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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111258/effectiveness-of-mechanical-thinning-and-prescribed-burning-on-fire-behavior-in-pinus-nigra-forests-in-ne-spain
#1
Míriam Piqué, Rut Domènech
Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961436/assessing-the-effect-of-pruning-and-thinning-on-crown-fire-hazard-in-young-atlantic-maritime-pine-forests
#2
Andrea Hevia, Alejandra Crabiffosse, Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González, Ana Daria Ruiz-González, Juan Majada
Management of fuel to minimize crown fire hazard is a key challenge in Atlantic forests, particularly for pine species. However, a better understanding of effectiveness of silvicultural treatments, especially forest pruning, for hazard reduction is required. Here we evaluate pruning and thinning as two essential silvicultural treatments for timber pine forests. Data came from a network of permanent plots of young maritime pine stands in northwestern Spain. Vertical profiles of canopy bulk density were estimated for field data and simulated scenarios of pruning and thinning using individual tree biomass equations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961435/uneven-aged-silviculture-can-enhance-within-stand-heterogeneity-and-beetle-diversity
#3
Klara Joelsson, Joakim Hjältén, Timothy Work
Uneven-aged silviculture may better maintain species assemblages associated with old-growth forests than clear felling in part due to habitat heterogeneity created by maintaining standing retention strips adjacent to harvest trails. Retention strips and harvest trails created at the time of tree removal will likely have different microclimate and may harbor different assemblages. In some cases, the resultant stand heterogeneity associated with uneven-aged silviculture may be similar to natural small-scale disturbances...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857736/cryptosporangium-eucalypti-sp-nov-an-actinomycete-isolated-from-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-roots
#4
Winanda Himaman, Paweena Suksaard, Ratchanee Mingma, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kannika Duangmal
A novel actinomycete, designated strain EURKPP3H10T, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., collected from Kamphaengphet Silvicultural Research Station, Kamphaengphet province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of strain EURKPP3H10T was studied using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain EURKPP3H10T belongs to the genus Cryptosporangium, with the highest sequence similarity to Cryptosporangium cibodasense LIPI11-2-Ac046T (99...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762033/inducible-somatic-embryogenesis-in-theobroma-cacao-achieved-using-the-dex-activatable-transcription-factor-glucocorticoid-receptor-fusion
#5
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
July 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742126/the-pre-columbian-introduction-and-dispersal-of-algarrobo-prosopis-section-algarobia-in-the-atacama%C3%A2-desert-of-northern-chile
#6
Virginia B McRostie, Eugenia M Gayo, Calogero M Santoro, Ricardo De Pol-Holz, Claudio Latorre
Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700-1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739450/controlled-release-for-crop-and-wood-protection-recent-progress-toward-sustainable-and-safe-nanostructured-biocidal-systems
#7
REVIEW
Bruno D Mattos, Blaise L Tardy, Washington L E Magalhães, Orlando J Rojas
We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715452/including-irrigation-in-niche-modelling-of-the-invasive-wasp-vespula-germanica-fabricius-improves-model-fit-to-predict-potential-for-further-spread
#8
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501014/discrimination-between-acute-and-chronic-decline-of-central-european-forests-using-map-algebra-of-the-growth-condition-and-forest-biomass-fuzzy-sets-a-case-study
#9
Pavel Samec, Jan Caha, Miloš Zapletal, Pavel Tuček, Pavel Cudlín, Miloš Kučera
Forest decline is either caused by damage or else by vulnerability due to unfavourable growth conditions or due to unnatural silvicultural systems. Here, we assess forest decline in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) using fuzzy functions, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rating of ecosystem properties over a 1×1km grid. The model was divided into fuzzy functions of the abiotic predictors of growth conditions (Fpred including temperature, precipitation, acid deposition, soil data and relative site insolation) and forest biomass receptors (Frec including remote sensing data, density and volume of aboveground biomass, and surface humus chemical data)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484603/recognition-of-endophytic-trichoderma-species-by-leaf-cutting-ants-and-their-potential-in-a-trojan-horse-management-strategy
#10
Silma L Rocha, Harry C Evans, Vanessa L Jorge, Lucimar A O Cardoso, Fernanda S T Pereira, Fabiano B Rocha, Robert W Barreto, Adam G Hart, Simon L Elliot
Interactions between leaf-cutting ants, their fungal symbiont (Leucoagaricus) and the endophytic fungi within the vegetation they carry into their colonies are still poorly understood. If endophytes antagonistic to Leucoagaricus were found in plant material being carried by these ants, then this might indicate a potential mechanism for plants to defend themselves from leaf-cutter attack. In addition, it could offer possibilities for the management of these important Neotropical pests. Here, we show that, for Atta sexdens rubropilosa, there was a significantly greater incidence of Trichoderma species in the vegetation removed from the nests-and deposited around the entrances-than in that being transported into the nests...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411568/projecting-biodiversity-and-wood-production-in-future-forest-landscapes-15-key-modeling-considerations
#11
Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Jari Hynynen, Artti Juutinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376249/elevated-auxin-and-reduced-cytokinin-contents-in-rootstocks-improve-their-performance-and-grafting-success
#12
Wei Li, Chu Fang, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Junmei Chen, Hao Yu, Angus S Murphy, Emily Merewitz, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Richard J McAvoy, Ziniu Deng, Janice Zale, Yi Li
Plant grafting is an important technique for horticultural and silvicultural production. However, many rootstock plants suffer from undesirable lateral bud outgrowth, low grafting success rates, or poor rooting. Here we used a root-predominant gene promoter (SbUGT) to drive the expression of a tryptophan-2-mono oxygenase gene (iaaM) from Agrobacterium tumafaciens to increase auxin levels in tobacco. The transgenic plants, when used as a rootstock, displayed inhibited lateral bud outgrowth, enhanced grafting success rate, and improved root initiation...
