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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814520/contributions-of-individual-domains-to-function-of-the-hiv-1-rev-response-element
#1
Ina P O'Carroll, Yashna Thappeta, Lixin Fan, Edric A Ramirez-Valdez, Sean Smith, Yun-Xing Wang, Alan Rein
The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an "A" shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812675/spatial-complementarity-in-tree-crowns-explains-overyielding-in-species-mixtures
#2
Laura J Williams, Alain Paquette, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Christian Messier, Peter B Reich
Deciphering the mechanisms that link biodiversity with ecosystem functions is critical to understanding the consequences of changes in biodiversity. The hypothesis that complementarity and selection effects drive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions is well accepted, and an approach to statistically untangle the relative importance of these effects has been widely applied. In contrast, empirical demonstrations of the biological mechanisms that underlie these relationships remain rare. Here, on the basis of a field experiment with young trees, we provide evidence that one form of complementarity in plant communities-complementarity among crowns in canopy space-is a mechanism, related to light interception and use, that links biodiversity with ecosystem productivity...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791172/ontogenetic-variations-and-structural-adjustments-in-mammals-evolving-prolonged-to-continuous-dental-growth
#3
Helder Gomes Rodrigues, Rémi Lefebvre, Marcos Fernández-Monescillo, Bernardino Mamani Quispe, Guillaume Billet
Studying dental ontogeny in mammals can provide valuable insight on the evolution of their masticatory apparatus and their related adaptations. The multiple acquisitions of a prolonged to continuous growth of teeth in herbivorous mammals in response to high abrasion represent an intensively investigated issue. However, the ontogenetic and architectural patterns associated with these repeated dental innovations remain poorly known. Here, we focused on two case studies corresponding to distant mammalian clades, the extinct Mesotheriidae (Notoungulata), which shared some striking dental features with the extant Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia)...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744171/genetic-variation-of-root-angle-distribution-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings
#4
Asami Tomita, Tadashi Sato, Yusaku Uga, Mitsuhiro Obara, Yoshimichi Fukuta
We developed a new method of using seedling trays to evaluate root angle distribution in rice (Oryza sativa. L), and found a wide genetic variation among cultivars. The seedling tray method can be used to evaluate in detail the growth angles of rice crown roots at the seedling stage by allocating nine scores (10° to 90°). Unlike basket methods, it can handle large plant populations over a short growth period (only 14 days). By using the method, we characterized the root angle distributions of 97 accessions into two cluster groups: A and B...
June 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724080/qtls-associated-with-crown-root-angle-stomatal-conductance-and-maturity-in-sorghum
#5
Jose R Lopez, John E Erickson, Patricio Munoz, Ana Saballos, Terry J Felderhoff, Wilfred Vermerris
Three factors that directly affect the water inputs in cropping systems are root architecture, length of the growing season, and stomatal conductance to water vapor (). Deeper-rooted cultivars will perform better under water-limited conditions because they can access water stored deeper in the soil profile. Reduced limits transpiration rate () and thus throughout the vegetative phase conserves water that may be used during grain filling in water-limited environments. Additionally, growing early-maturing varieties in regions that rely on soil-stored water is a key water management strategy...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694843/quantifying-pruning-impacts-on-olive-tree-architecture-and-annual-canopy-growth-by-using-uav-based-3d-modelling
#6
F M Jiménez-Brenes, F López-Granados, A I de Castro, J Torres-Sánchez, N Serrano, J M Peña
BACKGROUND: Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning)...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689907/a-digitally-guided-dual-technique-for-both-gingival-and-bone-resection-during-crown-lengthening-surgery
#7
Xiaoqiang Liu, Jingting Yu, Jianfeng Zhou, Jianguo Tan
This paper presents a digitally guided dual technique that provides references for gingival and bone resection during crown lengthening surgery. The architecture of the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar bone is scanned and registered to design dual guides consisting of a gingivectomy guide and an alveolectomy guide that are used in periodontal surgery for esthetic rehabilitation.
