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Youngsin Jung, Erik K St Louis
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia disorder affecting between 1 and 7 % of community-dwelling adults, most frequently older adults. RBD is characterized by nocturnal complex motor behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia. RBD is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. The approach to RBD management is currently twofold: symptomatic treatment to prevent injury and prognostic counseling and longitudinal follow-up surveillance for phenoconversion toward overt neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Arman Zargaran, Michael Blaschke
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are of major causes of death worldwide. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are considered as new sources to find preventive and treatment approaches with mostly a historical perspective. Chinese medicine (CM), Persian medicine (PM), Ayurveda and homeopathy are as most popular traditional systems of medicine among various CAM methods. In this survey, we aimed to review most relevant and approved treatment by current investigations on these CAM systems in the field of CVD to present best traditional remedies and treatment approaches...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Gary W Small
Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for cognitive decline can help patients maintain cognitive ability and higher levels of function longer. Despite advances in detection and early treatment strategies, many patients do not receive proper assessments and available therapies. A systematic assessment strategy will increase the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis, which can facilitate pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment plans that can have a meaningful impact on prognosis. Available data support the integration of healthy lifestyle strategies in the treatment plan to help to stabilize symptoms and potentially delay future cognitive decline...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Chris Maher, Martin Underwood, Rachelle Buchbinder
Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review...
October 10, 2016: Lancet
Ari Garber, Sunguk Jang
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the most common etiology of which is peptic ulcer disease, remains a persistent challenge despite a reduction in both its incidence and mortality. Both pharmacologic and endoscopic techniques have been developed to achieve hemostasis, with varying degrees of success. Among the pharmacologic therapies, proton pump inhibitors remain the mainstay of treatment, as they reduce the risk of rebleeding and requirement for recurrent endoscopic evaluation. Tranexamic acid, a derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent whose role requires further investigation before application...
September 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
A Rapin, G Deslee, L Percebois-Macadre, A-C Jonvel, S Demangeon, F C Boyer
The hyperventilation syndrome is a complex entity whose management is poorly codified. We report a synthesis about the management of adult patients diagnosed with hyperventilation syndrome. A systematic literature review has identified fifteen articles dealing, among them three studies about drug treatment and the others about non-pharmacological approaches. Among the last ones, a re-educational approach based on abdominal ventilation and regulation of the ventilatory rate seems and an educative approach seems to be the most effective...
October 12, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kady Fischer, Dominik P Guensch, Nancy Shie, Julie Lebel, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve <0...
2016: PloS One
Jean Joel R Bigna, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Serra Lem Asangbeh, Lewis N Um, Paule Sandra D Sime, Elvis Temfack, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem
BACKGROUND: Sufficiently detailed abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. We aimed at comparing reporting quality of RCTs in HIV/AIDS medicine before and after the publication of the 2008 CONSORT extension for abstracts and to investigate factors associated with better reporting quality. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline for HIV/AIDS RCTs published between 2006-07 (Pre-CONSORT) and 2014-15 (Post-CONSORT) in 40 leading general medicine and infectious diseases journals...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Ruey Terng Ng, Way Seah Lee, Hak Lee Ang, Kai Ming Teo, Yee Ian Yik, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Patrice Tremblay, Susan Gold
INTRODUCTION: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a serious surgical complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay, delayed admission to rehabilitation programs, persistent cognitive deficits, marked health-care costs, and more. The pathophysiology is multi-factorial and not completely understood, which complicates the optimal management. Non-pharmacological measures have been the mainstay of treatment, but there has been an ongoing interest in the medical literature on the prevention of post-operative delirium using medications...
September 2016: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Primitivo Ramos Cordero, Raquel Yubero
This article reviews the effect of non-pharmacological therapies in persons with cognitive impairment, especially treatments aimed at brain stimulation and functional maintenance, since both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies affecting the cognitive and psychoaffective domains are reviewed in another article in this supplement. The article also discusses the close and reciprocal relationship between cognitive impairment, diet and nutritional status and describes the main nutritional risk factors and protective factors in cognitive decline...
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, Esma Dilli
Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Christoph Sulyok, Petra Weiland-Fiedler, Sarah Schwehla, Vera Pfersmann
BACKGROUND: Since June 1st, 2014 the use of cage beds, a physical coercive measure in psychiatric wards, is forbidden by Austrian law. The 3rd Psychiatric Department at the Otto Wagner Hospital in Vienna carried out a pilot-study prior to the application of this law and compared 6 months with and 6 months without the use of cage beds in psychiatric acute treatment. The investigation focused on the use of mechanical restraints, especially of 4-point-restraints at admission time. METHODS: The study collected clinical and epidemiological data from the patients and analyzed interviews taken with patients and staff-members after the use of coercive measures...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Jose M Remes-Troche
Chest pain that is not explained by reflux disease or cardiac, musculoskeletal, mucosal, or motor esophageal abnormalities is classified as functional chest pain (FCP). Although several mechanisms are involved, esophageal hypersensitivity plays a major role and it could be considered a biomarker for FCP. Psychologic comorbidity such as anxiety, neuroticism, depression, and somatization is common. When the diagnosis of FCP is suspected, patients should undergo evaluation with esophageal motility testing, endoscopy, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring, and in some cases, sensory tests...
October 5, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Akshya Vasudev, Amanda Arena, Amer M Burhan, Emily Ionson, Hussein Hirjee, Pramudith Maldeniya, Stephen Wetmore, Ronnie I Newman
: Late-life depression affects 2-6% of seniors aged 60 years and above. Patients are increasingly embracing non-pharmacological therapies, many of which have not been scientifically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate a category of meditation, automatic self-transcending meditation (ASTM), in alleviating symptoms of depression when augmenting treatment as usual (NCT02149810). The preliminary results of an ongoing single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing a training programme involving ASTM with a wait-list control indicate that a 12-week ASTM programme may lead to significantly greater reductions in depression and anxiety severity...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Alcides Rocha, Flavio F Arbex, Maria Clara N Alencar, Priscila A Sperandio, Daniel M Hirai, Danilo C Berton, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is associated with poor ventilatory efficiency and higher operating lung volumes in heart failure. These abnormalities may be particularly deleterious to dyspnea and exercise tolerance in mechanically-limited patients, e.g. those with coexistent COPD. METHODS: Ventilatory, gas exchange and sensory responses to incremental exercise were contrasted in 68 heart failure-COPD patients (12 EOV+). EOV was established by standard criteria...
September 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Fernando Peña-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the resident immunocompetent cells of the CNS and also constitute a unique cell type that contributes to neural network homeostasis and function. Understanding microglia cell-signaling not only will reveal their diverse functions but also will help to identify pharmacological and non-pharmacological tools to modulate the activity of these cells. METHODS: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature to identify microglial activators and their cell-specificity...
September 28, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
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