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Behavior analyst

Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Emanuel Zgraggen, Alex Galakatos, Andrew Crotty, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Tim Kraska
The stated goal for visual data exploration is to operate at a rate that matches the pace of human data analysts, but the ever increasing amount of data has led to a fundamental problem: datasets are often too large to process within interactive time frames. Progressive analytics and visualizations have been proposed as potential solutions to this issue. By processing data incrementally in small chunks, progressive systems provide approximate query answers at interactive speeds that are then refined over time with increasing precision...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Neil Deochand, R Wayne Fuqua
Since the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) was officially created in 1998 (Shook, 2005), the number of individuals certified by the BACB has grown significantly, particularly in the USA. Some states have witnessed a steady growth in the number of certificants, whereas others have witnessed exponential growth. Many factors could account for these overall growth patterns, including (a) geographic variations in distribution of certificants across states, (b) the passage of autism insurance reform laws or state licensing laws that influence the professional practice of applied behavior analysis (ABA) services, and (c) the presence of major academic or practicum training programs...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Neil Deochand, Mack S Costello, R Wayne Fuqua
The individuals served by behavior analysts are often funded by Medicaid, insurance companies, or private pay. The first two options usually require progress notes detailing graphically and quantitatively the behavioral outcomes. These progress notes usually come in the form of a written account of milestones achieved or barriers faced, graphical displays of behavioral data, and summary tables. The graphical displays are monthly, quarterly, and annual reports for the individuals that they serve. Microsoft Excel® is one of the most accessible tools by which to accomplish this task; however, presenting the required date ranges can be a time-consuming task...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Dana M Blydenburg, James W Diller
This study investigates the consistency of behavior-analytic training with the Behavior Analysis Certification Board's task list. A survey about the content of behavior-analytic training programs was sent to Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB)-approved training program directors. There were many program directors that felt particular areas do not have sufficient coverage (e.g., Behavioral Pharmacology, Biological Bases of Behavior, Organizational Behavior Management), and several program directors reported that their course sequence does not adequately prepare students in basic research...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Mitch J Fryling, Natalia A Baires
The identification of functional relations is a hallmark of applied behavior analysis. Building upon this foundation, applied behavior analysts have developed and researched a number of practices that fall within the purview of Functional Behavioral Assessment, a framework used to understand factors that influence a target behavior. Indeed, there now exists a wide range of procedures that fall within the purview of Functional Behavioral Assessment, with different procedures being associated with different strengths and limitations...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Elizabeth Hughes Fong, Robyn M Catagnus, Matthew T Brodhead, Shawn Quigley, Sean Field
All individuals are a part of at least one culture. These cultural contingencies shape behavior, behavior that may or may not be acceptable or familiar to behavior analysts from another culture. To better serve individuals, assessments and interventions should be selected with a consideration of cultural factors, including cultural preferences and norms. The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions to serve as a starting point for developing behavior analysts' cultural awareness skills. We present strategies for understanding behavior analysts' personal cultural values and contingencies and those of their clients, integrating cultural awareness practices into service delivery, supervision, and professional development, and becoming culturally aware in everyday practice...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Jeffrey S Danforth
Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Audrey N Hoffmann, Bethany P Contreras, Casey J Clay, Michael P Twohig
Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Linda A LeBlanc, Paige B Raetz, Tyra P Sellers, James E Carr
Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
James M Johnston
The Auburn University Master of Science program in Applied Behavior Analysis was designed to accommodate not only the requirements of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board for approved course sequences and practicum training, but unavoidable limitations in faculty and other resources. These limitations were incompatible with the more traditional 2-year curriculum model, so a 1-year program was designed that met the necessary conditions. This article describes the resulting academic and practicum curriculum, the key funding mechanisms that allowed the program to develop, and the opportunities and benefits that this model afforded...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
Jon E Krapfl
A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
Anthony Biglan
Behavior analysis has produced a robust theoretical analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. Yet, thus far, the empirical yield of this work remains quite limited. With this paper, I attempt to provide specific examples of the ways to advance an experimental analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. I begin with a review of the theoretical analyses developed by behavior analysts and other contextually oriented scientists. Next, I submit that, if the goal of our science is both predicting and influencing cultural phenomena, we must produce experimental analyses of the impact of meta-contingencies on organizations' practices...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
Julie M Smith
The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and (c) playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis (see Freedman 2015, in this issue, for a thorough description of these strategies)...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
Beth Sulzer-Azaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Melissa R Nosik, James E Carr
In recent decades, behavior analysts have generally used two different concepts to speak about motivational influences on operant contingencies: setting event and motivating operation. Although both concepts still appear in the contemporary behavior-analytic literature and were designed to address the same antecedent phenomena, the concepts are quite different. The purpose of the present article is to describe and distinguish the concepts and to illustrate their current usage.
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Mario Gutiérrez-Roig, Carlota Segura, Jordi Duch, Josep Perelló
Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation...
2016: PloS One
Aya Zaidel
Starting from his early writings, Freud devoted much thought to "obsessional neurosis" and continued developing this theme for more than thirty years. However, unlike the disorder hysteria, which in recent years has regained its honorable status in psychoanalytic literature, obsessional neurosis has been continually neglected and relegated to the fields of psychiatry and behavioral psychology, which emphasize the symptomatic and the overt. This process, by clinging to the objective aspects of obsessional neurosis and disassociating it from the instincts and from its historical sources, may itself be deemed obsessive...
August 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
Dan McGinn, David Birch, David Akroyd, Miguel Molina-Solana, Yike Guo, William J Knottenbelt
This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time...
June 2016: Big Data
James W Diller, Robert J Barry, Brett W Gelino
Ninety Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) and 19 editorial board members evaluated hypothetical data presented in a multielement design. We manipulated the variability, trend, and mean shift of the data and asked the participants to determine if the data demonstrated experimental control. The results showed that variability, trend, and mean shift interacted to affect the participants' ratings of experimental control. The level of agreement between participants was variable, but was generally lower than in previous research...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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