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crown architecture

Zhong-Xia Wang, Fen-Ying Kong, Wei Wang
Graphene quantum dots-like structures of highly enriched nitrogen-based dual-color single-functional polymer carbon nanosheets (GLNPCNs) with an average diameter as large as 170 nm (~5 layers) are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Intermolecular C5H5N5···C5H5N5 or/and C2H5OH chemical polymerization interactions in the liquid state of the peripheral crown ether-like "hole" decorated compound GLNPCNs lead to a fascinating 2D supramolecular polymer architecture, which exhibits near-ultraviolet (NUV) fluorescence, narrow full width at half maximum, and excellent practical application capability...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dean Vafiadis, Gary Goldstein, David Garber, Anthony Lambrakos, Bj Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: Preserving soft and hard tissues after extraction and implant placement is crucial for anterior esthetics. This technique will show how the information gathered from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the maxillary left central incisor and an intra-oral digital impression can be merged to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root matrix to be used as an immediate provisional restoration that mimics the natural anatomy. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Due to trauma, a left central incisor appeared to be fractured and was scheduled for extraction and implant placement...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
John T Clarke, Graeme T Lloyd, Matt Friedman
Since Darwin, biologists have been struck by the extraordinary diversity of teleost fishes, particularly in contrast to their closest "living fossil" holostean relatives. Hypothesized drivers of teleost success include innovations in jaw mechanics, reproductive biology and, particularly at present, genomic architecture, yet all scenarios presuppose enhanced phenotypic diversification in teleosts. We test this key assumption by quantifying evolutionary rate and capacity for innovation in size and shape for the first 160 million y (Permian-Early Cretaceous) of evolution in neopterygian fishes (the more extensive clade containing teleosts and holosteans)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Basile Tarchini, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Michel Cayouette
Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors crowning hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the mInsc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential to promote the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows...
September 22, 2016: Development
Usama M Mahmoud, Fatma Essa, Alaa El-Din H Sayed
Surface architecture of the buccal cavity and the surface organization of the luminal mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine of the carnivorous fish M. flavolineatus from the Red Sea were studied by using SEM. The results revealed that M. flavolineatus has four kinds of teeth; curved-blunt, wedge-shaped, flattened crowns, molariform and papilliform. Three types of taste buds (type I, II and III) were recorded in the oropharyngeal cavity. It was observed that taste buds and teeth are co-located in the pharyngeal region...
September 5, 2016: Tissue & Cell
Larissa K S von Krbek, Andreas J Achazi, Marthe Solleder, Marcus Weber, Beate Paulus, Christoph A Schalley
A thorough thermodynamic analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry of allosteric and chelate cooperativity effects in divalent crown ether/ammonium complexes is combined with DFT calculations including implicit solvent on the one hand and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent molecules on the other. The complexes studied exhibit binding constants up to 2×10(6)  m(-1) with large multivalent binding enhancements and thus strong chelate cooperativity effects. Slight structural changes in the spacers, that is, the exchange of two ether oxygen atoms by two isoelectronic methylene groups, cause significantly stronger binding and substantially increased chelate cooperativity...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ting-Zheng Xie, Kevin J Endres, Zaihong Guo, James M Ludlow, Charles N Moorefield, Mary Jane Saunders, Chrys Wesdemiotis, George R Newkome
Metallomacromolecular architectural conversion is expanded by the characterization of three different structures. A quantitative, single-step, self-assembly of a shape-persistent monomer, containing a flexible crown ether moiety, gives an initial Archimedean-based cuboctahedron that has been unequivocally characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and collision cross section analysis. Both dilution and exchange of counterions, transforms this cuboctahedron into two identical octahedrons, which upon further dilution convert into four, superposed, bistrianglar complexes; increasing the concentration reverses the process...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fahad Rasheed, Sylvain Delagrange
In the context of the predicted increasing frequency of summer droughts in the northeastern deciduous forest of North America due to climate change, we investigated the acclimation capacity of yellow birch, an economically important native tree species, to soil water deficit. We carried out an integrated examination of allocation of biomass, leaf physiology, branching pattern and in situ 3D crown display. Potted seedlings were subjected to moderate soil water deficit for four consecutive months during their second growing season...
September 2, 2016: Tree Physiology
Lyndon F Cooper, Dennis Tarnow, Stuart Froum, John Moriarty, Ingeborg J De Kok
A central dental implant success criterion is the marginal bone response as measured longitudinally. Factors that influence marginal bone changes include osseous and soft tissue architecture, occlusal loading factors, implant position, implant design, and inflammatory processes. The evolution of implant design is multifactorial and includes the implant-abutment interface geometries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the proximal marginal bone changes following placement and loading of internal conus design implants (ICI) and external hex design implants (EXI) used in the treatment of posterior partial edentulism...
