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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821725/interplay-between-maternal-slc6a4-mutation-and-prenatal-stress-a-possible-mechanism-for-autistic-behavior-development
#1
Calvin P Sjaarda, Patrick Hecht, Amy J M McNaughton, Audrina Zhou, Melissa L Hudson, Matt J Will, Garth Smith, Muhammad Ayub, Ping Liang, Nansheng Chen, David Beversdorf, Xudong Liu
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812269/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#2
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
Oxytocin plays a role in various functions including endocrine and immune functions but also parent-infant bonding and social interactions. It might be considered as a main neuropeptide involved in mediating the regulation of adaptive interactions between an individual and his/her environment. Recently, a critical role of oxytocin in early life has been revealed in sensory processing and multi-modal integration that are essential for normal postnatal neurodevelopment. An early alteration in the oxytocin-system may disturb its maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences such as autism spectrum disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797309/aging-well-on-the-autism-spectrum-the-perspectives-of-autistic-adults-and-carers
#3
Ye In Jane Hwang, Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian N Trollor
BACKGROUND: "Aging well" is an increasingly popular concept in gerontology. Adults with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder represent a demographically substantial population, yet remain excluded from existing conceptualizations of aging well. This qualitative study aimed to explore what it means for autistic adults to "age well" from the perspectives of autistic adults and carers. METHODS: Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 autistic adults (mean age 50...
August 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795836/smile-social-reward-drives-attention
#4
Dana A Hayward, Effie J Pereira, A Ross Otto, Jelena Ristic
Human social behavior is fine-tuned by interactions between individuals and their environments. Here we show that social motivation plays an important role in this process. Using a novel manipulation of social reward that included elements of real-life social exchanges, we demonstrate the emergence of attentional orienting for coincidental spatial associations that received positive social reward. After an interaction with the experimenter, participants completed a computerized task in which they received positive, negative, or no social reward for their performance to spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and neutral cue-target pairings, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#5
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795135/male-and-female-mice-lacking-neuroligin-3-modify-the-behavior-of-their-wild-type-littermates
#6
Shireene Kalbassi, Sven O Bachmann, Ellen Cross, Victoria H Roberton, Stéphane J Baudouin
In most mammals, including humans, the postnatal acquisition of normal social and nonsocial behavior critically depends on interactions with peers. Here we explore the possibility that mixed-group housing of mice carrying a deletion of Nlgn3, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders, and their wild-type littermates induces changes in each other's behavior. We have found that, when raised together, male Nlgn3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates displayed deficits in sociability. Moreover, social submission in adult male Nlgn3 knockout mice correlated with an increase in their anxiety...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772114/cityscape-moving-beyond-indifference-in-education-for-pre-registration-nurses-about-learning-disability
#7
Lorna Saunder, Rachael-Anne Knight
People with learning disabilities and Autism continue to suffer from the delivery of ineffective and inadequate care from health services CitySCaPE (City Simulated Community and Practice Environment) is a multi media resource delivering a simulation of situations student nurses may encounter in relation to service users with learning disabilities. The resource is applicable to adult, mental health and children's nursing. It is delivered in a blended approach to students in the first part of their programme as part of their simulated practice...
July 25, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761347/genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Tian Chen, Mohan Giri, Zhenyi Xia, Yadu Nanda Subedi, Yan Li
Epilepsy is a common episodic neurological disorder or condition characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures, and genetics seems to play a key role in its etiology. Early linkage studies have localized multiple loci that may harbor susceptibility genes to epilepsy, and mutational analyses have detected a number of mutations involved in both ion channel and nonion channel genes in patients with idiopathic epilepsy. Genome-wide studies of epilepsy have found copy number variants at 2q24.2-q24.3, 7q11.22, 15q11...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758996/adults-with-autism-overestimate-the-volatility-of-the-sensory-environment
#9
Rebecca P Lawson, Christoph Mathys, Geraint Rees
Insistence on sameness and intolerance of change are among the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little research has addressed how people with ASD represent and respond to environmental change. Here, behavioral and pupillometric measurements indicated that adults with ASD are less surprised than neurotypical adults when their expectations are violated, and decreased surprise is predictive of greater symptom severity. A hierarchical Bayesian model of learning suggested that in ASD, a tendency to overlearn about volatility in the face of environmental change drives a corresponding reduction in learning about probabilistically aberrant events, thus putatively rendering these events less surprising...
July 31, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734102/are-electromagnetic-fields-in-incubators-a-risk-factor-for-autism
#10
Carlo V Bellieni, Giuseppe Buonocore
Hugo Lagercrantz recently argued (1) that a possible cause of infantile autism was the unnatural isolation that babies experienced in neonatal incubators. Atypical brain connectivity has been detected in children with autism and it is possible that this may be also due to environmental factors, including the lack of physiological stimuli that is typically found in the incubator environment. We suggest that also another factor may expose babies in incubators to the risk of developing autistic traits and that is the high electromagnetic fields (EMF) produced by the incubator's electric engine...
