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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932026/gene-environment-interactions-in-cortical-interneuron-development-and-dysfunction-a-review-of-preclinical-studies
#1
REVIEW
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Robert J Lipinski
Cortical interneurons (cINs) are a diverse group of locally projecting neurons essential to the organization and regulation of neural networks. Though they comprise only ∼20% of neurons in the neocortex, their dynamic modulation of cortical activity is requisite for normal cognition and underlies multiple aspects of learning and memory. While displaying significant morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological variability, cINs collectively function to maintain the excitatory-inhibitory balance in the cortex by dampening hyperexcitability and synchronizing activity of projection neurons, primarily through use of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
December 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920969/examining-the-effects-of-video-modeling-and-prompts-to-teach-activities-of-daily-living-skills
#2
Catarina Aldi, Alexandra Crigler, Kelly Kates-McElrath, Brian Long, Hillary Smith, Kim Rehak, Lisa Wilkinson
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919678/individual-differences-in-high-level-biological-motion-tasks-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#3
Jeroen J A van Boxtel, Yujia Peng, Junzhu Su, Hongjing Lu
Human actions are rich in social cues and play an essential role in interacting with the social environment. Hence, the perception of biological motion (i.e., movement elicited by humans and other animals) is considered to be an important gauge of a person's social cognition capacities. It has been well-documented that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties in social interactions. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in biological motion perception relate to the degree of autistic traits among people in the typically-developing population...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918486/comments-on-quaak-et-al-the-dynamics-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-how-neurotoxic-compounds-and-neurotransmitters-interact-int-j-environ-res-public-health-2013-10-3384-3408
#4
Moslem Mohammadi
I have read the article entitled "The dynamics of autism spectrum disorders: how neurotoxic compounds and neurotransmitters interact". There are some errors in the interpretation of results obtained from our previous studies that should be explained.
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906524/the-development-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-variability-and-causal-complexity
#5
REVIEW
Robert H Wozniak, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Jana M Iverson
The autism spectrum is highly variable, both behaviorally and neurodevelopmentally. Broadly speaking, four related factors contribute to this variability: (1) genetic processes, (2) environmental events, (3) gene × environment interactions, and (4) developmental factors. Given the complexity of the relevant processes, it appears unlikely that autism spectrum atypicalities can be attributed to any one causal mechanism. Rather, the development of neural atypicality reflects an interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905541/serbian-language-version-of-the-modified-checklist-for-autism-in-toddlers-revised-with-follow-up-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-assessment-of-reliability
#6
Mia Carakovac, Jelena Jovanovic, Marko Kalanj, Nenad Rudic, Olivera Aleksic-Hil, Branko Aleksic, Itzel Bustos Villalobos, Hideki Kasuya, Norio Ozaki, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic
Early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has proven to be of high significance, however there is a limited availability of ASD screening tools in Serbian language. In this study we aim to translate, assess reliability and, in part, test the applicability of Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up (M-CHAT R/F) in Serbian Healthcare environment. We screened 128 children in three primary healthcare centres and 20 children in a tertiary psychiatric center, using M-CHAT R/F translated into Serbian language, between December 2014 and October 2015...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#7
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874265/incidental-brain-mri-findings-in-an-autism-twin-study
#8
Julio C Monterrey, Jennifer Philips, Sue Cleveland, Serena Tanaka, Patrick Barnes, Joachim F Hallmayer, Alan L Reiss, Laura C Lazzeroni, Antonio Y Hardan
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest the prevalence of asymptomatic "incidental" findings (IF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is similar to that of neurotypically developing (NT) controls. However, given the causes of IF may include both genetic and environmental factors, a twin study would facilitate comparing brain IF between ASD and NT subjects. MRI scans were examined to assess the prevalence of brain IF in twin "case pairs" (at least one twin with diagnosis of ASD) and twin "control pairs" (NT)...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872602/perceptual-averaging-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Jennifer E Corbett, Paola Venuti, David Melcher
There is mounting evidence that observers rely on statistical summaries of visual information to maintain stable and coherent perception. Sensitivity to the mean (or other prototypical value) of a visual feature (e.g., mean size) appears to be a pervasive process in human visual perception. Previous studies in individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have uncovered characteristic patterns of visual processing that suggest they may rely more on enhanced local representations of individual objects instead of computing such perceptual averages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871978/differences-in-testosterone-and-its-precursors-by-sex-of-the-offspring-in-meconium
