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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741230/new-therapeutic-strategies-for-lewy-body-dementias
#1
REVIEW
Latha Velayudhan, Dominic Ffytche, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
This article reviews current treatment strategies and recent advances for the Lewy body dementias (LBDs). Current available symptom treatment strategies are based on monoaminergic, cholinergic and glutaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Relatively robust evidence exists for cholinesterase inhibitors for cognitive impairment in LBD and in Parkinson's disease for antidepressants, clozapine and recently pimavanserin for psychosis. interpidine (RVT 101) and nelotanserin are currently under investigation. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive stimulation, physical exercises and neuromodulation strategies, may be useful in Parkinson's disease but have not yet been tested in dementias...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738895/chiropractic-spinal-manipulative-therapy-for-cervicogenic-headache-a-single-blinded-placebo-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Aleksander Chaibi, Heidi Knackstedt, Peter J Tuchin, Michael Bjørn Russell
OBJECTIVE: Cervicogenic headache is a disabling headache where pharmacological management have limited effect. Thus, non-pharmacological management is warranted. Our objective was therefore to investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy versus placebo (sham manipulation) and control (continued usual but non-manual management) for cervicogenic headache in a prospective 3-armed single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial of 17 months' duration. RESULTS: Nineteen participants were equally randomized into the three groups, and 12 participants completed the randomized controlled trial...
July 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736177/the-analgesic-effect-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-to-reduce-procedural-pain-in-preterm-neonates
#3
Kao-Hsian Hsieh, Shu-Jen Chen, Pei-Chen Tsao, Chih-Chien Wang, Ching-Feng Huang, Chien-Ming Lin, Ya-Ling Chou, Wei-Yu Chen, I-Ching Chan
BACKGROUND: Painful procedures are unavoidable in the medical care of preterm babies. The unpleasant experience during the neonatal period may contribute to hyperalgesia and poor neurodevelopment outcome later. Seeking effective interventions to reduce pain are strongly indicated for these very small premature babies. The aim of this study is to investigate if instilling breast milk (BM) or dextrose water into oral cavity can reduce the procedural pain of heel stick for preterm babies...
July 11, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735785/effect-of-the-simultaneous-working-length-control-during-root-canal-preparation-on-postoperative-pain
#4
Hakan Arslan, Yahya Güven, Ertuğrul Karataş, Ezgi Doğanay
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simultaneous length control during root canal preparation on postoperative pain compared with separate working length determination and root canal preparation. The design was a parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial with 2 arms. METHODS: Forty-four molar teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 22), a control group (separate length determination and root canal preparation) and a simultaneous length control during root canal preparation group...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735500/adherence-to-copd-management-guidelines-in-general-practice-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
J Sehl, J O'Doherty, R O'Connor, B O'Sullivan, A O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive illness that is mostly managed in the general practice setting. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines are the international gold standard, and it is important to understand how these are being applied in general practice. AIMS: This review aimed to assess the current level of adherence to international best practice guidelines among general practitioners in relation to COPD...
July 22, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#6
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733759/management-of-gait-changes-and-fall-risk-in-mci-and-dementia
#7
REVIEW
Gilles Allali, Joe Verghese
Gait disorders and falls are very prevalent in aging, especially in older adults with cognitive impairment: older adults with dementia are 2-3 times more likely to fall than their non-demented counterparts. The management of gait disorders and falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia begins by their identification with the use of specific screening tools, such as measuring gait speed, use of dual-task gait tests, or diagnosing motoric cognitive risk syndrome, a newly described pre-dementia syndrome...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733142/deprescribing-for-frail-older-people-learning-from-the-case-of-mrs-hansen
#8
Anne Gerd Granas, Marit Stendal Bakken, Sabine Ruths, Katja Taxis
Drug treatment is often an essential part in treatment and prevention of diseases in older people, but there is much concern about inappropriate medication use. This paper aims to describe the complexity of medication safety issues and clinical judgments when optimizing prescribing in older individuals. It uses the case of Mrs. Hansen, an aged nursing home resident, to illustrate the facilitators and barriers of this process. With decreasing life expectancy, medication use should shift from cure to care, focusing on symptomatic treatment to increase the patient's well-being...
