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Autism and environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#1
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787403/driving-comparisons-between-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-typical-development
#2
Kristina E Patrick, Felicia Hurewitz, Mark D McCurdy, Frederic Taylor Agate, Brian P Daly, Reem A Tarazi, Douglas L Chute, Maria T Schultheis
OBJECTIVE: Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reluctant to pursue driving because of concerns about their ability to drive safely. This study aimed to assess differences in simulated driving performance in young adults with ASD and typical development, examining relationships between driving performance and the level of experience (none, driver's permit, licensed) across increasingly difficult driving environments. METHOD: Participants included 50 English-speaking young adults (16-26 years old) with ASD matched for sex, age, and licensure with 50 typically-developing (TD) peers...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785200/comparative-study-on-knowledge-about-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-paediatric-and-psychiatric-nurses-in-public-hospitals-in-kumasi-ghana
#3
Wireko-Gyebi Sampson, Ashiagbor Emelia Sandra
Background: Despite the existence of autism spectrum disorder in Ghana, few studies have provided the necessary information on the phenomenon. These studies have mostly focused on speech and language therapy for children and modification of classroom environment for children with autism spectrum disorder. This approach has resulted in a paucity of knowledge on nurse's knowledge of autism spectrum disorder in Ghana. Objective: The study sought to assess the knowledge of paediatric and psychiatric on autism spectrum disorder...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777977/creating-therapeutic-landscapes-at-home-the-experiences-of-families-of-children-with-autism
#4
Wasan Nagib, Allison Williams
This study explores the challenges faced within the home environment by North American families of children with autism. The study also examines the diversity and extent of physical modifications introduced by the families to alleviate these challenges. The concept of therapeutic landscapes is employed as a framework to examine how physical modifications transform the home environment into a place of healing for both the children with autism and their family members. Finally, the study offers a general design framework that can ultimately guide home designers and policymakers in developing friendly home environments for children with autism and their families...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761854/parenting-adolescents-with-asd-a-multimethod-study
#5
Lotte van Esch, Steven Vanmarcke, Eva Ceulemans, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially few studies investigated parenting in adolescence, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents. In the present study, a multi-method approach was used, combining data from a self-report questionnaire and observation of mother-child interactions during different semi-structured (e...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761491/an-evaluation-of-group-activity-schedules-to-promote-social-play-in-children-with-autism
#6
Jessica S Akers, Thomas S Higbee, Kristina R Gerencser, Azure J Pellegrino
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have deficits in social skills and may avoid engaging in play activities with typically developing peers. The purpose of this study was to identify the utility of activity schedules, with embedded scripts, to teach three children with ASD to play a complex social game. Specifically, children with ASD were taught to play hide-and-seek with typically developing peers. Once the activity schedules were introduced, participants began engaging in independent hide-and-seek behaviors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753322/clinical-outcomes-of-interactive-intensive-and-individual-3i-play-therapy-for-children-with-asd-a-two-year-follow-up-study
#7
Elodie Tilmont Pittala, Yann Saint-Georges-Chaumet, Claire Favrot, Antoine Tanet, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of psycho-educational interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) comorbid with severe to moderate intellectual disability (ID) are insufficiently documented. In this prospective study, we examined a developmental individual, interactive and intensive approach, called the '3i method', which is based on play therapy. METHODS: Twenty DSM-IV-TR ASD subjects (mean chronological age 63.8 ± 37.8 months; mean developmental age 19.5 ± 6...
May 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734506/predictors-of-quality-of-life-for-autistic-adults
#8
David Mason, Helen McConachie, Deborah Garland, Alex Petrou, Jacqui Rodgers, Jeremy R Parr
Research with adults on the autism spectrum is as yet limited in scope and quality. The present study describes quality of life (QoL) of a large sample of autistic adults in the UK and investigates characteristics that may be predictive of QoL. A total of 370 autistic adults from the Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort-UK (ASC-UK) completed the WHOQoL-BREF, and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, autism symptom severity), along with the ASC-UK registration questionnaire giving information on mental health and their life situation...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713443/prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-features-of-autism-a-prospective-population-study
#9
Jean Golding, Dheeraj Rai, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline Taylor
Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704525/opportunities-and-challenges-for-using-the-zebrafish-to-study-neuronal-connectivity-as-an-endpoint-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#10
REVIEW
Galen W Miller, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Bianca Yaghoobi, Pamela J Lein
Chemical exposures have been implicated as environmental risk factors that interact with genetic susceptibilities to influence individual risk for complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disabilities. Altered patterns of neuronal connectivity represent a convergent mechanism of pathogenesis for these and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and growing evidence suggests that chemicals can interfere with specific signaling pathways that regulate the development of neuronal connections...
