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future lung cancer

Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Markus Rabenhold, Frank Steiniger, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Endoglin (CD105) is overexpressed on tumor cells and tumor vasculatures, making it a potential target for diagnostic imaging and therapy of different neoplasms. Therefore, studies on nanocarrier systems designed for endoglin-directed diagnostic and drug delivery purposes would expose the feasibility of targeting endoglin with therapeutics. METHODS: Liposomes carrying high concentrations of a near-infrared fluorescent dye in the aqueous interior were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion procedure, then conjugated to single chain antibody fragments either selective for murine endoglin (termed mEnd-IL) or directed towards human endoglin (termed hEnd-IL)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Antonio Rossi, Rebecca Tay, Jaseela Chiramel, Arsela Prelaj, Raffaele Califano
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive disease characterized by a high response rate to first-line chemotherapy, but most patients relapse within 1 year with disappointing results to second-line treatments. Chemotherapy has reached a plateau of effectiveness and new therapeutic strategies are needed to change the natural history of SCLC. Areas covered: This review will focus on the current results and the future development of the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SCLC. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy is becoming a new frontier for the management of SCLC with preliminary interesting results...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Matthew Dankner, April A N Rose, Shivshankari Rajkumar, Peter M Siegel, Ian R Watson
The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade is among the most frequently mutated pathways in human cancer. Approximately 50% of melanoma patients possess a druggable hotspot V600E/K mutation in the BRAF protein kinase. FDA-approved combination therapies of BRAF and MEK inhibitors are available that provide survival benefits to patients with a BRAF V600 mutation. Non-V600 BRAF mutants are found in many cancers, and are more prevalent than V600 mutations in certain tumor types. For example, between 50-80% of BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer and 22-30% in colorectal cancer encode for non-V600 mutants...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Patrizia Ciammella, Giorgia Timon, Alessio Bruni, Davide Franceschini, Paolo Borghetti, Nicolò Giaj-Levra, Carlo Greco, Vieri Scotti, Marco Trovo
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of SCLC both in curative and palliative setting, however, conflicting data from clinical trials incite debate over the appropriate use of radiation therapy regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and/or thoracic consolidative in extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). This survey is conducted to evaluate the current pattern of care among Italian radiation oncologists. METHODS: In June 2016, all Italian radiation oncologists were invited to a web-based survey...
March 13, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Lucas W Thornblade, Douglas E Wood, Michael S Mulligan, Alexander S Farivar, Michal Hubka, Kimberly E Costas, Bahirathan Krishnadasan, Farhood Farjah
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have reported underuse of-but not variability in-invasive mediastinal staging in the pretreatment evaluation of patients with lung cancer. We sought to compare rates of invasive mediastinal staging for lung cancer across hospitals participating in a regional quality improvement and research collaborative. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study (2011-2013) of patients undergoing resected lung cancer from the Surgical Clinical Outcomes and Assessment Program in Washington State...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Clare Gilham, Christine Rake, John Hodgson, Andrew Darnton, Garry Burdett, James Peto Wild, Michelle Newton, Andrew G Nicholson, Leslie Davidson, Mike Shires, Tom Treasure, Julian Peto
Background: Occupational and environmental airborne asbestos concentrations are too low and variable for lifetime exposures to be estimated reliably, and building workers and occupants may suffer higher exposure when asbestos in older buildings is disturbed or removed. Mesothelioma risks from current asbestos exposures are therefore not known. Methods: We interviewed and measured asbestos levels in lung samples from 257 patients treated for pneumothorax and 262 with resected lung cancer, recruited in England and Wales...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Lori C Sakoda, Louise M Henderson, Tanner J Caverly, Karen J Wernli, Hormuzd A Katki
Purpose of review: Risk prediction models may be useful for facilitating effective and high-quality decision-making at critical steps in the lung cancer screening process. This review provides a current overview of published lung cancer risk prediction models and their applications to lung cancer screening and highlights both challenges and strategies for improving their predictive performance and use in clinical practice. Recent findings: Since the 2011 publication of the National Lung Screening Trial results, numerous prediction models have been proposed to estimate the probability of developing or dying from lung cancer or the probability that a pulmonary nodule is malignant...
December 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
Gaetano Rocco, Giorgio Pennazza, Marco Santonico, Filippo Longo, Raffaele Rocco, Pierfilippo Crucitti, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
The electronic nose (e-nose) is a promising technology to be used as a useful addition to the currently available modalities to achieve lung cancer diagnosis. The e-nose can assess the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected in the breath and derived from the cellular metabolism. VOCs can be analyzed to identify either the individual chemical elements as well as their pattern of expression to reproduce a sensorial combination similar to a fingerprint (breathprint). The e-nose can be used alone, mimicking the combinatorial selectivity of the human olfactory system, or as part of a multisensorial platform...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Qinghua Zhou, Yaguang Fan, Ying Wang, Youlin Qiao, Guiqi Wang, Yunchao Huang, Xinyun Wang, Ning Wu, Guozheng Zhang, Xiangpeng Zheng, Hong Bu, Yin Li, Sen Wei, Liang'an Chen, Chengping Hu, Yuankai Shi, Yan Sun
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in China. The results from a randomized controlled trial using annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in specific high-risk groups demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality. The aim of tihs study is to establish the China National lung cancer screening guidelines for clinical practice. METHODS: The China lung cancer early detection and treatment expert group (CLCEDTEG) established the China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with multidisciplinary representation including 4 thoracic surgeons, 4 thoracic radiologists, 2 medical oncologists, 2 pulmonologists, 2 pathologist, and 2 epidemiologist...