July 13, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730562/therapeutical-approaches-to-paroxysmal-hemicrania-hemicrania-continua-and-short-lasting-unilateral-neuralgiform-headache-attacks-a-critical-appraisal
#9
Carlo Baraldi, Lanfranco Pellesi, Simona Guerzoni, Maria Michela Cainazzo, Luigi Alberto Pini
BACKGROUND: Hemicrania continua (HC), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and short lasting neuralgiform headache attacks (SUNCT and SUNA) are rare syndromes with a difficult therapeutic approach. The aim of this review is to summarize all articles dealing with treatments for HC, PH, SUNCT and SUNA, comparing them in terms of effectiveness and safety. METHODS: A survey was performed using the pubmed database for documents published from the 1st January 1989 onwards. All types of articles were considered, those ones dealing with symptomatic cases and non-English written ones were excluded...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730507/can-we-use-diet-to-effectively-treat-esophageal-disease-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#10
REVIEW
Carolyn Newberry, Kristle Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal diseases represent a wide variety of conditions affecting esophageal anatomy, physiology, and motility. Therapy focuses on pharmacotherapy and endoscopic or surgical management. Dietary therapy can be considered in management algorithms for specific esophageal diseases. This review focuses on outlining the literature related to dietary therapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729850/drug-resistant-epilepsy-multiple-hypotheses-few-answers
#11
REVIEW
Fei Tang, Anika M S Hartz, Björn Bauer
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects over 70 million people worldwide. Despite the recent introduction of new antiseizure drugs (ASDs), about one-third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy. Early identification of patients who will become refractory to ASDs could help direct such patients to appropriate non-pharmacological treatment, but the complexity in the temporal patterns of epilepsy could make such identification difficult. The target hypothesis and transporter hypothesis are the most cited theories trying to explain refractory epilepsy, but neither theory alone fully explains the neurobiological basis of pharmacoresistance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727472/relieving-dry-mouth-varying-levels-of-ph-found-in-bottled-water
#12
Bailey Jean Fisher, Angela Spencer, Van Haywood, Gayathri Konchady
It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum...
July 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726523/investigational-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy
#13
Stefano de Biase, Annacarmen Nilo, Gian Luigi Gigli, Mariarosaria Valente
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by a pentad of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and disturbed nocturnal sleep. While non-pharmacological treatments are sometimes helpful, more than 90% of narcoleptic patients require a pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: The present review is based on an extensive Internet and PubMed search from 1994 to 2017. It is focused on drugs currently in development for the treatment of narcolepsy...
July 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725921/-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-elderly
#14
Rüdiger Lange, Frank Erbguth
Due to the increasing life expectancy and a higher incidence in the elderly, the number of elderly patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease will increase in the coming years. Since the burden of comorbidities is higher and medication side effects are more likely in the elderly, particularly in the light of frequently occurring polypharmacy, increased awareness and therapeutic knowledge is necessary. Besides the therapy of motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms, e. g. neuropsychiatric and autonomic disorders, also need to be addressed as they can also greatly impair the quality of life...
July 19, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725195/vitamin-e-as-a-potential-interventional-treatment-for-metabolic-syndrome-evidence-from-animal-and-human-studies
#15
REVIEW
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
A constellation of medical conditions inclusive of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The safest option in curtailing the progression of MetS is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which by itself, is a long-term commitment entailing much determination. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach, as well as lifestyle modification is a more holistic alternative in the management of MetS. Vitamin E has been revealed to possess anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721088/forced-exercise-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-in-chronic-constriction-injury-of-male-rat-an-investigation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#16
Hossein Ali Safakhah, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Atiyeh Bazargani, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Baharak Khoshkholgh-Sima, Ali Ghanbari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Initial peripheral/central nerve injuries, such as chronic constriction injury (CCI)/spinal cord injury, are often compounded by secondary mechanisms, including inflammation and oxidative stress, which may lead to chronic neuropathic pain characterized by hyperalgesia or allodynia. On the other hand, exercise as a behavioral and non-pharmacological treatment has been shown to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine whether or not exercise reduces neuropathic pain through modifying oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721020/access-to-credible-information-on-schizophrenia-patients-medication-adherence-by-prescribers-can-change-their-treatment-strategies-evidence-from-an-online-survey-of-providers
#17
Jason Shafrin, Suepattra G May, Anshu Shrestha, Charles Ruetsch, Nicole Gerlanc, Felicia Forma, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Overestimating patients' medication adherence diminishes the ability of psychiatric care providers to prescribe the most effective treatment and to identify the root causes of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. This study was conducted to determine how credible patient drug adherence information (PDAI) might change prescribers' treatment decisions. METHODS: In an online survey containing 8 clinical case vignettes describing patients with schizophrenia, health care practitioners who prescribe antipsychotics to patients with schizophrenia were instructed to choose a preferred treatment recommendation from a set of predefined pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717115/coronary-artery-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Ryo Naito, Katsumi Miyauchi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Clinical outcomes in CAD with T2DM are poor despite improvement in medications and intervention devices. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in treating diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery diseases (MVD). However, selecting a revascularization strategy should depend not only on the lesion complexity but also on the patient's background and comorbidities...
July 14, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#19
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715934/-first-1000-days-health-interventions-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-alignment-of-south-african-policies-with-high-quality-evidence
#20
René English, Nazia Peer, Simone Honikman, Aviva Tugendhaft, Karen J Hofman
BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), despite adoption of international strategies and approaches, maternal, neonatal and child (MNC) morbidity and mortality rates have not sufficiently declined. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an umbrella review (UR) that identifies interventions in low- and middle-income countries, with a high-quality evidence base, that improve MNC morbidity and mortality outcomes within the first 1000 days of life; and to assess the incorporation of the evidence into local strategies, guidelines and documents...
2017: Global Health Action
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