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Yolanda Sánchez Sánchez, Antonio Martínez-Graña, Fernando Santos Francés, Marina Mateos Picado
Wildfire is a major threat to the environment, and this threat is aggravated by different climatic and socioeconomic factors. The availability of detailed, reliable mapping and periodic and immediate updates makes wildfire prevention and extinction work more effective. An analyst protocol has been generated that allows the precise updating of high-resolution thematic maps. For this protocol, images obtained through the Sentinel 2A satellite, with a return time of five days, have been merged with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a density of 0...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Benjamin Zuckerberg, Jonathan N Pauli
The climate is changing rapidly, and this is especially true during the winter months of the Northern Hemisphere. Because of warming winters, we are witnessing reductions in the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack in regions where snowfall was historically a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape. These changes have not gone undocumented, yet most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so underneath the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium...
February 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Philippe Nolet, Daniel Kneeshaw, Christian Messier, Martin Béland
With an increasing pressure on forested landscapes, conservation areas may fail to maintain biodiversity if they are not supported by the surrounding managed forest matrix. Worldwide, forests are managed by one of two broad approaches-even- and uneven-aged silviculture. In recent decades, there has been rising public pressure against the systematic use of even-aged silviculture (especially clear-cutting) because of its perceived negative esthetic and ecological impacts. This led to an increased interest for uneven-aged silviculture...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ada Sánchez-Mercado, Kathryn M Rodríguez-Clark, Jhonathan Miranda, José Rafael Ferrer-Paris, Brian Coyle, Samuel Toro, Arlene Cardozo-Urdaneta, Michael J Braun
Species distribution models (SDM) can be valuable for identifying key habitats for conservation management of threatened taxa, but anthropogenic habitat change can undermine SDM accuracy. We used data for the Red Siskin (Spinus cucullatus), a critically endangered bird and ground truthing to examine anthropogenic habitat change as a source of SDM inaccuracy. We aimed to estimate: (1) the Red Siskin's historic distribution in Venezuela; (2) the portion of this historic distribution lost to vegetation degradation; and (3) the location of key habitats or areas with both, a high probability of historic occurrence and a low probability of vegetation degradation...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Garrett W Meigs, William S Keeton
Wind is one of the most important natural disturbances influencing forest structure, ecosystem function, and successional processes worldwide. This study quantifies the stand-scale effects of intermediate-severity windstorms (i.e., "blowdowns") on (1) live and dead legacy structure, (2) aboveground carbon storage, and (3) tree regeneration and associated stand dynamics at four mature, mixed hardwood-conifer forest sites in the northeastern United States. We compare wind-affected forests to adjacent reference conditions (i...
January 24, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Rupert Seidl, Katharina Albrich, Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer
In order to prevent irreversible impacts of climate change on the biosphere it is imperative to phase out the use of fossil fuels. Consequently, the provisioning of renewable resources such as timber and biomass from forests is an ecosystem service of increasing importance. However, risk factors such as changing disturbance regimes are challenging the continuous provisioning of ecosystem services, and are thus a key concern in forest management. We here used simulation modeling to study different risk management strategies in the context of timber production under changing climate and disturbance regimes, focusing on a 8127 ha forest landscape in the Northern Front Range of the Alps in Austria...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Robin W J Ngiam, Albert G Orr
Oligoaeschna sirindhornae sp. nov. is described from a male from Sakaerat Silvicultural Research Station, Nakhon Ratchasima Province in Thailand. It is the only known Oligoaeschna species recorded from Thailand since Oligoaeschna pramoti (Yeh, 2000) and Oligoaeschna minuta (Hämäläinen & Pinratana, 1999) were transferred to the genus Sarasaeschna.
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
Míriam Piqué, Rut Domènech
Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Hevia, Alejandra Crabiffosse, Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González, Ana Daria Ruiz-González, Juan Majada
Management of fuel to minimize crown fire hazard is a key challenge in Atlantic forests, particularly for pine species. However, a better understanding of effectiveness of silvicultural treatments, especially forest pruning, for hazard reduction is required. Here we evaluate pruning and thinning as two essential silvicultural treatments for timber pine forests. Data came from a network of permanent plots of young maritime pine stands in northwestern Spain. Vertical profiles of canopy bulk density were estimated for field data and simulated scenarios of pruning and thinning using individual tree biomass equations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Klara Joelsson, Joakim Hjältén, Timothy Work
Uneven-aged silviculture may better maintain species assemblages associated with old-growth forests than clear felling in part due to habitat heterogeneity created by maintaining standing retention strips adjacent to harvest trails. Retention strips and harvest trails created at the time of tree removal will likely have different microclimate and may harbor different assemblages. In some cases, the resultant stand heterogeneity associated with uneven-aged silviculture may be similar to natural small-scale disturbances...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Winanda Himaman, Paweena Suksaard, Ratchanee Mingma, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kannika Duangmal
A novel actinomycete, designated strain EURKPP3H10T, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., collected from Kamphaengphet Silvicultural Research Station, Kamphaengphet province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of strain EURKPP3H10T was studied using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain EURKPP3H10T belongs to the genus Cryptosporangium, with the highest sequence similarity to Cryptosporangium cibodasense LIPI11-2-Ac046T (99...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
November 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Virginia B McRostie, Eugenia M Gayo, Calogero M Santoro, Ricardo De Pol-Holz, Claudio Latorre
Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700-1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation...
2017: PloS One
Bruno D Mattos, Blaise L Tardy, Washington L E Magalhães, Orlando J Rojas
We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
Pavel Samec, Jan Caha, Miloš Zapletal, Pavel Tuček, Pavel Cudlín, Miloš Kučera
Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (Fpred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (Frec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Silma L Rocha, Harry C Evans, Vanessa L Jorge, Lucimar A O Cardoso, Fernanda S T Pereira, Fabiano B Rocha, Robert W Barreto, Adam G Hart, Simon L Elliot
Interactions between leaf-cutting ants, their fungal symbiont (Leucoagaricus) and the endophytic fungi within the vegetation they carry into their colonies are still poorly understood. If endophytes antagonistic to Leucoagaricus were found in plant material being carried by these ants, then this might indicate a potential mechanism for plants to defend themselves from leaf-cutter attack. In addition, it could offer possibilities for the management of these important Neotropical pests. Here, we show that, for Atta sexdens rubropilosa, there was a significantly greater incidence of Trichoderma species in the vegetation removed from the nests-and deposited around the entrances-than in that being transported into the nests...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Jari Hynynen, Artti Juutinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Wei Li, Chu Fang, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Junmei Chen, Hao Yu, Angus S Murphy, Emily Merewitz, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Richard J McAvoy, Ziniu Deng, Janice Zale, Yi Li
Plant grafting is an important technique for horticultural and silvicultural production. However, many rootstock plants suffer from undesirable lateral bud outgrowth, low grafting success rates or poor rooting. Here, we used a root-predominant gene promoter (SbUGT) to drive the expression of a tryptophan-2-monooxygenase gene (iaaM) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to increase auxin levels in tobacco. The transgenic plants, when used as a rootstock, displayed inhibited lateral bud outgrowth, enhanced grafting success rate and improved root initiation...
December 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yuichiro Hiraoka, Taiichi Iki, Mine Nose, Hiroyuki Tobita, Kenichi Yazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Yoshitake Fujisawa, Mitsutoshi Kitao
In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination...
June 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
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