#10
Alexander J Frey, Bo Y Park, Emily R Schriver, Daniel R Feldman, Samuel Parry, Lisa A Croen, Daniele M Fallin, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, Nathaniel W Snyder
Prenatal metabolism exerts profound effects on development. The first stool of the newborn, meconium, provides a window into the prenatal metabolic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of meconium as a novel matrix to quantify prenatal steroid levels. We quantified parameters of analytical interest regarding the use of meconium, including sample stability. We hypothesized that meconium steroid content would differ by sex, prompting analysis of meconium to test effects of prenatal steroid metabolism...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866351/social-referencing-gaze-behavior-during-a-videogame-task-eye-tracking-evidence-from-children-with-and-without-asd
#11
Erinn H Finke, Krista M Wilkinson, Benjamin D Hickerson
The purpose of this study was to understand the social referencing behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while visually attending to a videogame stimulus depicting both the face of the videogame player and the videogame play action. Videogames appear to offer a uniquely well-suited environment for the emergence of friendships, but it is not known if children with and without ASD attend to and play videogames similarly. Eyetracking technology was used to investigate visual attention of participants matched based on chronological age...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866349/the-emergent-literacy-skills-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
M F Westerveld, J Paynter, D Trembath, A A Webster, A M Hodge, J Roberts
A high percentage of school-age students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties leading to academic disadvantage. These difficulties may be related to differences in children's emergent literacy development in the preschool years. In this study, we examined the relationship between emergent literacy skills, broader cognitive and language ability, autism severity, and home literacy environment factors in 57 preschoolers with ASD. The children showed strengths in code-related emergent literacy skills such as alphabet knowledge, but significant difficulties with meaning-related emergent literacy skills...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#13
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855195/paternal-aging-affects-behavior-in-pax6-mutant-mice-a-gene-environment-interaction-in-understanding-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
Kaichi Yoshizaki, Tamio Furuse, Ryuichi Kimura, Valter Tucci, Hideki Kaneda, Shigeharu Wakana, Noriko Osumi
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846226/pleiotropic-mechanisms-indicated-for-sex-differences-in-autism
#15
Ileena Mitra, Kathryn Tsang, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Lisa A Croen, Kimberly A Aldinger, Robert L Hendren, Michela Traglia, Alinoë Lavillaureix, Noah Zaitlen, Michael C Oldham, Pat Levitt, Stanley Nelson, David G Amaral, Irva Herz-Picciotto, M Daniele Fallin, Lauren A Weiss
Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845486/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intact-executive-functioning
#16
R Ferrara, F Ansermet, F Massoni, L Petrone, E Onofri, P Ricci, T Archer, S Ricci
: Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#17
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
November 2, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814400/sperm-microrna-content-is-altered-in-a-mouse-model-of-male-obesity-but-the-same-suite-of-micrornas-are-not-altered-in-offspring-s-sperm
#18
Tod Fullston, E Maria C Ohlsson-Teague, Cristin G Print, Lauren Y Sandeman, Michelle Lane
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and has tripled in men of reproductive age since the 1970s. Concerningly, obesity is not only comorbid with other chronic diseases, but there is mounting evidence that it increases the non-communicable disease load in their children (eg mortality, obesity, autism). Animal studies have demonstrated that paternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic (eg glucose metabolism defects, obesity) and reproductive disorders in offspring. Epigenetic changes within sperm are clear mechanistic candidates that are associated with both changes to the father's environment and offspring phenotype...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799862/is-the-wrong-environment-enough-to-cause-autism-and-epilepsy-interplay-between-seizures-and-aberrant-behaviors-due-to-gestational-factors
#19
Elizabeth M Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782753/effects-of-heterogeneous-risk-factors-on-psychological-distress-in-adolescents-with-autism-and-victimization-experiences-in-taiwan
#20
Yu-Lung Chiu, Senyeong Kao, Shao-Wen Tou, Fu-Gong Lin
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of various types of bullying victimization among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examine the effects of victimization on the mental health of adolescents with ASD. METHODS: The sample was collected from the Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study (SNELS) database released in 2011. Variables comprising seven psychological distress (PD) items and four types of bullying victimization and family-, school-, and peer-related factors were included in a multivariate regression analysis...
October 26, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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