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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207174/species-distribution-models-may-misdirect-assisted-migration-insights-from-the-introduction-of-douglas-fir-to-europe
#1
Juliette Boiffin, Vincent Badeau, Nathalie Bréda
Species distribution models (SDMs), which statistically relate species occurrence to climatic variables, are widely used to identify areas suitable for species growth under future climates and to plan for assisted migration. When SDMs are projected across times or spaces, it is assumed that species climatic requirements remain constant. However, empirical evidence supporting this assumption is rare, and SDM predictions could be biased. Historical human-aided movements of tree species can shed light on the reliability of SDM predictions in planning for assisted migration...
October 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192454/incorporating-exposure-to-pitch-canker-disease-to-support-management-decisions-of-pinus-pinaster-ait-in-the-face-of-climate-change
#2
María Jesús Serra-Varela, Ricardo Alía, Javier Pórtoles, Julián Gonzalo, Mario Soliño, Delphine Grivet, Rosa Raposo
Climate change is gravely affecting forest ecosystems, resulting in large distribution shifts as well as in increasing infection diseases and biological invasions. Accordingly, forest management requires an evaluation of exposure to climate change that should integrate both its abiotic and biotic components. Here we address the implications of climate change in an emerging disease by analysing both the host species (Pinus pinaster, Maritime pine) and the pathogen's (Fusarium circinatum, pitch canker) environmental suitability i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185607/robustness-of-plant-insect-herbivore-interaction-networks-to-climate-change-in-a-fragmented-temperate-forest-landscape
#3
K W Bähner, K A Zweig, I R Leal, R Wirth
Forest fragmentation and climate change are among the most severe and pervasive forms of human impact. Yet, their combined effects on plant-insect herbivore interaction networks, essential components of forest ecosystems with respect to biodiversity and functioning, are still poorly investigated, particularly in temperate forests. We addressed this issue by analysing plant-insect herbivore networks (PIHNs) from understories of three managed beech forest habitats: small forest fragments (2.2-145 ha), forest edges and forest interior areas within three continuous control forests (1050-5600 ha) in an old hyper-fragmented forest landscape in SW Germany...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109300/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-in-tamarind-tamarindus-indica-l-use-and-conservation-in-eastern-uganda
#4
Esther Ebifa-Othieno, Antony Mugisha, Philip Nyeko, John David Kabasa
BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093097/present-day-central-african-forest-is-a-legacy-of-the-19th-century-human-history
#5
Julie Morin-Rivat, Adeline Fayolle, Charly Favier, Laurent Bremond, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Nicolas Bayol, Philippe Lejeune, Hans Beeckman, Jean-Louis Doucet
The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052510/plant-diversity-enhances-moth-diversity-in-an-intensive-forest-management-experiment
#6
Heather T Root, Jake Verschuyl, Thomas Stokely, Paul Hammond, Melissa A Scherr, Matthew G Betts
Intensive forest management (IFM) promises to help satisfy increasing global demand for wood but may come at the cost of local reductions to forest biodiversity. IFM often reduces early seral plant diversity as a result of efforts to eliminate plant competition with crop trees. If diversity is a function of bottom-up drivers, theory predicts that specialists at lower trophic levels (e.g., insect herbivores) should be particularly sensitive to reductions in plant diversity. We conducted a stand-level experiment to test bottom-up controls on moth community structure, as mediated by degrees of forest management intensity...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028079/paradigms-in-eastern-spruce-budworm-lepidoptera-tortricidae-population-ecology-a-century-of-debate
#7
REVIEW
Deepa S Pureswaran, Rob Johns, Stephen B Heard, Dan Quiring
Three main hypotheses have been postulated over the past century to explain the outbreaking population dynamics of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). The Silviculture Hypothesis first arose in the 1920s, with the idea that outbreaks were driven by forestry practices favoring susceptible softwood species. In the 1960s, it was proposed that populations were governed by Multiple Equilibria, with warm weather conditions releasing low-density populations from the regulatory control of natural enemies...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956605/alternative-stable-states-and-the-sustainability-of-forests-grasslands-and-agriculture
#8
Kirsten A Henderson, Chris T Bauch, Madhur Anand
Endangered forest-grassland mosaics interspersed with expanding agriculture and silviculture occur across many parts of the world, including the southern Brazilian highlands. This natural mosaic ecosystem is thought to reflect alternative stable states driven by threshold responses of recruitment to fire and moisture regimes. The role of adaptive human behavior in such systems remains understudied, despite its pervasiveness and the fact that such ecosystems can exhibit complex dynamics. We develop a nonlinear mathematical model of coupled human-environment dynamics in mosaic systems and social processes regarding conservation and economic land valuation...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896307/data-on-birds-and-habitat-associated-with-forest-management-on-public-conservation-areas-in-the-mississippi-alluvial-valley
