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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#1
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021833/what-california-sea-lions-exposed-to-domoic-acid-might-teach-us-about-autism-lessons-for-predictive-and-preventive-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Garet Paul Lahvis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia. Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020056/differences-in-change-blindness-to-real-life-scenes-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#3
Chris Ashwin, Sally Wheelwright, Simon Baron-Cohen
People often fail to detect large changes to visual scenes following a brief interruption, an effect known as 'change blindness'. People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have superior attention to detail and better discrimination of targets, and often notice small details that are missed by others. Together these predict people with autism should show enhanced perception of changes in simple change detection paradigms, including reduced change blindness. However, change blindness studies to date have reported mixed results in ASC, which have sometimes included no differences to controls or even enhanced change blindness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968035/-model-of-social-exclusion-of-the-elderly-people-in-siberian-regions
#4
S G Maximova, O E Noyanzina, D A Omelchenko
An article presents results of the construction and approbation of a theoretical model of social exclusion of population of elderly age groups in Siberian regions. It bases on the results of sociological research (2016) in three Russian regions: Altai region, Trans-Baikal region and Kemerovo oblast (n=779 age of respondents from 55 (women) and 60 (men) years and older). In theory, the model lays on the following: in is determined by economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutes and services) and deprivation of security (safe environment), deprivation of social participation, cultural (normative) disintegration and social autism; the above named components are specific for the group of elderly people, that is a priori a high risk of exclusion; social exclusion, as a condition and situation of exclusion can be estimated straightly through the manifestation of its dimensions; the model has a one-way causality, i...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948883/the-maternal-body-as-environment-in-autism-science
#5
Martine Lappé
Research on autism and environmental risk factors has expanded substantially in recent years. My analysis draws attention to the regimes of perceptibility that shape how the environment is materialized in post-genomic science. I focus on how more complex narratives of autism's causes and social anxieties surrounding child development have helped situate autism risk in women's bodies before and during pregnancy. This has resulted in what I call the maternal body as environment in autism science. I show that this figure involves three characteristics: the molecularization of the environment, an individualization of risk, and the internalization of responsibility...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934093/combined-prenatal-pesticide-exposure-and-folic-acid-intake-in-relation-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Rebecca J Schmidt, Vladimir Kogan, Janie F Shelton, Lora Delwiche, Robin L Hansen, Sally Ozonoff, Claudia C Ma, Erin C McCanlies, Deborah H Bennett, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Daniel J Tancredi, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. OBJECTIVE: We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921105/association-between-air-pollution-exposure-cognitive-and-adaptive-function-and-asd-severity-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Tara Kerin, Heather Volk, Weiyan Li, Fred Lurmann, Sandrah Eckel, Rob McConnell, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk but no study has examined associations with ASD severity or functioning. Cognitive ability, adaptive functioning, and ASD severity were assessed in 327 children with ASD from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score. Estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903621/virtual-environments-as-an-assessment-modality-with-pediatric-asd-populations-a-brief-report
#8
Tyler C Duffield, Thomas D Parsons, Allisen Landry, Shaza Karam, Tiffany Otero, Sarah Mastel, Trevor A Hall
Virtual environments (VEs) have demonstrated promise as a neuropsychological assessment modality and may be well suited for the evaluation of children suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some recent studies indicate their potential for enhancing reliability, ecologically validity, and sensitivity over traditional neuropsychological evaluation measures. Although research using VEs with ASD is increasing to the degree that several reviews of the literature have been conducted, the reviews to date lack rigor and are not necessarily specific to cognitive or neuropsychological assessment as many focus on intervention...
September 13, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890420/perinatal-inflammation-and-adult-psychopathology-from-preclinical-models-to-humans
#9
REVIEW
Amaicha Mara Depino
Perinatal environment plays a crucial role in brain development and determines its function through life. Epidemiological studies and clinical reports link perinatal exposure to infection and/or immune activation to various psychiatric disorders. In addition, accumulating evidence from animal models shows that perinatal inflammation can affect various behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression. Remarkably, the effects on behavior and brain function do not always depend on the type of inflammatory stimulus or the perinatal age targeted, so diverse inflammatory events can have similar consequences on the brain...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873419/gender-and-autistic-traits-modulate-implicit-motor-synchrony
#10
Miao Cheng, Masaharu Kato, Chia-Huei Tseng
Interpersonal motor synchrony during walking or dancing is universally observed across cultures, and this joint movement was modulated by physical and social parameters. However, human interactions are greatly shaped by our unique traits, and self-related factors are surprisingly little studied in the context of interpersonal motor synchrony. In this study, we investigated two such factors known to be highly associated with motor coordination: gender and autistic traits. We employed a real-world task extending our understanding beyond laboratory tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872651/lokal-samverkan-positiv-vid-autism-hos-sm%C3%A3-barn-i-multietnisk-stadsdel
#11
Gudrun Nygren, Petra Linnsand, Åsa Nilses, Karin Bondesson, Nanna Gillberg, Elisabeth Fernell, Christopher Gillberg
Organisation of health care for families with young children with autism in a multiethnic community in Gothenburg, Sweden In a project in a multiethnic district in Gothenburg a local collaborative model with a multiprofessional team for families with young children with autism has been running for three years. The model allows assessments and intervention planning close to the family's local environment. The project has revealed that the time from identification of problems to assessment and intervention has been considerably shortened compared to the situation before the local collaborative model was started...