February 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Andrea Bianco, Umberto Malapelle, Danilo Rocco, Fabio Perrotta, Gennaro Mazzarella
Cancers have the ability to disrupt immune response by interfering with adaptive immunity. Blocking checkpoint pathways has become a target for pharmacological research in lung cancer with particular focus on peptides PD-1 and CTLA-4. A number of immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs) targeting both PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways are under investigation within clinical trials, of which Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab have already been approved for lung cancer treatment by both FDA and EMA. Employed as single-agents in current practice for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ICIs have exhibited advantages in terms of overall survival and response rate with some responses being durable...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Céline Mascaux, Ming-Sound Tsao, Fred R Hirsch
Precision medicine commonly refers to the selection of the most effective cancer treatments based on the presence of specific biomarkers (eg, genomic abnormalities) in a patient's tumor. Therefore, genomic testing is used to identify patients whose tumors harbor the vulnerability that is sensitive to corresponding targeted therapies. This approach allows for the selection of patients who have the greatest chance of deriving benefit from the treatments, reduces toxicity, and significantly improves outcome; precision medicine is recommended for advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Ales Ryska, Peter Berzinec, Luka Brcic, Tanja Cufer, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Maya Gottfried, Ilona Kovalszky, Włodzimierz Olszewski, Buge Oz, Lukas Plank, Jozsef Timar
BACKGROUND: The introduction of targeted treatments for subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has highlighted the importance of accurate molecular diagnosis to determine if an actionable genetic alteration is present. Few data are available for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on mutation rates, testing rates, and compliance with testing guidelines. METHODS: A questionnaire about molecular testing and NSCLC management was distributed to relevant specialists in nine CEE countries, and pathologists were asked to provide the results of EGFR and ALK testing over a 1-year period...
March 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
Christiana Neophytou, Panagiotis Boutsikos, Panagiotis Papageorgis
Breast cancer represents a highly heterogeneous disease comprised by several subtypes with distinct histological features, underlying molecular etiology and clinical behaviors. It is widely accepted that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive subtypes, often associated with poor patient outcome due to the development of metastases in secondary organs, such as the lungs, brain, and bone. The molecular complexity of the metastatic process in combination with the lack of effective targeted therapies for TNBC metastasis have fostered significant research efforts during the past few years to identify molecular "drivers" of this lethal cascade...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Shweta Lawania, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera, Siddharth Sharma
The present study investigated the role of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk and its association with overall survival in North Indians. 370 cases and 370 controls were investigated to evaluate association between XPA polymorphism (A23G and G709A) with lung cancer risk using logistic regression analysis. A follow-up study was also conducted for 291 lung cancer cases illustrating correlation between overall survival in lung cancer patients and XPA variants...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Hiroki Nagai, Manabu Muto
Over the last two decades, molecular-targeted agents have become mainstream treatment for many types of malignancies and have improved the overall survival of patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance to these targeted therapies. Recently, immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment paradigm for many types of malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, bladder cancer and gastric cancer...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Anna Kovalchuk, Lilit Nersisyan, Rupasri Mandal, David Wishart, Maria Mancini, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as "tumor brain." Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Bin Zou, Victor H F Lee, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations, especially exon 19 deletions and the L858R point mutation, is particularly responsive to gefitinib and erlotinib. However, the sensitivity varies for less common and rare EGFR mutations. There are various explanations for the low sensitivity of EGFR exon 20 insertions and the exon 20 T790 M point mutation to gefitinib/erlotinib. However, few studies discuss, from a structural perspective, why less common mutations, like G719X and L861Q, have moderate sensitivity to gefitinib/erlotinib...
March 7, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Jianhua Chen, Lemeng Zhang, Hui Zhou, Wei Wang, Yongzhong Luo, Hua Yang, Huihuang Yi
Recent studies have indicated that autophagy contributes to tumorigenesis and participates in acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. The present study aimed to determine the function and underlying mechanism of cisplatin‑induced autophagy in A549 human lung cancer cells. Autophagy was measured by LC3B‑I/II conversion, LC3B puncta and autophagosomes formation. Apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase‑3 activity, caspase‑3 cleavage and LDH release. The transcriptional and expressional level of autophagy related proteins were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Juanjuan Che, Dongsheng Yue, Bin Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yansong Huo, Liuwei Gao, Hongchao Zhen, Yan Yang, Bangwei Cao
Altered expression of claudin-3 (CLDN3), a key cytoskeletal structural protein of the tight junctions in the epithelium, is associated with the development and metastasis of various human cancers. CLDN3 expression has been shown to be significantly associated with the prognosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). This study investigated the role of CLDN3 in inhibiting lung SqCC cell migration and invasion as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLDN3 levels were assessed between 20 paired lung SqCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Bruna R S Correa, Joanna Hu, Luiz O F Penalva, Richard Schlegel, David L Rimm, Pedro A F Galante, Seema Agarwal
Preclinical in vitro models provide an essential tool to study cancer cell biology as well as aid in translational research, including drug target identification and drug discovery efforts. For any model to be clinically relevant, it needs to recapitulate the biology and cell heterogeneity of the primary tumor. We recently developed and described a conditional reprogramming (CR) cell technology that addresses many of these needs and avoids the deficiencies of most current cancer cell lines, which are usually clonal in origin...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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