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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074485/light-temperature-and-tocopherol-status-influence-foliar-vascular-anatomy-and-leaf-function-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Jared J Stewart, Stephanie K Polutchko, William W Adams, Christopher M Cohu, Coleman A Wenzl, Barbara Demmig-Adams
This study addressed whether the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana can adjust foliar phloem and xylem anatomy both differentially and in parallel. In plants acclimated to hot versus cool temperature, foliar minor vein xylem-to-phloem ratio was greater, whereas xylem and phloem responded concomitantly to growth light intensity. Across all growth conditions, xylem anatomy correlated with transpiration rate, while phloem anatomy correlated with photosynthetic capacity for two plant lines (wildtype Col-0 and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant) irrespective of tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070293/functional-community-structure-of-african-monodominant-gilbertiodendron-dewevrei-forest-influenced-by-local-environmental-filtering
#2
Elizabeth Kearsley, Hans Verbeeck, Koen Hufkens, Frederik Van de Perre, Sebastian Doetterl, Geert Baert, Hans Beeckman, Pascal Boeckx, Dries Huygens
Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064192/leaf-anatomy-bvoc-emission-and-co2-exchange-of-arctic-plants-following-snow-addition-and-summer-warming
#3
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062725/capacitive-water-release-and-internal-leaf-water-relocation-delay-drought-induced-cavitation-in-african-maesopsis-eminii
#4
Jackie Epila, Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Lidewei L Vergeynst, Wouter H Maes, Hans Beeckman, Kathy Steppe
The impact of drought on the hydraulic functioning of important African tree species, like Maesopsis eminii Engl., is poorly understood. To map the hydraulic response to drought-induced cavitation, sole reliance on the water potential at which 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (ψ50) occurs might be limiting and at times misleading as the value alone does not give a comprehensive overview of strategies evoked by M. eminii to cope with drought. This article therefore uses a methodological framework to study the different aspects of drought-induced cavitation and water relations in M...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062590/shared-characteristics-underpinning-c4-leaf-maturation-derived-from-analysis-of-multiple-c3-and-c4-species-of-flaveria
#5
Britta M C Kümpers, Steven J Burgess, Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Richard Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Julian M Hibberd
Most terrestrial plants use C3 photosynthesis to fix carbon. In multiple plant lineages a modified system known as C4 photosynthesis has evolved. To better understand the molecular patterns associated with induction of C4 photosynthesis, the genus Flaveria that contains C3 and C4 species was used. A base to tip maturation gradient of leaf anatomy was defined, and RNA sequencing was undertaken along this gradient for two C3 and two C4 Flaveria species. Key C4 traits including vein density, mesophyll and bundle sheath cross-sectional area, chloroplast ultrastructure, and abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of C4 photosynthesis were quantified...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#6
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048554/th-ab-202-03-a-novel-tool-for-computing-deliverable-doses-in-dynamic-mlc-tracking-treatments
#7
M Fast, C Kamerling, S Crijns, M Menten, S Nill, B Raaymakers, U Oelfke
PURPOSE: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. METHODS: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised ("warm-started") in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047041/su-f-t-549-validation-of-a-method-for-in-vivo-3d-dose-reconstruction-for-sbrt-using-a-new-transmission-detector
#8
Y Nakaguchi, Y Shimohigashi, R Onizuka, T Ohno
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient's anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047009/su-f-j-181-an-alternative-patient-alignment-tool-on-tomotherapy-the-first-in-human-megavoltage-topogram-acquisition
#9
L Yang, D Low, P Lee, D Ruan, R Chin, T Kaprealian, M Kamrava, P Kupelian, P Beron, M Steinberg, A Chen, N Agazaryan, S Ray, X Qi
PURPOSE: To show the first in-human Megavoltage (MV)-Topogram acquisition for the evaluation of the potential for MV-Topogram-based alignment as an alternative to MVCT for reducing dose and imaging time. METHODS: A lung cancer patient was enrolled in an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial at our institute. The patient was set up using the clinical protocol employing positioning lasers. 3.2mm diameter tungsten spheres were placed on the patient's skin at their alignment tattoos to check surface-based marker concordance between topograms and MVCT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012363/quantitative-limitations-to-photosynthesis-in-k-deficient-sunflower-and-their-implications-on-water-use-efficiency
#10
Bálint Jákli, Ershad Tavakol, Merle Tränkner, Mehmet Senbayram, Klaus Dittert
Potassium (K) is crucial for crop growth and is strongly related to stress tolerance and water-use efficiency (WUE). A major physiological effect of K deficiency is the inhibition of net CO2 assimilation (AN) during photosynthesis. Whether this reduction originates from limitations either to photochemical energy conversion or biochemical CO2 fixation or from a limitation to CO2 diffusion through stomata and the leaf mesophyll is debated. In this study, limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003310/molecular-phylogeny-and-forms-of-photosynthesis-in-tribe-salsoleae-chenopodiaceae
