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crown architecture

X X Xu, Y Cao, K Y Fu, Q F Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of occlusal interference on the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle by studying the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine, creatine, lactate and pH level in masseter muscles of rats after occlusal interference. METHODS: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=10). In experimental group, 0...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Hui Li, Xiaodong Fan, Xin Min, Yongchao Qian, Wei Tian
Supramolecular copolymers can not only enrich the diversity of the polymer backbone but also exhibit certain special and improved properties compared with supramolecular homopolymers. However, the synthesis procedure of supramolecular copolymers is relatively complicated and time-consuming. Herein, a simple transformation from an AB2 -based supramolecular hyperbranched homopolymer to an AB2 +CD2 -based supramolecular hyperbranched alternating copolymer by the "competitive self-sorting" strategy is reported...
December 23, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Alka Singh, Pramod Kumar, Vibhav Gautam, Balakrishnan Rengasamy, Bijan Adhikari, Makarla Udayakumar, Ananda K Sarkar
The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tim Joda, Marco Ferrari, German O Gallucci, Julia-Gabriela Wittneben, Urs Brägger
Digital protocols are increasingly influencing prosthodontic treatment concepts. Implant-supported single-unit and short-span reconstructions will benefit mostly from the present digital trends. In these protocols, monolithic implant crowns connected to prefabricated titanium abutments, which are created based on data obtained from an intraoral scan followed by virtual design and production, without the need of a physical master cast, have to be considered in lieu of conventional manufacturing techniques for posterior implant restorations...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
Frederico Vasconcellos, Periklis Proussaefs
PURPOSE: The purpose of the presented technique is to enable the clinician to replicate the contours of the interim prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical case report is presented where this novel technique was implemented. A stone base and a silicone index were used to duplicate the contours of an interim prosthesis, so that the definitive restoration can have similar contours. RESULTS: The definitive prosthesis was fabricated based on the acquired soft tissue architecture and the contours of the interim restoration...
December 2016: Implant Dentistry
Zhong-Xia Wang, Fen-Ying Kong, Wei Wang
Graphene quantum-dot-like structures of highly enriched N-based dual-color single-functional polymer carbon nanosheets (GLNPCNs) with an average diameter as large as 170 nm (ca. five layers) are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. Intermolecular C5 H5 N5 ⋅⋅⋅C5 H5 N5 and/or C2 H5 OH chemical polymerization interactions in the liquid state of the peripheral crown-ether-like "hole"-decorated compound GLNPCNs lead to a fascinating 2 D supramolecular polymer architecture, which exhibits near-ultraviolet (NUV) fluorescence, ultrahigh brightness, a narrow full-width at half-maximum, and excellent potential for practical applications...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dean Vafiadis, Gary Goldstein, David Garber, Anthony Lambrakos, Bj Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: Preserving soft and hard tissues after extraction and implant placement is crucial for anterior esthetics. This technique will show how the information gathered from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the maxillary left central incisor and an intra-oral digital impression can be merged to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root matrix to be used as an immediate provisional restoration that mimics the natural anatomy. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Due to trauma, a left central incisor appeared to be fractured and was scheduled for extraction and implant placement...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
John T Clarke, Graeme T Lloyd, Matt Friedman
Since Darwin, biologists have been struck by the extraordinary diversity of teleost fishes, particularly in contrast to their closest "living fossil" holostean relatives. Hypothesized drivers of teleost success include innovations in jaw mechanics, reproductive biology and, particularly at present, genomic architecture, yet all scenarios presuppose enhanced phenotypic diversification in teleosts. We test this key assumption by quantifying evolutionary rate and capacity for innovation in size and shape for the first 160 million y (Permian-Early Cretaceous) of evolution in neopterygian fishes (the more extensive clade containing teleosts and holosteans)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Basile Tarchini, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Michel Cayouette
Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors crowning hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the mInsc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential to promote the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows...
September 22, 2016: Development
Usama M Mahmoud, Fatma Essa, Alaa El-Din H Sayed
Surface architecture of the buccal cavity and the surface organization of the luminal mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine of the carnivorous fish M. flavolineatus from the Red Sea were studied by using SEM. The results revealed that M. flavolineatus has four kinds of teeth; curved-blunt, wedge-shaped, flattened crowns, molariform and papilliform. Three types of taste buds (type I, II and III) were recorded in the oropharyngeal cavity. It was observed that taste buds and teeth are co-located in the pharyngeal region...