July 7, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688487/development-of-an-expert-system-for-the-simulation-model-for-casting-metal-substructure-of-a-metal-ceramic-crown-design
#8
Ivan Matin, Miodrag Hadzistevic, Djordje Vukelic, Michal Potran, Tomaz Brajlih
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, the integrated CAD/CAE systems are favored solutions for the design of simulation models for casting metal substructures of metal-ceramic crowns. The worldwide authors have used different approaches to solve the problems using an expert system. Despite substantial research progress in the design of experts systems for the simulation model design and manufacturing have insufficiently considered the specifics of casting in dentistry, especially the need for further CAD, RE, CAE for the estimation of casting parameters and the control of the casting machine...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638623/the-genetic-architecture-of-growth-traits-in-salix-matsudana-under-salt-stress
#9
Jian Zhang, Huwei Yuan, Qingshan Yang, Min Li, Ying Wang, Yujuan Li, Xiangjian Ma, Feng Tan, Rongling Wu
Willow (Salix) is one of the most important ornamental tree species in landscape plants. One species, Salix matsudana, is widely used as a shade tree and border tree because of its soft branches and plump crown. Some varieties of S. matsudana were salt tolerant and could grow normally in coastal regions. However, the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance for S. matsudana have been less clear. Here, we addressed this issue by performing a mapping experiment containing 195 intraspecific F1 progeny of S. matsudana, derived from salt-sensitive 'yanjiang' and salt-tolerant '9901', grown by cuttings in a 100 mM NaCl solution...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592652/pedigree-based-analysis-in-a-multiparental-population-of-octoploid-strawberry-reveals-qtl-alleles-conferring-resistance-to-phytophthora-cactorum
#10
Jozer Mangandi, Sujeet Verma, Luis Osorio, Natalia A Peres, Eric van de Weg, Vance M Whitaker
Understanding the genetic architecture of traits in breeding programs can be critical for making genetic progress. Important factors include the number of loci controlling a trait, allele frequencies at those loci, and allele effects in breeding germplasm. To this end, multiparental populations offer many advantages for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses compared to biparental populations. These include increased power for QTL detection, the ability to sample a larger number of segregating loci and alleles, and estimation of allele effects across diverse genetic backgrounds...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540108/scalpel-depigmentation-and-surgical-crown-lengthening-to-improve-anterior-gingival-esthetics
#11
K C Chethana, K Pradeep
A smile is a mesmerizing expression of joy, success, courtesy and reveals self-confidence. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, position and the color of teeth, but also by the gingival architecture. Gingival tissues form an important part of what we can consider to be a pleasing smile. The elegance of this pleasant smile could be, affected by highly pigmented gingiva. This gingival pigmentation occurs as a result of melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblast. Although melanin pigmentation does not present a medical problem, demand for cosmetic therapy is commonly sort by people with moderately pigmented gingiva...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396676/a-conserved-potential-development-framework-applies-to-shoots-of-legume-species-with-contrasting-morphogenetic-strategies
#12
Lucas Faverjon, Abraham J Escobar-Gutiérrez, Isabelle Litrico, Gaëtan Louarn
A great variety of legume species are used for forage production and grown in multi-species grasslands. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they display a broad range of morphologies that markedly affect their competitive abilities and persistence in mixtures. Little is yet known about the component traits that control the deployment of plant architecture in most of these species. During the present study, we compared the patterns of shoot organogenesis and shoot organ growth in contrasting forage species belonging to the four morphogenetic groups previously identified in herbaceous legumes (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357422/interlocked-benzenes-in-triangular-%C3%AF-architectures-anchoring-groups-dictate-ion-binding-and-transmission
#13
S Chandra Shekar, Sanjay Kumar Meena, R S Swathi
Macrocyclic compounds like crown ethers, calixarenes, etc. are well explored in the literature as receptors for alkali metal ions. In most of these studies, the size of the macrocyclic cavity has evolved as the prominent determining criterion for the selective binding of various ions. However, approaches to systematically tailor the ion transport properties via the interplay of topological as well as electronic properties of the hosts are rarely addressed. Herein, we investigate the performance of [2.2.2]PCPs ([2...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202999/-changes-of-productions-of-energy-metabolism-in-masseter-of-rats-induced-by-occlusal-interference
#14
X X Xu, Y Cao, K Y Fu, Q F Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of occlusal interference on the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle by studying the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine, creatine, lactate and pH level in masseter muscles of rats after occlusal interference. METHODS: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=10). In experimental group, 0...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009071/controlled-supramolecular-architecture-transformation-from-homopolymer-to-copolymer-through-competitive-self-sorting-method
#15
Hui Li, Xiaodong Fan, Xin Min, Yongchao Qian, Wei Tian
Supramolecular copolymers can not only enrich the diversity of the polymer backbone but also exhibit certain special and improved properties compared with supramolecular homopolymers. However, the synthesis procedure of supramolecular copolymers is relatively complicated and time-consuming. Herein, a simple transformation from an AB2 -based supramolecular hyperbranched homopolymer to an AB2 +CD2 -based supramolecular hyperbranched alternating copolymer by the "competitive self-sorting" strategy is reported...
