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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239004/cancer-mortality-in-the-mississippi-delta-region-descriptive-epidemiology-and-needed-future-research-and-interventions
#1
Whitney E Zahnd, Wiley D Jenkins, Georgia S Mueller-Luckey
The Delta Region is a federally designated, socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United States covering 252 counties in eight states along the Mississippi River. The objective of this study is to describe the Region's cancer mortality burden. National Center for Health Statistics data were used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for the Delta Region for all cancers, lung, colorectal, breast (female), cervical, and prostate cancers. Rates were also calculated for comparison groups, and were stratified by gender, race, rurality, and socioeconomic status...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238782/vaccination-efficacy-with-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-against-cancer-was-enhanced-under-simulated-microgravity
#2
Jing Li, Jun Chen, Xiuyu Li, Yanfang Qian
Stem cell vaccination can induce consistent and strong anti-tumor immunity against cancer in mice model. The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine MSCs. Based on this conception, we first compared their tumor vaccines intervention effects of adult MSCs and MSCs under simulated microgravity (MSC/SMG)...
February 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238592/frequency-of-carcinoid-syndrome-at-neuroendocrine-tumour-diagnosis-a-population-based-study
#3
Daniel M Halperin, Chan Shen, Arvind Dasari, Ying Xu, Yiyi Chu, Shouhao Zhou, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, James C Yao
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) can secrete bioactive amines into the bloodstream, causing carcinoid syndrome, with symptoms including flushing and diarrhoea. However, carcinoid syndrome frequency in the NET population has never been rigorously assessed, nor has its relationship to presenting clinicopathological characteristics. This analysis assessed the proportion of patients with NETs and carcinoid syndrome in the USA and associated clinical factors. METHODS: We identified patients (≥65 years of age) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, excluding those with pancreatic tumours or small-cell or large-cell lung cancer, as well as those without complete data...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238577/geometrical-and-dosimetrical-uncertainties-in-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-of-the-lung-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Marco Schwarz, Giovanni Mauro Cattaneo, Livia Marrazzo
The application of high precision hypofractionated regimes (a.k.a. stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)) to the treatment of lung cancer is a 'success story' of radiotherapy. From the technical perspective, lung SBRT is a challenging technique as all aspects of the treatment workflow, from imaging to dose calculation to treatment delivery, should be carefully handled in order to ensure consistency between planned and delivered dose. In this review such technical aspects are presented and discussed, looking at what has been developed over the years...
February 23, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236771/looking-back-and-to-the-future-%C3%A2-are-we-improving-cure-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
David Walder, Mary O'Brien
In surgical series, cancer-free survival at 5 years is often referred to as a cure. In recent years, attempts to improve cure rates in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have focussed on earlier diagnosis through cost-effective screening programs. Systemic therapies have historically added only a small benefit to overall survival in both the adjuvant and palliative setting. However, in the last two decades, the development of new treatment options has added incremental improvements in NSCLC survival rates. Patients with a targetable sensitising mutation including epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements have significantly better prognosis, and many will survive beyond 5 years...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236692/synthesis-and-characterization-of-folate-decorated-albumin-bio-conjugate-nanoparticles-loaded-with-a-synthetic-curcumin-difluorinated-analogue
#6
Kaustubh A Gawde, Prashant Kesharwani, Samaresh Sau, Fazlul H Sarkar, Subhash Padhye, Sushil K Kashaw, Arun K Iyer
Albumin-bound paclitaxel colloidal nanoparticle (Abraxane®) is an FDA approved anticancer formulation available in the market. It is a suspension which is currently used therapeutically for treating cancers of the breast, lung, and pancreas among others. CDF is a novel new and potent synthetic curcumin analogue that is widely used for breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to use biocompatible albumin as well as folate decorated albumin to formulate colloidal nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin difluorinated (CDF)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229276/effects-of-chlorella-vulgaris-on-tumor-growth-in-mammary-tumor-bearing-balb-c-mice-discussing-association-of-an-immune-suppressed-protumor-microenvironment-with-serum-ifn%C3%AE-and-igg-decrease-and-spleen-igg-potentiation