April 4, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369644/species-characteristics-and-intraspecific-variation-in-growth-and-photosynthesis-of-cryptomeria-japonica-under-elevated-o3-and-co2
#13
Yuichiro Hiraoka, Taiichi Iki, Mine Nose, Hiroyuki Tobita, Kenichi Yazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Yoshitake Fujisawa, Mitsutoshi Kitao
In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination...
June 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295816/functional-diversity-response-to-hardwood-forest-management-varies-across-taxa-and-spatial-scales
#14
Bryan D Murray, Jeffrey D Holland, Keith S Summerville, John B Dunning, Michael R Saunders, Michael A Jenkins
Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function...
March 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236260/varying-rotation-lengths-in-northern-production-forests-implications-for-habitats-provided-by-retention-and-production-trees
#15
Adam Felton, Johan Sonesson, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lämås, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge
Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity...
April 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207174/species-distribution-models-may-misdirect-assisted-migration-insights-from-the-introduction-of-douglas-fir-to-europe
#16
Juliette Boiffin, Vincent Badeau, Nathalie Bréda
Species distribution models (SDMs), which statistically relate species occurrence to climatic variables, are widely used to identify areas suitable for species growth under future climates and to plan for assisted migration. When SDMs are projected across times or spaces, it is assumed that species climatic requirements remain constant. However, empirical evidence supporting this assumption is rare, and SDM predictions could be biased. Historical human-aided movements of tree species can shed light on the reliability of SDM predictions in planning for assisted migration...
March 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192454/incorporating-exposure-to-pitch-canker-disease-to-support-management-decisions-of-pinus-pinaster-ait-in-the-face-of-climate-change
#17
María Jesús Serra-Varela, Ricardo Alía, Javier Pórtoles, Julián Gonzalo, Mario Soliño, Delphine Grivet, Rosa Raposo
Climate change is gravely affecting forest ecosystems, resulting in large distribution shifts as well as in increasing infection diseases and biological invasions. Accordingly, forest management requires an evaluation of exposure to climate change that should integrate both its abiotic and biotic components. Here we address the implications of climate change in an emerging disease by analysing both the host species (Pinus pinaster, Maritime pine) and the pathogen's (Fusarium circinatum, pitch canker) environmental suitability i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185607/robustness-of-plant-insect-herbivore-interaction-networks-to-climate-change-in-a-fragmented-temperate-forest-landscape
#18
K W Bähner, K A Zweig, I R Leal, R Wirth
Forest fragmentation and climate change are among the most severe and pervasive forms of human impact. Yet, their combined effects on plant-insect herbivore interaction networks, essential components of forest ecosystems with respect to biodiversity and functioning, are still poorly investigated, particularly in temperate forests. We addressed this issue by analysing plant-insect herbivore networks (PIHNs) from understories of three managed beech forest habitats: small forest fragments (2.2-145 ha), forest edges and forest interior areas within three continuous control forests (1050-5600 ha) in an old hyper-fragmented forest landscape in SW Germany...
October 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109300/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-in-tamarind-tamarindus-indica-l-use-and-conservation-in-eastern-uganda
#19
Esther Ebifa-Othieno, Antony Mugisha, Philip Nyeko, John David Kabasa
BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093097/present-day-central-african-forest-is-a-legacy-of-the-19th-century-human-history
#20
Julie Morin-Rivat, Adeline Fayolle, Charly Favier, Laurent Bremond, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Nicolas Bayol, Philippe Lejeune, Hans Beeckman, Jean-Louis Doucet
The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees...
January 17, 2017: ELife
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