July 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717229/investigation-of-autistic-traits-through-strategic-decision-making-in-games-with-adaptive-agents
#11
Alexis B Craig, Emily Grossman, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other people. Impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to infer what another person is thinking, may contribute to these social deficits. The present study assesses the relationship between autistic traits and decision-making in a socioeconomic game environment that measures ToM and cooperation. We quantified participant strategy during game play with computer agents that simulated aspects of ToM or fixed strategy agents with static behaviors or heuristics...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704690/joint-attention-and-oromotor-abilities-in-young-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jennifer C Dalton, Elizabeth R Crais, Shelley L Velleman
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between joint attention ability and oromotor imitation skill in three groups of young children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder using both nonverbal oral and verbal motor imitation tasks. Research questions addressed a) differences among joint attention and oromotor imitation abilities; b) the relationship between independently measured joint attention and oromotor imitation, both nonverbal oral and verbal motor; c) the relationships between joint attention and verbal motor imitation during interpersonal interaction; and d) the relationship between the sensory input demands (auditory, visual, and tactile) and oromotor imitation, both nonverbal oral and verbal motor...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703319/brain-carnitine-deficiency-causes-nonsyndromic-autism-with-an-extreme-male-bias-a-hypothesis
#13
REVIEW
Arthur L Beaudet
Could 10-20% of autism be prevented? We hypothesize that nonsyndromic or "essential" autism involves extreme male bias in infants who are genetically normal, but they develop deficiency of carnitine and perhaps other nutrients in the brain causing autism that may be amenable to early reversal and prevention. That brain carnitine deficiency might cause autism is suggested by reports of severe carnitine deficiency in autism and by evidence that TMLHE deficiency - a defect in carnitine biosynthesis - is a risk factor for autism...
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703063/caring-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-condition-in-paediatric-emergency-departments
#14
Ben Richards
The needs of children with autism spectrum condition (ASC) in paediatric emergency departments (EDs) can often be overlooked. EDs are high-stress environments for children with ASC, which can result in meltdowns, making the diagnostic process challenging. There should be provision for children with ASC, who can have sensory, behavioural and communication needs, in the same way that analgesia is provided for children in pain. This article promotes a multi-strategy approach to making reasonable adjustments to help meet the needs of these children and provide them with a positive hospital experience...
July 13, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691500/factors-associated-with-sustained-community-employment-among-adults-with-autism-and-co-occurring-intellectual-disability
#15
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Julie Lounds Taylor, Marsha R Mailick
Sustaining community employment is a challenge for adults with autism spectrum disorders, especially for those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, but factors contributing to this employment outcome have not been fully evaluated. This study utilized longitudinal data to explore the impact of contextual influences, family factors, and individual characteristics on sustained employment over approximately 18 months ( N = 105). Very few adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability achieved sustained employment (14...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685411/how-to-implement-robots-in-interventions-for-children-with-autism-a-co-creation-study-involving-people-with-autism-parents-and-professionals
#16
Claire A G J Huijnen, Monique A S Lexis, Rianne Jansens, Luc P de Witte
The aim of this study was to gain insight into how robots can be practically implemented into current education and therapy interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This qualitative study included focus groups and co-creation sessions. 73 Participants (professionals and adults with ASD) took part in 13 focus groups to elicit requirements for robot assisted interventions. Additionally, 22 participants (professionals, parents of children with ASD and adults with ASD) generated ideas for interventions using robot KASPAR in three co-creation sessions...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681355/impaired-redox-control-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-could-it-be-the-x-in-gxe
#17
REVIEW
Vanja Mandic-Maravic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija Mitkovic-Voncina, Ana Savic-Radojevic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Tatjana Simic, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a brief description of the complex etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with special emphasis on the recent findings of impaired redox control in ASD, and to suggest a possible model of oxidative stress-specific gene-environment interaction in this group of disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings point out to the significance of environmental, prenatal, and perinatal factors in ASD but, at the same time, are in favor of the potentially significant oxidative stress-specific gene-environment interaction in ASD...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673909/physiological-mechanisms-underlying-animal-social-behaviour
#18
Frank Seebacher, Jens Krause
Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664633/participation-of-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-in-home-school-and-community
#19
K Simpson, D Keen, D Adams, C Alston-Knox, J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Children on the autism spectrum participate less frequently, and in a narrower range of activities, than their nonautistic peers, but little is known about exact participation patterns across contexts or how this is perceived by caregivers. This study aimed to document patterns of participation and caregiver views with regard to frequency and intensity of activities. METHOD: Caregivers of children on the spectrum aged 5 (n = 90) and 9-10 years (n = 128) completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth for home, school, and community...
June 29, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662698/mov10-suppresses-retroelements-and-regulates-neuronal-development-and-function-in-the-developing-brain
#20
Geena Skariah, Joseph Seimetz, Miles Norsworthy, Monica C Lannom, Phillip J Kenny, Mohamed Elrakhawy, Craig Forsthoefel, Jenny Drnevich, Auinash Kalsotra, Stephanie Ceman
BACKGROUND: Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotransposons has been characterized exclusively in cell lines. We investigated the role of Mov10 in the mouse brain by examining its expression over development and attempting to create a Mov10 knockout mouse. Loss of both Mov10 copies led to early embryonic lethality. RESULTS: Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
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