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Autism and environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333847/management-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-anesthesia-and-radiographic-context
#2
Ingalill G Berglund, Berit Björkman, Karing Enskär, Maria Faresjö, Karina Huus
OBJECTIVE: As a primary objective, this study purports to develop guidelines to better care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding these children's preparation for anesthesia and radiologic procedures. METHODS: Using a Delphi method with an online distribution of questionnaire, guidelines for caring for children with ASD were created. Twenty-one participants were included in the expert panel. These participants were working with children with ASD in several anesthesia and radiology departments in Sweden...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333493/bayesian-approaches-to-autism-towards-volatility-action-and-behavior
#3
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Jakob Hohwy
Autism spectrum disorder currently lacks an explanation that bridges cognitive, computational, and neural domains. In the past 5 years, progress has been sought in this area by drawing on Bayesian probability theory to describe both social and nonsocial aspects of autism in terms of systematic differences in the processing of sensory information in the brain. The present article begins by synthesizing the existing literature in this regard, including an introduction to the topic for unfamiliar readers. The key proposal is that autism is characterized by a greater weighting of sensory information in updating probabilistic representations of the environment...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325062/personal-experiences-of-the-criminal-justice-system-by-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Patricia Howlin
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the defence and their experiences of being in prison and/or life following the offence. The nine individuals described a range of different and often negative experiences with the Criminal Justice System...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#6
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295208/naturalistic-language-recordings-reveal-hypervocal-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#7
Meghan R Swanson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Brian Boyd, Mark Clements, James Rehg, Jed T Elison, Sarah Paterson, Julia Parish-Morris, J Chad Chappell, Heather C Hazlett, Robert W Emerson, Kelly Botteron, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz, Stephen R Dager, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Annette M Estes, Joseph Piven
Children's early language environments are related to later development. Little is known about this association in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often experience language delays or have ASD. Fifty-nine 9-month-old infants at high or low familial risk for ASD contributed full-day in-home language recordings. High-risk infants produced more vocalizations than low-risk peers; conversational turns and adult words did not differ by group. Vocalization differences were driven by a subgroup of "hypervocal" infants...
March 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281642/feature-and-motion-based-gaze-cuing-is-linked-with-reduced-social-competence
#8
Dana A Hayward, Jelena Ristic
Gaze following is a fundamental ability that plays an important role in human social function. However, the link between these two processes remains elusive. On the one hand, typically developing persons show robust gaze following in laboratory cuing tasks. On the other hand, investigations with individuals with autism suggest that reduced social competence in this population may partly reflect an atypical access to social information through attending to perceptual changes that normally accompany gaze shifts, like luminance or motion transients...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264988/maltreatment-risk-among-children-with-disabilities
#9
Miriam J Maclean, Scott Sims, Carol Bower, Helen Leonard, Fiona J Stanley, Melissa O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Children with disabilities are at increased risk of child maltreatment; however, there is a gap in the evidence about whether all disabilities are at equal risk and whether risk factors vary according to the type of disability. METHODS: A population-based record-linkage study of all children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2010. Children with disabilities were identified by using population-based registers and risk of maltreatment determined by allegations reported to the Department for Child Protection and Family Support...