#7
Ahad Khalilnezhad, Elham Mahmoudian, Nariman Mosaffa, Ali Anissian, Mohsen Rashidi, Davar Amani
PURPOSE: Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has exhibited immune-enhancing and protective activities against cancer and infections. However, there is an increasing concern about the use of Chlorella species in human, regarding its various molecules with antigenic features found in infectious microorganisms. Our goal was to investigate the impact of higher concentrations of CV on tumor growth in spontaneous mouse mammary tumor (SMMT) models. METHODS: Balb/c mice were daily given CV powder at doses of 0, 200, or 300 mg/kg for 42 days (CONTROL, CV200, and CV300 groups, respectively; n = 6/group)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215851/a-novel-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-operable-locally-invasive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-phase-i-study-of-neoadjuvant-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-linnearre-i-nct02433574
#9
Nhu-Tram A Nguyen, Naghmeh Isfahanian, Gregory Pond, Wael Hanna, Jean-Claude Cutz, James Wright, Anand Swaminath, Yaron Shargall, Tom Chow, Marcin Wierzbicki, Gordon Okawara, Kimmen Quan, Christian Finley, Rosalyn Juergens, Theodoros Tsakiridis
BACKGROUND: Despite improved staging and surgical techniques, the rate of incomplete resection (R1) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not significantly decreased. Patients with R1 resection have worse survival compared with those with complete resection (R0). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a rapid and convenient radiotherapy treatment that delivers high-dose radiotherapy to tumors with high precision while sparing normal organs. Although its efficacy in treating small lung tumors is documented, its use as neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced (LA) NSCLC has not been examined...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215455/lung-ablation-best-practice-results-response-assessment-role-alongside-other-ablative-therapies
#10
REVIEW
T de Baere, L Tselikas, G Gravel, F Deschamps
Today, in addition to surgery, other local therapies are available for patients with small-size non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease from various cancers. Local therapies include stereotactic ablation radiotherapy (SABR) and thermal ablative therapies through percutaneously inserted applicators. Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been explored in series with several hundreds of patients with pulmonary tumours, investigation of the potential of other ablation technologies including microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation is ongoing...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213726/pd-1-and-pd-l1-antibodies-in-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Arjun Vasant Balar, Jeffrey S Weber
Immunotherapy has moved to the center stage of cancer treatment with the recent success of trials in solid tumors with PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. Programmed death-1 or PD-1 is a checkpoint molecule on T cells that plays a vital role in limiting adaptive immune responses and preventing autoimmune and auto-inflammatory reactivity in the normal host. In cancer patients, PD-1 expression is very high on T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and PD-L1, its primary ligand, is variably expressed on tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells within tumors, providing a potent inhibitory influence within the tumor microenvironment...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210538/patient-and-primary-care-provider-attitudes-and-adherence-towards-lung-cancer-screening-at-an-academic-medical-center
#12
Duy K Duong, Salma Shariff-Marco, Iona Cheng, Harris Naemi, Lisa M Moy, Robert Haile, Baldeep Singh, Ann Leung, Ann Hsing, Viswam S Nair
Low dose CT (LDCT) for lung cancer screening is an evidence-based, guideline recommended, and Medicare approved test but uptake requires further study. We therefore conducted patient and provider surveys to elucidate factors associated with utilization. Patients referred for LDCT at an academic medical center were questioned about their attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs on lung cancer screening. Adherent patients were defined as those who met screening eligibility criteria and completed a LDCT. Referring primary care providers within this same medical system were surveyed in parallel about their practice patterns, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs about screening...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208047/targeted-therapy-for-chronic-respiratory-disease-a-new-paradigm
#13
Peter G Gibson, Matthew J Peters, Claire E Wainwright
Targeted therapy has emerged as a highly effective treatment approach for chronic respiratory diseases. Many of these conditions have dismal outcomes; however, targeted therapy shows great results for the subgroup who respond. This represents a new way to approach these conditions and offers great promise as a future treatment direction. In severe eosinophilic asthma, therapy that targets the interleukin-5 pathway with monoclonal antibodies leads to a 50% reduction in asthma exacerbations in previously refractory disease...