#9
Daniel J Twedt, R Randy Wilson
This data article contains data collected from 2006-2012 in forests located on 31 State or Federal conservation lands in or adjacent to the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We present the location, treatment type, and silvicultural age of data collection locations. Presented data on bird detections and forest habitat were collected during avian point counts and associated forest habitat plots and linked to the publication (D.J. Twedt and R.R. Wilson, 2017) [5].
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764186/drivers-of-tree-growth-mortality-and-harvest-preferences-in-species-rich-plantations-for-smallholders-and-communities-in-the-tropics
#10
Huong Nguyen, Jerome Vanclay, John Herbohn, Jennifer Firn
There is growing interest in multi-species tropical plantations but little information exists to guide their design and silviculture. The Rainforestation Farming system is the oldest tropical polyculture planting system in the Philippines and provides a unique opportunity to understand the underlying processes affecting tree performance within diverse plantings. Data collected from 85 plots distributed across the 18 mixed-species plantations in the Philippines was used to identify the factors influencing growth, probability of harvest, and death of trees in these complex plantings...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614911/determining-exhaust-fumes-exposure-in-chainsaw-operations
#11
F Neri, C Foderi, A Laschi, F Fabiano, M Cambi, G Sciarra, M C Aprea, A Cenni, E Marchi
The objective of this study was to investigate the inhalation exposure of forest operators to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes) contained in the exhaust fumes released from chainsaws and to suggest possible countermeasures. The study was carried out in four silvicultural treatments (coppice clearcut, conifer thinning, conifer pruning, and sanitary cut), using three types of chainsaw fuel (normal two-stroke petrol mix and two alkylate fuels). Eighty personal air samples were collected; IOM samplers combined with Amberlite XAD-2 sorbent tubes were used for collecting PAHs and Radiello(®) samplers were used for BTEX...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587430/paradigms-in-eastern-spruce-budworm-lepidoptera-tortricidae-population-ecology-a-century-of-debate
#12
Deepa S Pureswaran, Rob Johns, Stephen B Heard, Dan Quiring
Three main hypotheses have been postulated over the past century to explain the outbreaking population dynamics of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). The Silviculture Hypothesis first arose in the 1920s, with the idea that outbreaks were driven by forestry practices favoring susceptible softwood species. In the 1960s, it was proposed that populations were governed by Multiple Equilibria, with warm weather conditions releasing low-density populations from the regulatory control of natural enemies...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575596/limber-pine-pinus-flexilis-james-a-flexible-generalist-of-forest-communities-in-the-intermountain-west
#13
Marcella A Windmuller-Campione, James N Long
As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550217/genome-analysis-and-avirulence-gene-cloning-using-a-high-density-radseq-linkage-map-of-the-flax-rust-fungus-melampsora-lini
#14
Claire Anderson, Muhammad Adil Khan, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Cameron A Jack, Adnane Nemri, Gregory J Lawrence, Narayana M Upadhyaya, Adrienne R Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones
BACKGROUND: Rust fungi are an important group of plant pathogens that cause devastating losses in agricultural, silvicultural and natural ecosystems. Plants can be protected from rust disease by resistance genes encoding receptors that trigger a highly effective defence response upon recognition of specific pathogen avirulence proteins. Identifying avirulence genes is crucial for understanding how virulence evolves in the field. RESULTS: To facilitate avirulence gene cloning in the flax rust fungus, Melampsora lini, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384647/modeling-hematologic-and-biochemical-parameters-with-spatiotemporal-analysis-for-the-free-ranging-eastern-box-turtle-terrapene-carolina-carolina-in-illinois-and-tennessee-a-potential-biosentinel
#15
Terrell C Lloyd, Matthew C Allender, Grace Archer, Christopher A Phillips, John Byrd, A Russell Moore
Box turtles are long-lived, inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and have relatively small home ranges making them a suitable candidate as a sentinel. To characterize their changes in response to environmental health, assessment of observed variation of this species is required. Thus, a comparative health assessment was employed in 825 Eastern box turtles in east central Illinois and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to establish a baseline health assessment with regard to sex, age class, season, and location, identify temporal trends, and map parameters...
