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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544911/arianna-a-research-environment-for-neuroimaging-studies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Alessandra Retico, Silvia Arezzini, Paolo Bosco, Sara Calderoni, Alberto Ciampa, Simone Coscetti, Stefano Cuomo, Luca De Santis, Dario Fabiani, Maria Evelina Fantacci, Alessia Giuliano, Enrico Mazzoni, Pietro Mercatali, Giovanni Miscali, Massimiliano Pardini, Margherita Prosperi, Francesco Romano, Elena Tamburini, Michela Tosetti, Filippo Muratori
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#2
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521245/the-light-from-above-prior-is-intact-in-autistic-children
#3
Abigail Croydon, Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Sensory information is inherently ambiguous. The brain disambiguates this information by anticipating or predicting the sensory environment based on prior knowledge. Pellicano and Burr (2012) proposed that this process may be atypical in autism and that internal assumptions, or "priors," may be underweighted or less used than in typical individuals. A robust internal assumption used by adults is the "light-from-above" prior, a bias to interpret ambiguous shading patterns as if formed by a light source located above (and slightly to the left) of the scene...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484738/hippocampus-dependent-goal-localization-by-head-fixed-mice-in-virtual-reality
#4
Masaaki Sato, Masako Kawano, Kotaro Mizuta, Tanvir Islam, Min Goo Lee, Yasunori Hayashi
The demonstration of the ability of rodents to navigate in virtual reality (VR) has made it an important behavioral paradigm for studying spatially modulated neuronal activity in these animals. However, their behavior in such simulated environments remains poorly understood. Here, we show that encoding and retrieval of goal location memory in mice head-fixed in VR depends on the postsynaptic scaffolding protein Shank2 and the dorsal hippocampus. In our newly developed virtual cued goal location task, a head-fixed mouse moves from one end of a virtual linear track to seek rewards given at a target location along the track...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475976/the-association-of-environmental-toxicants-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Bi Su Ye, Anna Oi Wah Leung, Ming Hung Wong
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a set of complex neurodevelopment disorders that is prevalent in children and is increasing at a steady rate in recent years. However, the etiology of autism is still poorly understood. Humans are at higher risk of chemical exposure than in the past as a result of the increasing usage of chemicals in various fields, including food preservation, agriculture, industrial production, etc. A number of environmental agents have been suggested as contributing factors to ASD pathogenesis, which includes heavy metals (Hg and Pb), persistent organic pollutants (DDT, PBDEs and PCBs) and emerging chemicals of concern (phthalates and BPA)...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474794/variable-sensory-perception-in-autism
#6
Sarah M Haigh
Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469641/dysregulation-of-neurogenesis-by-neuroinflammation-key-differences-in-neurodevelopmental-and-neurological-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Lir-Wan Fan, Yi Pang
Embryonic neurogenesis is the process of generating neurons, the functional units of the brain. Because of its sensitivity to adverse intrauterine environment such as infection, dysregulation of this process has emerged as a key mechanism underlying many neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adult neurogenesis, although is restricted to a few neurogenic niches, plays pivotal roles in brain plasticity and repair. Increasing evidence suggests that impairments in adult neurogenesis are involved in major neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452080/autism-a-transdiagnostic-dimensional-construct-of-reasoning
#8
REVIEW
Bodil Aggernaes
The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448694/the-joint-effect-of-air-pollution-exposure-and-copy-number-variation-on-risk-for-autism
#9
Dokyoon Kim, Heather Volk, Santhosh Girirajan, Sarah Pendergrass, Molly A Hall, Shefali S Verma, Rebecca J Schmidt, Robin L Hansen, Debashis Ghosh, Yunin Ludena-Rodriguez, Kyoungmi Kim, Marylyn D Ritchie, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Scott B Selleck
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex trait with a high degree of heritability as well as documented susceptibility from environmental factors. In this study the contributions of copy number variation, exposure to air pollutants, and the interaction between the two on autism risk, were evaluated in the population-based case-control Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study. For the current investigation, we included only those CHARGE children (a) who met criteria for autism or typical development and (b) for whom our team had conducted both genetic evaluation of copy number burden and determination of environmental air pollution exposures based on mapping addresses from the pregnancy and early childhood...
