface between the immune and nervous systems...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carolin Brandscheid, Florian Schuck, Sven Reinhardt, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Claus U Pietrzik, Marcus Grimm, Tobias Hartmann, Andreas Schwiertz, Kristina Endres
The regulation of physiological gut functions such as peristalsis or secretion of digestive enzymes by the central nervous system via the Nervus vagus is well known. Recent investigations highlight that pathological conditions of neurological or psychiatric disorders might directly interfere with the autonomous neuronal network of the gut - the enteric nervous system, or even derive from there. By using a murine Alzheimer's disease model, we investigated a potential influence of disease-associated changes on gastrointestinal properties...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kentaro Watanabe, R Shane Tubbs, Shunsuke Satoh, Ali R Zomorodi, Wolfgang Liedtke, Moujahed Labidi, Allan H Friedman, Takanori Fukushima
Glossopharyngeal, nervus intermedius, and vagus neuralgias can all present with ear pain. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of otalgia as the only symptom of vagus neuralgia. The seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves have many interneural connections, and the exact anatomy and pathophysiology of these neuralgias are often not clear. Moreover, symptoms due to involvement of any of these nerves can be difficult to attribute solely to 1 of them. The overlapping sensory innervation of the external auditory canal can lead to misdiagnosis in patients suffering from otalgia...
December 2016: World Neurosurgery
Katja Hagen, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Sabrina Schneider, Florian B Haeussinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Florian G Metzger
Vagus somatosensory evoked potentials are a method for assessing the function of the vagus nerve, which were shown to be altered in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Various parameters of the stimulation such as the electrode position and the stimulus intensity have already been investigated. In this study, the focus is on the systematic examination of the other parameters of the stimulation of the vagus somatosensory evoked potentials: stimulus duration, interstimulus interval, and, again, the stimulation intensity...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Song-Bai Yang, Zhi-Gang Mei, San-Jin Cai, Hua-Ping Lei, Cheng-Hong Sun, Ling Chen, Chuang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of different points combination in the treatment of menopausal insomnia. METHODS: Ninety-six cases of menopausal insomnia were randomized into 3 groups, Xinshu (BL 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were chosen in the restore interaction between the heart and the kidney group (group A, 32 cases); Zhaohai (KI 6), Jiaoxin (KI 8), Shenmai (BL 62), Pucan (BL 61) were chosen in the acupuncturing qiao mai group (group B, 32 cases); auricular Shenmen (TF4) and sensitive spot at the distribution area of auricular vagus nervus were chosen in the ear acupuncture group (group C, 32 cases)...
January 2014: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Astrid Schulte, Christoph Lichtenstern, Michael Henrich, Markus A Weigand, Florian Uhle
BACKGROUND: During the course of sepsis, often myocardial depression with hemodynamic impairment occurs. Acetylcholine, the main transmitter of the parasympathetic Nervus vagus, has been shown to be of importance for the transmission of signals within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. Hypothesizing a potential correlation between this dysfunction and hemodynamic impairment, we wanted to assess the impact of vagal stimulation on myocardial inflammation and function in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock...
May 15, 2014: Journal of Surgical Research
D K Olivier, B-E van Wyk
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitterness values have been determined for southern African plant species that are traditionally used as tonics (imbizas or 'musa-pelo) to alleviate the symptoms of stress and a variety of ailments related to the digestive system. AIM OF THE STUDY: To measure and present, for the first time, the bitterness values of 15 of the best-known and most widely used tonic plants in southern Africa in order to find a rationale for their traditional use in improving appetite and treating digestive ailments...
June 3, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kristin Sjølie Thygesen, Anne Sabers
INTRODUCTION: Nervus vagus stimulation (VNS) is an option for additional surgical treatment for epilepsy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of VNS on seizure frequency and to investigate patient satisfaction of and quality of life effects of VNS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 94 patients treated with VNS for intractable epilepsy in Denmark. The patients were operated in the 1996-2006 period. We performed a retrospective survey based on questionnaires which were adjusted to the following subgroups of patients: competent adults, children and mentally retarded adults...
March 2013: Danish Medical Journal
Helena Anna Fagö-Olsen, Christoffer Holst Hahn
A 37-year-old male, without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1, developed a firm mass below the right ear over several months without facial palsy. Clinical examination and ultra-sonography revealed a tumour in the parotid gland. Fine needle aspirationbiopsy was inconclusive. During complete resection, the tumour revealed an unusual anatomic location from the superficial lobe of the parotid to the deep and further into the parapharyngeal space. The pathological examination showed a solitary neurofibroma. In this case report, preoperative diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of this rare tumour in the parotid gland from n...
March 4, 2013: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro
In the 17th century, the Bartholin family contributed greatly to the advancement of anatomical and medical science. Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629) introduced the terms nervus olfactorius and nervus vagus in 1611 in the Institutiones Anatomicae. Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680) extended their use to figures added to later revised editions of Institutiones Anatomicae.