April 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693781/the-effect-of-physical-activity-interventions-on-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Sean Healy, Adam Nacario, Rock E Braithwaite, Chris Hopper
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of physical activity interventions on youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Standard meta-analytical procedures determining inclusion criteria, literature searches in electronic databases, coding procedures, and statistical methods were used to identify and synthesize articles retained for analysis. Hedge's g (1988) was utilized to interpret effect sizes and quantify research findings. Moderator and outcome variables were assessed using coding procedures...
April 25, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682095/brain-responses-underlying-anthropomorphism-agency-and-social-attribution-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Carla J Ammons, Constance F Doss, David Bala, Rajesh K Kana
Background: Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, is frequently impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and may result from altered activation of social brain regions. Conversely, Typically Developing (TD) individuals overextend ToM and show a strong tendency to anthropomorphize and interpret biological motion in the environment. Less is known about how the degree of anthropomorphism influences intentional attribution and engagement of the social brain in ASD...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681189/autism-inside-out-lessons-from-the-memoirs-of-three-minimally-verbal-youths
#13
Christie Welch, Helene Polatajko, Patty Rigby, Margaret Fitch
BACKGROUND: To date, research exploring experiences and perspectives of people who have severe autism and are minimally verbal, has been sparse. OBJECTIVES: To build new understanding based on insider perspectives of people who have severe autism and are minimally verbal. We took interest in how these perspectives support, challenge, or augment current depictions of autism in academic literature. METHOD: Adopting a descriptive qualitative approach, three memoirs written by youths who have severe autism and are minimally verbal were examined using inductive thematic analysis...
April 23, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660967/a-call-for-implementing-preferred-practices-for-brain-injury-screening-in-youth-to-improve-transition
#14
Drew A Nagele, Melissa McCart, Stephen R Hooper
BACKGROUND: It is vital to engage in systematic screening to identify and serve children who may have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI) - either traumatic or non-traumatic, so they can be successfully transitioned between environments and life stages. This is particularly important for children and adolescents given the impact an ABI can have on learning and social functioning over the course of the neurodevelopmental process. A pattern of repeated, undiagnosed mild brain injuries may lead to mood or behavior disorders, learning problems...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610413/transition-of-individuals-with-autism-to-adulthood-a-review-of-qualitative-studies
#15
Kristy A Anderson, Collette Sosnowy, Alice A Kuo, Paul T Shattuck
Many young adults with autism spectrum disorder experience poor transition outcomes in key areas, including postsecondary employment, higher education, health care, social connectedness, and independent living, yet we lack a clear understanding of the specific factors that impact these outcomes. We reviewed qualitative research in which the perspectives of youth and young adults with autism spectrum disorder, parents, services providers, and other stakeholders were gathered to identify barriers and facilitators to optimal outcomes...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574739/reimagining-the-environment-in-developmental-psychopathology-from-molecules-to-effective-interventions
#16
EDITORIAL
Pasco Fearon
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry's Annual Research Review (ARR) is a must-read special issue of the journal that presents a series of major reviews of key topics in the field. This year the ARR consists of eight reviews, each accompanied by a commentary from a leading expert in the field, on a diverse range of topics addressing, in complementary ways, the key role of the environment in child psychopathology and in leveraging change in the service of prevention and intervention. Topics include epigenetics, stress physiology, neonatal imaging, interparental conflict, bullying, autism treatments and suicide...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#17
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570782/childhood-neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-risk-of-coercive-sexual-victimization-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-population-based-prospective-twin-study
#18
Vide Ohlsson Gotby, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Erik Pettersson
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other related neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) have, in some previous studies, been shown to increase the risk of being sexually victimized. However, no studies have examined whether the association is driven by a general NDD phenotype versus specific diagnoses, nor the etiology of the association. METHOD: Using a genetically informative, prospective design, we examined the association between ASD and ADHD in childhood and coercive sexual victimization up to age 18...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563885/interplay-between-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-possible-nutritional-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560561/understanding-performance-and-verbal-communication-of-children-with-asd-in-a-collaborative-virtual-environment
#20
Lian Zhang, Zachary Warren, Amy Swanson, Amy Weitlauf, Nilanjan Sarkar
Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs), which allow naturalistic communication between two or more individuals in a shared virtual environment, hold promise as a tool for measuring and promoting social communication between peers. In this work, a CVE platform and a set of CVE-based collaborative games are designed for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two groups (7 ASD/TD pairs; 7 TD/TD pairs) participated in a pilot study to establish system feasibility and tolerability. We also designed a methodology for capturing meaningful metrics of social communication...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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