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202377/characterization-of-a-new-fungal-immunomodulatory-protein-fip-dsq2-from-dichomitus-squalens
#14
Shuying Li, Zhonghao Jiang, Lichao Sun, Xin Liu, Ying Huang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin
FIP-dsq2, a new immunomodulatory protein, was identified in Basidiomycota Dichomitus squalens by gene mining. FIP-dsq2 contained 111 amino acids with a molecular weight of 12.51kDa. FIP-dsq2 had a homology range of 51-65% to the reported FIPs. The predicted 3-dimensional model had more similar identical folding patterns in LZ-8 than for FIP-fve. Evolutionary analysis indicated substantial phylogenetic differences were existed with the other FIPs. Overexpression of a 14.07kDa soluble recombinant FIP-dsq2 (rFIP-dsq2) was achieved in Rosetta (pGEX-6P-1) and the purified recombinant protein was homodimer verified by gel filtration chromatography analysis...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198990/corticosteroids-and-hip-fracture-risk-in-elderly-respiratory-patients-epic-greece-cohort
#15
Anna Karakatsani, Michail Katsoulis, Eleni Klinaki, Antonia Trichopoulou
INTRODUCTION: In an ageing population the prevalence of osteoporosis and chronic respiratory diseases is expected to increase in the near future. Interestingly, several forms of corticosteroids, drugs implicated in osteoporosis pathogenesis, are prescribed to respiratory patients without taking into consideration their age and risk for osteoporotic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk for hip fracture of the elder individuals who are taking corticosteroids for respiratory disease, including inhalers...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196386/-liquid-biopsy-detection-of-molecular-markers-for-treatment-decisions-in-lung-cancer
#16
W M Brückl, R M Wirtz, T Bertsch, J H Ficker, A Jung
Personalized, individualized, targeted therapy has successfully found entrance in the palliative treatment of lung cancer as they enable a personalized and individualized strategy going ahead with biomarker testing. Due to the crescending amount of predictive molecular and immunhistochemical analyses at different time points during therapy the need for more and actual tumor tissue increases; however these samples cannot always be obtained without major discomfort for the patients. Therefore, analyses from blood, the so called "liquid biopsy", is an alternative or additional method...
February 14, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194618/the-prognostic-value-of-pre-diagnosis-health-related-quality-of-life-on-survival-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-older-americans-with-lung-cancer
#17
Laura C Pinheiro, Timothy M Zagar, Bryce B Reeve
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after cancer diagnosis is prognostic for overall survival (OS). However, no studies have assessed if HRQOL before diagnosis is predictive for OS. The objective of this study was to determine the association between pre-lung cancer diagnosis HRQOL and OS. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study used surveillance, epidemiology, and end results linked to the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. We included 6290 individuals 65 years or older diagnosed with incident lung cancer from 1998 to 2013...
February 14, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194491/-merkel-cell-carcinoma-cutaneous-manifestation-of-a-highly-malignant-pre-pro-b%C3%A2-cell-neoplasia-novel-concept-about-the-cellular-origin-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
C M Sauer, E Chteinberg, D Rennspiess, A K Kurz, A Zur Hausen
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare but highly malignant non-melanoma skin cancer of the elderly and immunosuppressed patients. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in 2008 significantly impacted the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of MCC. MCPyV is clonally integrated into the MCC genome and approximately 80% of MCC are MCPyV-positive. Recent results of clinical trials using blockade of the PD-1 immune modulatory pathway are promising for the future treatment of MCC. Despite this major progress of the past few years, the cellular origin of MCC still remains obscure...
February 13, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192876/determination-of-16-serum-angiogenic-factors-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-a-bead-based-multiplex-immunoassay
#19
Agnieszka Klupczynska, Paweł Dereziński, Jan Matysiak, Wojciech Dyszkiewicz, Mariusz Kasprzyk, Zenon J Kokot
The aim of the study was to identify significant abnormalities in angiogenic factor profiles occurring at early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Contrary to the previous studies, our research included patients with only stage I NSCLC, which allowed for estimating the utility of circulating angiogenic factors in early NSCLC detection. The investigation was performed in serum samples collected from individuals with untreated NSCLC (n=41) and a matched control group of healthy individuals (n=61). All patients had histopathologically-confirmed stage IA or IB NSCLC...
February 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186469/blood-based-nucleic-acid-biomarkers-as-a-potential-tool-to-determine-radiation-therapy-response-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Christopher R Deig, Marc S Mendonca, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with smoking as the main risk factor. The use of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) as a screening method has shown a 20% lung cancer specific mortality benefit; however, widespread implementation is estimated to add $1.3-$2.0 billion in annual national health care expenditures. Blood-based microRNAs (miRNAs), have been investigated in detail and found to be potentially useful biomarkers indicating the presence of lung cancer, especially when used as a companion test to LDCT...
February 10, 2017: Radiation Research
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