March 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000793/root-transcriptome-of-two-contrasting-indica-rice-cultivars-uncovers-regulators-of-root-development-and-physiological-responses
#16
Alka Singh, Pramod Kumar, Vibhav Gautam, Balakrishnan Rengasamy, Bijan Adhikari, Makarla Udayakumar, Ananda K Sarkar
The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000274/digital-technology-in-fixed-implant-prosthodontics
#17
REVIEW
Tim Joda, Marco Ferrari, German O Gallucci, Julia-Gabriela Wittneben, Urs Brägger
Digital protocols are increasingly influencing prosthodontic treatment concepts. Implant-supported single-unit and short-span reconstructions will benefit mostly from the present digital trends. In these protocols, monolithic implant crowns connected to prefabricated titanium abutments, which are created based on data obtained from an intraoral scan followed by virtual design and production, without the need of a physical master cast, have to be considered in lieu of conventional manufacturing techniques for posterior implant restorations...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824718/a-technique-for-duplicating-the-contours-of-an-interim-implant-supported-crown-to-fabricate-a-custom-impression-coping-and-the-definitive-prosthesis
#18
Frederico Vasconcellos, Periklis Proussaefs
PURPOSE: The purpose of the presented technique is to enable the clinician to replicate the contours of the interim prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical case report is presented where this novel technique was implemented. A stone base and a silicone index were used to duplicate the contours of an interim prosthesis, so that the definitive restoration can have similar contours. RESULTS: The definitive prosthesis was fabricated based on the acquired soft tissue architecture and the contours of the interim restoration...
December 2016: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763711/near-ultraviolet-fluorescent-on-off-on-switching-sensors-based-on-nitrogen-enriched-dual-color-single-functional-polymer-carbon-nanosheets
#19
Zhong-Xia Wang, Fen-Ying Kong, Wei Wang
Graphene quantum-dot-like structures of highly enriched N-based dual-color single-functional polymer carbon nanosheets (GLNPCNs) with an average diameter as large as 170 nm (ca. five layers) are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. Intermolecular C5 H5 N5 ⋅⋅⋅C5 H5 N5 and/or C2 H5 OH chemical polymerization interactions in the liquid state of the peripheral crown-ether-like "hole"-decorated compound GLNPCNs lead to a fascinating 2 D supramolecular polymer architecture, which exhibits near-ultraviolet (NUV) fluorescence, ultrahigh brightness, a narrow full-width at half-maximum, and excellent potential for practical applications...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673748/immediate-implant-placement-of-a-single-central-incisor-using-a-cad-cam-crown-root-form-technique-provisional-to-final-restoration
#20
Dean Vafiadis, Gary Goldstein, David Garber, Anthony Lambrakos, Bj Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: Preserving soft and hard tissues after extraction and implant placement is crucial for anterior esthetics. This technique will show how the information gathered from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the maxillary left central incisor and an intra-oral digital impression can be merged to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root matrix to be used as an immediate provisional restoration that mimics the natural anatomy. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Due to trauma, a left central incisor appeared to be fractured and was scheduled for extraction and implant placement...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
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