July 6, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317969/transcriptional-regulation-of-vascular-cambium-activity-during-the-transition-from-juvenile-to-mature-stages-in-cunninghamia-lanceolata
#16
Huimin Xu, Dechang Cao, Jinling Feng, Hongyang Wu, Jinxing Lin, Yanwei Wang
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., an evergreen conifer distributed in southern China, has been recognized as the most commercially important timber species due to its rapid growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying growth alternation due to vascular cambium activity are poorly understood. Here, we used cryosectioning to isolate the vascular cambium tissue of C. lanceolata at three stages, namely, juvenile, transition and mature (3-, 13-, and 35-year-old trees respectively) for transcriptome-wide analysis...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317690/different-alleles-of-a-gene-encoding-leucoanthocyanidin-reductase-palar3-influence-resistance-against-the-fungus-heterobasidion-parviporum-in-picea-abies
#17
Miguel Nemesio-Gorriz, Almuth Hammerbacher, Katarina Ihrmark, Thomas Källman, Åke Olson, Martin Lascoux, Jan Stenlid, Jonathan Gershenzon, Malin Elfstrand
Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239715/ecological-restoration-across-the-mediterranean-basin-as-viewed-by-practitioners
#18
Alice Nunes, Graça Oliveira, Teresa Mexia, Alejandro Valdecantos, Claudio Zucca, Edoardo A C Costantini, Eleni M Abraham, Apostolos P Kyriazopoulos, Ayman Salah, Ruediger Prasse, Otília Correia, Sarah Milliken, Benz Kotzen, Cristina Branquinho
Restoration efforts in the Mediterranean Basin have been changing from a silvicultural to an ecological restoration approach. Yet, to what extent the projects are guided by ecological restoration principles remains largely unknown. To analyse this issue, we built an on-line survey addressed to restoration practitioners. We analysed 36 restoration projects, mostly from drylands (86%). The projects used mainly soil from local sources. The need to comply with legislation was more important as a restoration motive for European Union (EU) than for non-EU countries, while public opinion and health had a greater importance in the latter...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179322/modeled-effects-of-soil-acidification-on-long-term-ecological-and-economic-outcomes-for-managed-forests-in-the-adirondack-region-usa
#19
Jesse Caputo, Colin M Beier, Timothy J Sullivan, Gregory B Lawrence
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification - and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits - have not been investigated...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097097/structure-of-bird-communities-in-eucalyptus-plantations-nestedness-as-a-pattern-of-species-distribution
#20
L I Jacoboski, A de Mendonça-Lima, S M Hartz
Replacement of native habitats by tree plantations has increased dramatically in Brazil, resulting in loss of structural components for birds, such as appropriate substrates for foraging and nesting. Tree plantations can also reduce faunal richness and change the composition of bird species. This study evaluated the structure of avian communities in eucalyptus plantations of different ages and in a native forest. We classified species as habitat specialists or generalists, and assessed if the species found in eucalyptus plantations are a subset of the species that occur in the native forest...
April 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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