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Autism environment

Cecilia Llambias, Joyce Magill-Evans, Veronica Smith, Sharon Warren
Engagement in meaningful activities is essential to development and is often reduced in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have limited engagement in activities or relationships. A multiple-baseline design was used with 7 children with ASD ages 4-8 yr to assess the effect of including a horse in occupational therapy intervention on task engagement. The children showed improvements in engagement. Including horses in occupational therapy sessions may be a valuable addition to conventional treatments to increase task engagement of children with ASD...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Joanna Granich, Alena Dass, Margherita Busacca, Dennis Moore, Angelika Anderson, Svetha Venkatesh, Thi Duong, Pratibha Vellanki, Amanda Richdale, David Trembath, Darin Cairns, Wendy Marshall, Tania Rodwell, Madeleine Rayner, Andrew J O Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: Evidence for early intensive behavioural interventions (EIBI) by therapists as an effective treatment for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is growing. High-intensity and sustained delivery of quality EIBI is expensive. The TOBY (Therapy Outcomes by You) Playpad is an App-based platform delivering EIBI to facilitate learning for young children with ASD, while enabling parents to become co-therapists. Intervention targets include increasing joint attention, imitation and communication of children with ASD...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
Alison D Cox, Javier Virues-Ortega, Flavia Julio, Toby L Martin
Excessive motion makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extremely challenging among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The medical risks of sedation establish the need for behavioral interventions to promote motion control among children with ASD undergoing MRI scans. We present a series of experiments aimed at establishing both tolerance of the MRI environment and a level of motion control that would be compatible with a successful MRI. During Study 1, we evaluated the effects of prompting and contingent reinforcement on compliance with a sequence of successive approximations to an MRI using a mock MRI...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Bart A Ellenbroek, Caren August, Jiun Youn
There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA) enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals, such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Johan Lundin Kleberg, Emilia Thorup, Terje Falck-Ytter
Children with autism may have difficulties with visual disengagement-that is, inhibiting current fixations and orienting to new stimuli in the periphery. These difficulties may limit these children's ability to flexibly monitor the environment, regulate their internal states, and interact with others. In typical development, visual disengagement is influenced by a phasic alerting network that increases the processing speed of the visual system after salient events. The role of the phasic alerting effect in the putative atypical disengagement performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not known...
October 1, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Christian Ryan, Martina Stafford, Robert James King
Faces are one of the most socially significant visual stimuli encountered in the environment, whereas pareidolias are illusions of faces arising from ambiguous stimuli in the environment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by deficits in response to social stimuli. We found that children with ASD (n = 60) identify significantly fewer pareidolic faces in a sequence of ambiguous stimuli than typically developing peers. The two groups did not differ in the number of objects identified, indicating that the children with ASD had a specific lack of attention to faces...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Paul A G Forbes, Xueni Pan, Antonia F de C Hamilton
Mimicry involves unconsciously copying the actions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that autistic people can copy the goal of an observed action but show differences in their mimicry. We investigated mimicry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a two-dimensional virtual reality environment. Participants played an imitation game with a socially engaged avatar and socially disengaged avatar. Despite being told only to copy the goal of the observed action, autistic participants and matched neurotypical participants mimicked the kinematics of the avatars' movements...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
Marie-Maude Geoffray, Marion Thevenet, Nicolas Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. METHODS: We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Sander Van de Cruys, Ruth Van der Hallen, Johan Wagemans
Predictive coding has recently been welcomed as a fruitful framework to understand autism spectrum disorder. Starting from an account centered on deficient differential weighting of prediction errors (based in so-called precision estimation), we illustrate that individuals with autism have particular difficulties with separating signal from noise, across different tasks. Specifically, we discuss how deficient precision-setting is detrimental for learning in unstable environments, for context-dependent assignment of salience to inputs, and for robustness in perception, as illustrated in coherent motion paradigms...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Cathina T Nguyen, Paula Krakowiak, Robin Hansen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Kathleen Angkustsiri
This study investigates whether sociodemographic factors are associated with utilization of intervention services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment Study. Maternal ethnicity, insurance status, and education for 696 families of children with ASD were available. Children of Black mothers entered intervention earlier compared to White mothers (2 vs. 2.6 years; p = 0.001). Having public insurance was associated with receiving <15 h/week of individual services, while having a Bachelor degree was associated with receiving <15 h/week of classroom-based services...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Susan A Bonis, Kathleen J Sawin
PROBLEM: Stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported to be very high. However, little is known about what risk and protective factors influence parental stress self-management in this population. Accordingly, this manuscript is a synthesis of the risk and protective factors that impact self-management of stress in these parents. The concepts in the individual and family self-management theory context domain were used as a framework to guide data collection and analysis...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Aimee Piller, Beth Pfeiffer
Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis...
July 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
M Alice Shillingsburg, Cassondra M Gayman, William Walton
Recent research on teaching mands for information to children with language deficits has focused on manipulating establishing operations (EOs). However, only a few of those studies have programmed both EO conditions (in which information is needed) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions (in which information has already been provided) to ensure functional use of the mand for information. Shillingsburg, Bowen, Valentino, and Pierce (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 136-150, 2014) provided a successful demonstration of differential responding between EO and AO conditions demonstrating control of the response by the relevant EO...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Koji Tanoue, Tetsuya Takamasu, Kiyoshi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food selectivity is commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to investigate the eating habit histories of children with ASD. METHODS: We analyzed 3-day food records completed by the parents and assessed how many unique foods each child consumed. The parents were also interviewed about their child's diet of complementary foods and estimated number of food repertoires at the ages of 3, 6, 12 and 18 years...
September 7, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Heather J Nuske, Giacomo Vivanti, Cheryl Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Much research has investigated deficit in emotional reactivity to others in people with autism, but scant attention has been paid to how this deficit affects their own reactions to features of their environment (objects, events, practices, etc.). The present study presents a preliminary analysis on whether calibrating one's own emotional reactions to others' emotional reactions about features of the world, a process we term social-emotional calibration, is disrupted in autism...
2016: Molecular Autism
Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Kathleen K Bucholz, Sarah M Hartz, Michael T Lynskey, Elliot C Nelson, Laura J Bierut, Ryan Bogdan
Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
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