April 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448681/autism-too-eager-to-learn-event-related-potential-findings-of-increased-dependency-on-intentional-learning-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task
#10
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roemer van der Meij, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge...
April 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439605/effectiveness-of-a-preparatory-aid-in-facilitating-oral-assessment-in-a-group-of-saudi-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-central-saudi-arabia
#11
Ebtissam Z Murshid
To evaluate the effectiveness of a specially-designed dental book (preparatory aid) on the behavior of a group of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Saudi children during their first dental visit to the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional double-blinded pre-and post clinical study consisting of 2 parts; a survey targeting the parents, and a clinical oral examination of their ASD children was conducted between January and June of 2016.  Results: A total of 40 children (75% males and 25% females) with an average age of 6...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433088/parental-age-and-offspring-psychopathology-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#12
Alison K Merikangas, Monica E Calkins, Warren B Bilker, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence implicates advanced paternal age at offspring birth in neuropsychiatric disorders. Advanced maternal age has also been associated with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, whereas younger maternal age has been linked with behavioral disorders. Few studies have considered the specificity of the associations with respect to comorbidity. In addition, most prior studies have been conducted in clinical samples or registries that may reflect more severe forms of psychopathology...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433087/paternal-age-alters-social-development-in-offspring
#13
Magdalena Janecka, Claire M A Haworth, Angelica Ronald, Eva Krapohl, Francesca Happé, Jonathan Mill, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Cathy Fernandes, Abraham Reichenberg, Frühling Rijsdijk
OBJECTIVE: Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. METHOD: We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429605/parent-perspectives-on-home-participation-of-high-functioning-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-compared-with-a-matched-group-of-children-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Snæfrídur T Egilson, Gunnhildur Jakobsdóttir, Linda B Ólafsdóttir
Few studies have focused on home participation of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. We employed a mixed-methods design to explore and compare parent perspectives on (1) participation of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in activities at home, (2) the environmental features and resources that affect these children's home participation and (3) the strategies parents use to help their children participate at home. The Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) was used to gather online survey and qualitative data from parents of 99 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder and 241 children without autism spectrum disorder...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423808/security-policy-and-infrastructure-in-the-context-of-a-multi-centeric-information-system-dedicated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Mohamed Ben Said, Laurence Robel, Bernard Golse, Jean Philippe Jais
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422647/eeg-based-affect-and-workload-recognition-in-a-virtual-driving-environment-for-asd-intervention
#16
Jing Fan, Joshua W Wade, Alexandra P Key, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
OBJECTIVE: To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. METHODS: Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417440/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-focus-on-autism
#17
REVIEW
Lucio G Costa, Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities...
April 17, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391454/atypical-gaze-cueing-pattern-in-a-complex-environment-in-individuals-with-asd
#18
Shuo Zhao, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Yasutaka Kubota, Motomi Toichi
Clinically, social interaction, including gaze-triggered attention, has been reported to be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but psychological studies have generally shown intact gaze-triggered attention in ASD. These studies typically examined gaze-triggered attention under simple environmental conditions. In real life, however, the environment is complex. Previous studies have shown that an enhanced cueing effect was found when using eye gaze compared with arrow cues in unpredictably complex conditions in typically developing (TD) individuals...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371413/auditory-spatial-attention-to-speech-and-complex-non-speech-sounds-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Laura N Soskey, Paul D Allen, Loisa Bennetto
One of the earliest observable impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a failure to orient to speech and other social stimuli. Auditory spatial attention, a key component of orienting to sounds in the environment, has been shown to be impaired in adults with ASD. Additionally, specific deficits in orienting to social sounds could be related to increased acoustic complexity of speech. We aimed to characterize auditory spatial attention in children with ASD and neurotypical controls, and to determine the effect of auditory stimulus complexity on spatial attention...
April 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357154/vaccine-hesitancy-in-search-of-the-risk-communication-comfort-zone
#20
Joshua Greenberg, Eve Dubé, Michelle Driedger
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents...
March 3, 2017: PLoS Currents
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