December 2016: Tissue & Cell
Larissa K S von Krbek, Andreas J Achazi, Marthe Solleder, Marcus Weber, Beate Paulus, Christoph A Schalley
A thorough thermodynamic analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry of allosteric and chelate cooperativity effects in divalent crown ether/ammonium complexes is combined with DFT calculations including implicit solvent on the one hand and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent molecules on the other. The complexes studied exhibit binding constants up to 2×10(6)  m(-1) with large multivalent binding enhancements and thus strong chelate cooperativity effects. Slight structural changes in the spacers, that is, the exchange of two ether oxygen atoms by two isoelectronic methylene groups, cause significantly stronger binding and substantially increased chelate cooperativity...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ting-Zheng Xie, Kevin J Endres, Zaihong Guo, James M Ludlow, Charles N Moorefield, Mary Jane Saunders, Chrys Wesdemiotis, George R Newkome
Metallomacromolecular architectural conversion is expanded by the characterization of three different structures. A quantitative, single-step, self-assembly of a shape-persistent monomer, containing a flexible crown ether moiety, gives an initial Archimedean-based cuboctahedron that has been unequivocally characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and collision cross section analysis. Both dilution and exchange of counterions, transforms this cuboctahedron into two identical octahedrons, which upon further dilution convert into four, superposed, bistrianglar complexes; increasing the concentration reverses the process...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fahad Rasheed, Sylvain Delagrange
In the context of the predicted increasing frequency of summer droughts in the northeastern deciduous forest of North America due to climate change, we investigated the acclimation capacity of yellow birch, an economically important native tree species, to soil water deficit. We carried out an integrated examination of allocation of biomass, leaf physiology, branching pattern and in situ 3D crown display. Potted seedlings were subjected to moderate soil water deficit for four consecutive months during their second growing season...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Lyndon F Cooper, Dennis Tarnow, Stuart Froum, John Moriarty, Ingeborg J De Kok
A central dental implant success criterion is the marginal bone response as measured longitudinally. Factors that influence marginal bone changes include osseous and soft tissue architecture, occlusal loading factors, implant position, implant design, and inflammatory processes. The evolution of implant design is multifactorial and includes the implant-abutment interface geometries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the proximal marginal bone changes following placement and loading of internal conus design implants (ICI) and external hex design implants (EXI) used in the treatment of posterior partial edentulism...
September 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
V Mahalakshmi, N Gururaj, R Sathya, T R Sabarinath, B Sivapathasundharam, S Kalaiselvan
INTRODUCTION: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI). The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. AIMS: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Anthony R Ambrose, Wendy L Baxter, Christopher S Wong, Stephen S O Burgess, Cameron B Williams, Rikke R Næsborg, George W Koch, Todd E Dawson
Optimality theory states that whole-tree carbon gain is maximized when leaf N and photosynthetic capacity profiles are distributed along vertical light gradients such that the marginal gain of nitrogen investment is identical among leaves. However, observed photosynthetic N gradients in trees do not follow this prediction, and the causes for this apparent discrepancy remain uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate how hydraulic limitations potentially modify crown-level optimization in Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia) trees up to 90 m tall...
November 2016: Oecologia
Louisa R Winkler, J Michael Bonman, Shiaoman Chao, B Admassu Yimer, Harold Bockelman, Kathy Esvelt Klos
Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei-Bo Hu, Wen-Jing Hu, Yahu A Liu, Jiu-Sheng Li, Biao Jiang, Ke Wen
Multicavity macrocyclic hosts are host molecules comprising more than one macrocyclic guest binding components connected through multipoint linkages. Macrocycles, such as crown ethers, pillar[n]arenes, calix[n]arenes, and calix[4]pyrroles, have been used to fabricate multicavity hosts, either homotopic or heterotopic. This review is mainly focused on the molecular structures and host-guest behaviors of multicavity macrocyclic host molecules and their applications in the assembly of sophisticated supramolecular architectures...
October 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Charles G Messing
Porphyrocrinus daniellalevyae, new species, is described from irregular, hard-substrate, deep island slope habitats in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean (northwestern Bahamas and, probably, Honduras). It represents the first record of the genus from the western Atlantic, and is the first crinoid, living or fossil, known to gradually increase its number of rays with increasing size and, ostensibly, growth. The four known specimens have 8, 12, 14 and 15 radial ossicles, which give rise to undivided arms. The method of augmentation is unknown, although the possibility of autotomy of one and regrowth of two in its place is discussed...
August 2, 2016: Zootaxa
Jose Sebastian, Muh-Ching Yee, Willian Goudinho Viana, Rubén Rellán-Álvarez, Max Feldman, Henry D Priest, Charlotte Trontin, Tak Lee, Hui Jiang, Ivan Baxter, Todd C Mockler, Frank Hochholdinger, Thomas P Brutnell, José R Dinneny
Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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