September 5, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862395/phelan-mcdermid-syndrome-data-network-integrating-patient-reported-outcomes-with-clinical-notes-and-curated-genetic-reports
#12
Cartik Kothari, Maxime Wack, Claire Hassen-Khodja, Sean Finan, Guergana Savova, Megan O'Boyle, Geraldine Bliss, Andria Cornell, Elizabeth J Horn, Rebecca Davis, Jacquelyn Jacobs, Isaac Kohane, Paul Avillach
The heterogeneity of patient phenotype data are an impediment to the research into the origins and progression of neuropsychiatric disorders. This difficulty is compounded in the case of rare disorders such as Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) by the paucity of patient clinical data. PMS is a rare syndromic genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency. In this paper, we describe the Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Data Network (PMS_DN), a platform that facilitates research into phenotype-genotype correlation and progression of PMS by: a) integrating knowledge of patient phenotypes extracted from Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data and clinical notes-two heterogeneous, underutilized sources of knowledge about patient phenotypes-with curated genetic information from the same patient cohort and b) making this integrated knowledge, along with a suite of statistical tools, available free of charge to authorized investigators on a Web portal https://pmsdn...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856472/reliability-of-the-participation-and-sensory-environment-questionnaire-teacher-version
#13
Aimee Piller, Tina Fletcher, Beth Pfeiffer, Karen Dunlap, Noralyn Pickens
The Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire-Teacher Version (PSEQ-TV) is a teacher-report questionnaire to assess the impact of the sensory environment on participation of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many children with ASD have sensory processing differences, although these differences are frequently examined from the standpoint of the person. The PSEQ-TV provides a single assessment to examine both participation and the sensory environment for preschool aged children with ASD...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855550/social-rivalry-triggers-visual-attention-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Marine Grandgeorge, Yentl Gautier, Pauline Brugaillères, Inès Tiercelin, Carole Jacq, Marie-Claude Lebret, Martine Hausberger
Visual social attention is central to social functioning and learning and may act as a reinforcer. Social rivalry, which occurs when an individual is excluded from dyadic interactions, can promote interspecific learning by triggering attention. We applied it to an animal-assisted intervention, where the behaviour of ASD children was compared between an experimental (attention shift of the animal trainer from the dog-child to the dog only) and a control (attention maintained on the dyad) groups (study 1). The results show that ASD children are sensitive to the direction of (visual) social attention and may act, physically and visually, in order to regain it...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852285/knowledge-and-perception-regarding-autism-among-primary-school-teachers-a-cross-sectional-survey-from-pakistan-south-asia
#15
Adil Ayub, Buria Naeem, Wajahat Nazir Ahmed, Suraksha Srichand, Komal Aziz, Brooj Abro, Sehrish Najam, Duraiz Murtaza, Ali Ahmed Janjua, Sara Ali, Imtiaz Jehan
BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention seem to improve development in autistic children, and teachers form an important part of their early social environment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess baseline knowledge and misconceptions regarding autism among school teachers and evaluate factors influencing their knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey enrolling primary school teachers using a self-administered questionnaire...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833341/gene-and-environment-interactions-in-autism-risk-reflections-on-the-carnitine-deficiency-hypothesis-by-beaudet-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201700012
#16
Keith Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825635/assessing-sensory-processing-dysfunction-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Denise DuBois, Erin Lymer, Barbara E Gibson, Pushpal Desarkar, Emily Nalder
Sensory reactivity is a diagnostic criterion for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and has been associated with poorer functional outcomes, behavioral difficulties, and autism severity across the lifespan. Yet, there is little consensus on best practice approaches to assessing sensory processing dysfunction in adolescents and adults with ASD. Despite growing evidence that sensory symptoms persist into adolescence and adulthood, there is a lack of norms for older age groups, and pediatric assessments may not target appropriate functional outcomes or environments...
August 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821725/interplay-between-maternal-slc6a4-mutation-and-prenatal-stress-a-possible-mechanism-for-autistic-behavior-development
#18
Calvin P Sjaarda, Patrick Hecht, Amy J M McNaughton, Audrina Zhou, Melissa L Hudson, Matt J Will, Garth Smith, Muhammad Ayub, Ping Liang, Nansheng Chen, David Beversdorf, Xudong Liu
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812269/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#19
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
Oxytocin plays a role in various functions including endocrine and immune functions but also parent-infant bonding and social interactions. It might be considered as a main neuropeptide involved in mediating the regulation of adaptive interactions between an individual and his/her environment. Recently, a critical role of oxytocin in early life has been revealed in sensory processing and multi-modal integration that are essential for normal postnatal neurodevelopment. An early alteration in the oxytocin-system may disturb its maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences such as autism spectrum disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797309/aging-well-on-the-autism-spectrum-the-perspectives-of-autistic-adults-and-carers
#20
Ye In Jane Hwang, Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian N Trollor
BACKGROUND: "Aging well" is an increasingly popular concept in gerontology. Adults with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder represent a demographically substantial population, yet remain excluded from existing conceptualizations of aging well. This qualitative study aimed to explore what it means for autistic adults to "age well" from the perspectives of autistic adults and carers. METHODS: Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 autistic adults (mean age 50...
August 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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