September 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
V Mahalakshmi, N Gururaj, R Sathya, T R Sabarinath, B Sivapathasundharam, S Kalaiselvan
INTRODUCTION: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI). The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. AIMS: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Anthony R Ambrose, Wendy L Baxter, Christopher S Wong, Stephen S O Burgess, Cameron B Williams, Rikke R Næsborg, George W Koch, Todd E Dawson
Optimality theory states that whole-tree carbon gain is maximized when leaf N and photosynthetic capacity profiles are distributed along vertical light gradients such that the marginal gain of nitrogen investment is identical among leaves. However, observed photosynthetic N gradients in trees do not follow this prediction, and the causes for this apparent discrepancy remain uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate how hydraulic limitations potentially modify crown-level optimization in Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia) trees up to 90 m tall...
November 2016: Oecologia
Louisa R Winkler, J Michael Bonman, Shiaoman Chao, B Admassu Yimer, Harold Bockelman, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei-Bo Hu, Wen-Jing Hu, Yahu A Liu, Jiu-Sheng Li, Biao Jiang, Ke Wen
Multicavity macrocyclic hosts are host molecules comprising more than one macrocyclic guest binding components connected through multipoint linkages. Macrocycles, such as crown ethers, pillar[n]arenes, calix[n]arenes, and calix[4]pyrroles, have been used to fabricate multicavity hosts, either homotopic or heterotopic. This review is mainly focused on the molecular structures and host-guest behaviors of multicavity macrocyclic host molecules and their applications in the assembly of sophisticated supramolecular architectures...
October 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Charles G Messing
Porphyrocrinus daniellalevyae, new species, is described from irregular, hard-substrate, deep island slope habitats in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean (northwestern Bahamas and, probably, Honduras). It represents the first record of the genus from the western Atlantic, and is the first crinoid, living or fossil, known to gradually increase its number of rays with increasing size and, ostensibly, growth. The four known specimens have 8, 12, 14 and 15 radial ossicles, which give rise to undivided arms. The method of augmentation is unknown, although the possibility of autotomy of one and regrowth of two in its place is discussed...
2016: Zootaxa
Jose Sebastian, Muh-Ching Yee, Willian Goudinho Viana, Rubén Rellán-Álvarez, Max Feldman, Henry D Priest, Charlotte Trontin, Tak Lee, Hui Jiang, Ivan Baxter, Todd C Mockler, Frank Hochholdinger, Thomas P Brutnell, José R Dinneny
Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sixtine Passot, Fatoumata Gnacko, Daniel Moukouanga, Mikaël Lucas, Soazig Guyomarc'h, Beatriz Moreno Ortega, Jonathan A Atkinson, Marème N Belko, Malcolm J Bennett, Pascal Gantet, Darren M Wells, Yann Guédon, Yves Vigouroux, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Bertrand Muller, Laurent Laplaze
Pearl millet plays an important role for food security in arid regions of Africa and India. Nevertheless, it is considered an orphan crop as it lags far behind other cereals in terms of genetic improvement efforts. Breeding pearl millet varieties with improved root traits promises to deliver benefits in water and nutrient acquisition. Here, we characterize early pearl millet root system development using several different root phenotyping approaches that include rhizotrons and microCT. We report that early stage pearl millet root system development is characterized by a fast growing primary root that quickly colonizes deeper soil horizons...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
T Thanh Van Tran, Le Tuan Anh, Hung Huy Nguyen, Hong Hieu Truong, Anatoly T Soldatenkov
The title compound, C30H29NO4, is a tetra-cyclic system containing a 4-aryl-pyridine fragment, two benzene rings and an aza-17-crown-5 ether moiety, in a bowl-like arrangement. The pyridine ring is inclined to the 4-methyl-phenyl ring by 26.64 (6)°, and by 57.43 (6) and 56.81 (6)° to the benzene rings. The benzene rings are inclined to one another by 88.32 (6)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 (2)(14) ring motif. The dimers are linked via a number of C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture...
May 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Raphaël P A Perez, Benoît Pallas, Gilles Le Moguédec, Hervé Rey, Sébastien Griffon, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Evelyne Costes, Jean Dauzat
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Bo Li, Dan Liu, Qiaoru Li, Xinguo Mao, Ang Li, Jingyi Wang, Xiaoping Chang, Ruilian Jing
Improved root architecture is an effective strategy to increase crop yield. We demonstrate that overexpression of transcription factor gene MORE ROOT (TaMOR) from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) results in more roots and higher grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). TaMOR, encoding a plant-specific transcription factor belonging to the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) protein family, is highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. In this study, tissue expression patterns indicated that TaMOR mainly localizes to root initiation sites...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Michael Palace, Franklin B Sullivan, Mark Ducey, Christina Herrick
Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar)...
2016: PloS One
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