January 2013: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Joerg Latus, Ulrich Franke, M Dominik Alscher, Niko Braun
A 56-year-old woman was admitted to hospital due to stress-dependent hoarseness and hypertensive urgency. The patient reported peaks of blood pressure of 210/160 mm Hg in combination with hoarseness. With indirect mirror examination, the ear-nose-and throat doctor diagnosed a paralysis of the vocal cord on the left side. The authors suspected a mass affecting the vagus nerve and performed a CT-scan with iodinated contrast material of the neck and thorax. Surprisingly the CT-scan showed an aneurysm of the aortic arch with a dilatation up to 4...
April 23, 2012: BMJ Case Reports
J Attems, A Thomas, K Jellinger
AIM: Recent studies indicate that tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) does not initially manifest in the cerebral cortex but in selected subcortical nuclei, in particular the locus ceruleus (LC). In this study we correlate both olfactory and brainstem tau pathology with neuritic Braak stages. METHODS: We examined 239 unselected autopsy cases (57.3% female, 42.7% male; aged 55-102, mean 82.8 ± 9.7 SD years; AD, 44.8%; non-demented controls, 31.8%; Parkinson's disease, 5...
October 2012: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Helene Verhelst, Michaela Maes, Karel Deblaere, Rudy Van Coster
Antiganglioside GQ1b antibodies mediate a continuum of disorders with overlapping features, fostering the concept of anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome. We present a patient whose palatal insufficiency was the only clinical sign of postinfectious GQ1b antibody syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging confirmed involvement of the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve bilaterally, revealing gadolinium enhancement of both nerves bilaterally and thickening of the left nervus vagus. Magnetic resonance imaging may help in diagnosing postinfectious GQ1b antibody syndrome, especially at early stages and in monosymptomatic patients...
April 2011: Pediatric Neurology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1945: Khirurgiia
A K Guler, O Gunaldi, H Alis, B Tugcu, O Tanriverdi, B Colluoglu
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibroma occurs as an isolated or multiple lesions frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Neurofibroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of a variable mixture of Schwann, perineurial-like, and fibroblastic cells, as well as ones with features intermediate between these various cells, immersed in a collagenous or myxoid matrix. CASE REPORT: A 10-year-old boy visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of swelling and pain on the left side of his neck, which has been present for a year...
October 2009: Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery: MIN
Vasiliy Moskalenko, Markus Hüller, Martin Gasser, Yuriy Demidchik, Arnulf Thiede, Stephan Timm, Karin Ulrichs, Wulf Hamelmann
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the regeneration potential of RLN after the compression of the nerve, without disrupting its continuity, using neuromonitoring. METHODS: In the first operation, the RLN and nervus vagus of adult Goettingen minipigs were dissected free, and the neuromonitoring parameters (amplitude, threshold and lag time of signal) were measured. Injury of the RLN was induced using a "bulldog" clamp. When the signal was no longer detectable, after the 15 min regeneration phase, the operation was finished...
May 2009: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Ali Aghazadeh-Habashi, Fakhreddin Jamali
It is believed that acute pain suppresses nervus vagus, thereby, influencing gastrointestinal secretion and motility, which are the two factors that are necessary for disintegration and dissolution of solid dosage forms. We studied the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam and the effect of vagal suppression on the oral bioavailability and bioequivalence using a marketed (Brand) and a fast dissolving (FD) formulation. In simulated gastric juice, FD was disintegrated in 30s and released 30% of its meloxicam in 15 min and 60% in 2h...
November 2008: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
G I Nezhinskaia, A L Vladykin, N S Sapronov
This review describes the effects of realization of the central and peripheral "cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway" in a model of endotoxic and anaphylactic shock. Under endotoxic shock conditions, a pharmacological correction by means of the central m-cholinomimetic action (electrical stimulation of the distal ends of nervus vagus after bilateral cervical vagotomy, surgical implantation of the stimulant devise, activation of efferent vagal neurons by means of muscarinic agonist) is directed toward the elimination of LPS-induced hypotension...
March 2008: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
M Gravendyck, E Balks, A S Schroder-Gravendyck, U Eskens, H Frank, R E Marschang, E F Kaleta
This paper reports on the viral content of up to 52 tissue and organ samples of 18 individual large psittacines which died during an epornithic of Pacheco's parrot disease (PPD) caused by psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV1). Associated clinical signs and pathological lesions are described. The large spectrum of samples found to be positive for PsHVl suggests that birds succumb to PPD during viraemia. Tissues and organs from which the virus could be isolated included the integument and associated structures, the muscular, respiratory and circulatory system, bone marrow, the nervous system, thyroid and adrenal glands, spleen and liver, the urogenital tract and the gastro-intestinal tract...
1998: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L J M van Keulen, M E W Vromans, C H Dolstra, A Bossers, F G van Zijderveld
The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion...
2008: Archives of Virology
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