March 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261046/fast-detector-first-responder-interactions-between-the-superior-colliculus-pulvinar-pathway-and-stimuli-relevant-to-primates
#10
REVIEW
Sandra C Soares, Rafael S Maior, Lynne A Isbell, Carlos Tomaz, Hisao Nishijo
Primates are distinguished from other mammals by their heavy reliance on the visual sense, which occurred as a result of natural selection continually favoring those individuals whose visual systems were more responsive to challenges in the natural world. Here we describe two independent but also interrelated visual systems, one cortical and the other subcortical, both of which have been modified and expanded in primates for different functions. Available evidence suggests that while the cortical visual system mainly functions to give primates the ability to assess and adjust to fluid social and ecological environments, the subcortical visual system appears to function as a rapid detector and first responder when time is of the essence, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256685/-interventions-to-promote-social-communication-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
I Baixauli-Fortea, B Rosello-Miranda, C Berenguer-Forner, C Colomer-Diago, M D Grau-Sevilla
INTRODUCTION: The difficulties encountered when it comes to social communication are one of the core disorders experienced by persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This problem leads to feelings of loneliness and social exclusion, which negatively affect the quality of life. AIMS: To review the characteristics of the main interventions in this field in high-functioning ASD. DEVELOPMENT: Strategies employed include social stories, comic-strip conversations or videomodelling, and interventions mediated by peers and multicomponent treatments...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255759/language-environment-analysis-lena-in-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome-validity-and-suggestions-for-use-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jacquelin Rankine, Erin Li, Stacey Lurie, Hillary Rieger, Emily Fourie, Paige M Siper, A Ting Wang, Joseph D Buxbaum, Alexander Kolevzon
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a single-locus cause of developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and minimal verbal abilities. There is an urgent need to identify objective outcome measures of expressive language for use in this and other minimally verbal populations. One potential tool is an automated language processor called Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA). LENA was used to obtain over 542 h of audio in 18 children with PMS. LENA performance was adequate in a subset of children with PMS, specifically younger children and those with fewer stereotypic vocalizations...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254669/reactive-attachment-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorders-callous-unemotional-traits-and-comorbid-disorders
#13
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Daniel A Waschbusch, Rosanna P Breaux, Raman Baweja
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare, understudied, and controversial disorders. METHODS: Comorbidity in children diagnosed with RAD or DSED was compared with comorbidity in ADHD and autism to determine if RAD/DSED comorbidity differed from that for the two most common disorders in child psychiatric clinics. Samples included 4-17-year-olds, 20 with RAD and/or DSED, 933 with autism, and 895 with ADHD...
February 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254162/noise-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-an-exploratory-survey
#14
Shireen M Kanakri, Mardelle Shepley, James W Varni, Louis G Tassinary
BACKGROUND: With more students being educated in schools for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) than ever before, architects and interior designers need to consider the environmental features that may be modified to enhance the academic and social success of autistic students in school. AIM: This study explored existing empirical research on the impact of noise on children with ASD and provides recommendations regarding design features that can contribute to noise reduction...
February 18, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245224/physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-their-correlates-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#15
Rachel A Jones, Katherine Downing, Nicole J Rinehart, Lisa M Barnett, Tamara May, Jane A McGillivray, Nicole V Papadopoulos, Helen Skouteris, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley
Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220059/disturbance-in-maternal-environment-leads-to-abnormal-synaptic-instability-during-neuronal-circuitry-development
#17
REVIEW
Yusuke Hatanaka, Tomohiro Kabuta, Keiji Wada
Adverse maternal environment during gestation and lactation can have negative effects on the developing brain that persist into adulthood and result in behavioral impairment. Recent studies of human and animal models suggest epidemiological and experimental association between disturbances in maternal environments during brain development and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218493/improving-vision-awareness-in-autism-services-evaluation-of-a-dedicated-education-programme-for-support-practitioners
#18
Joseph J Long, Maggie Butchart, Michael Brown, Janice Bain, Anne McMillan, Thanos Karatzias
BACKGROUND: The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired. METHODS: Researchers undertook a mixed methods evaluation. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered before and after training and focus groups were undertaken in order to gain qualitative data relating how practitioners implemented their learning in practice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#19
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213063/impaired-spatial-performance-in-cerebellar-deficient-lurcher-mice-is-not-associated-with-their-abnormal-stress-response
#20
Jan Tuma, Yaroslav Kolinko, Dana Jelinkova, Pascal Hilber, Jan Cendelin
Both humans and laboratory animals suffering from cerebellar lesions exhibit cognitive as well as many emotional and behavioral abnormalities. These latter have been already observed in the cerebellar mutant mice currently used to highlight some aspect of autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cerebellar-related stress response abnormalities on spatial learning and memory. Cerebellar-deficient Lurcher mutant mice were exposed to water environment without active escape possibility and then tested for spatial learning in the Morris water maze...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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