#11
Christina Schüssler, Helmut Freitag, Nuria Koteyeva, Denise Schmidt, Gerald Edwards, Elena Voznesenskaya, Gudrun Kadereit
While many C4 lineages have Kranz anatomy around individual veins, Salsoleae have evolved the Salsoloid Kranz anatomy where a continuous dual layer of chlorenchyma cells encloses the vascular and water-storage tissue. With the aim of elucidating the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in Salsoleae, a broadly sampled molecular phylogeny and anatomical survey was conducted, together with biochemical, microscopic, and physiological analyses of selected photosynthetic types. From analyses of photosynthetic phenotypes, a model for evolution of this form of C4 was compared with models for evolution of Kranz anatomy around individual veins...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986845/unique-photosynthetic-phenotypes-in-portulaca-portulacaceae-c3-c4-intermediates-and-nad-me-c4-species-with-pilosoid-type-kranz-anatomy
#12
Elena V Voznesenskaya, Nuria K Koteyeva, Gerald E Edwards, Gilberto Ocampo
Portulacaceae is a family that has considerable diversity in photosynthetic phenotypes. It is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants where species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Most species in Portulaca are in the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, which includes one clade (Cryptopetala) with taxa lacking C4 photosynthesis and three clades having C4 species (Oleracea, Umbraticola and Pilosa). All three species in the Cryptopetala clade lack Kranz anatomy, the leaves have C3-like carbon isotope composition and they have low levels of C4 cycle enzymes...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#13
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881798/acclimation-of-leaf-water-status-and-stem-hydraulics-to-drought-and-tree-neighbourhood-alternative-strategies-among-the-saplings-of-five-temperate-deciduous-tree-species
#14
Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861926/leaf-vein-xylem-conduit-diameter-influences-susceptibility-to-embolism-and-hydraulic-decline
#15
Christine Scoffoni, Caetano Albuquerque, Craig R Brodersen, Shatara V Townes, Grace P John, Hervé Cochard, Thomas N Buckley, Andrew J McElrone, Lawren Sack
Ecosystems worldwide are facing increasingly severe and prolonged droughts during which hydraulic failure from drought-induced embolism can lead to organ or whole plant death. Understanding the determinants of xylem failure across species is especially critical in leaves, the engines of plant growth. If the vulnerability segmentation hypothesis holds within leaves, higher order veins that are most terminal in the plant hydraulic system should be more susceptible to embolism to protect the rest of the water transport system...
November 11, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859865/high-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-reveals-the-genetically-programmed-developmental-modification-of-the-distribution-of-thylakoid-membrane-lipids-among-individual-cells-of-the-maize-leaf
#16
Maria Emilia Dueñas, Adam T Klein, Liza E Alexander, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young Jin Lee
Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single cell resolution. Here we applied 5 and 10 μm high-spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG)...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793170/the-draft-genome-of-the-c3-panicoid-grass-species-dichanthelium-oligosanthes
#17
Anthony J Studer, James C Schnable, Sarit Weissmann, Allison R Kolbe, Michael R McKain, Ying Shao, Asaph B Cousins, Elizabeth A Kellogg, Thomas P Brutnell
BACKGROUND: Comparisons between C3 and C4 grasses often utilize C3 species from the subfamilies Ehrhartoideae or Pooideae and C4 species from the subfamily Panicoideae, two clades that diverged over 50 million years ago. The divergence of the C3 panicoid grass Dichanthelium oligosanthes from the independent C4 lineages represented by Setaria viridis and Sorghum bicolor occurred approximately 15 million years ago, which is significantly more recent than members of the Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae subfamilies...
October 28, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792743/the-evolutionary-basis-of-naturally-diverse-rice-leaves-anatomy
#18
Jolly Chatterjee, Jacqueline Dionora, Abigail Elmido-Mabilangan, Samart Wanchana, Vivek Thakur, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, Darshan S Brar, William Paul Quick
Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790235/the-differences-between-nad-me-and-nadp-me-subtypes-of-c4-photosynthesis-more-than-decarboxylating-enzymes
#19
REVIEW
Xiaolan Rao, Richard A Dixon
As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities, and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770776/the-phylogenetic-significance-of-leaf-anatomical-traits-of-southern-african-oxalis
#20
Michelle Jooste, Léanne L Dreyer, Kenneth C Oberlander
BACKGROUND: The southern African Oxalis radiation is extremely morphologically variable. Despite recent progress in the phylogenetics of the genus, there are few morphological synapomorphies supporting DNA-based clades. Leaflet anatomy can provide an understudied and potentially valuable source of information on the evolutionary history and systematics of this lineage. Fifty-nine leaflet anatomical traits of 109 southern African Oxalis species were assessed in search of phylogenetically significant characters that delineate clades...
October 22, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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