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leaf anatomy

Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Christine Scoffoni, Caetano Albuquerque, Craig R Brodersen, Shatara V Townes, Grace P John, Hervé Cochard, Thomas N Buckley, Andrew J McElrone, Lawren Sack
Ecosystems worldwide are facing increasingly severe and prolonged droughts during which hydraulic failure from drought-induced embolism can lead to organ or whole plant death. Understanding the determinants of xylem failure across species is especially critical in leaves, the engines of plant growth. If the vulnerability segmentation hypothesis holds within leaves, higher order veins that are most terminal in the plant hydraulic system should be more susceptible to embolism to protect the rest of the water transport system...
November 11, 2016: New Phytologist
Maria Emilia Dueñas, Adam T Klein, Liza E Alexander, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young Jin Lee
Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single cell resolution. Here we applied 5 and 10 μm high-spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG)...
November 17, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anthony J Studer, James C Schnable, Sarit Weissmann, Allison R Kolbe, Michael R McKain, Ying Shao, Asaph B Cousins, Elizabeth A Kellogg, Thomas P Brutnell
BACKGROUND: Comparisons between C3 and C4 grasses often utilize C3 species from the subfamilies Ehrhartoideae or Pooideae and C4 species from the subfamily Panicoideae, two clades that diverged over 50 million years ago. The divergence of the C3 panicoid grass Dichanthelium oligosanthes from the independent C4 lineages represented by Setaria viridis and Sorghum bicolor occurred approximately 15 million years ago, which is significantly more recent than members of the Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae subfamilies...
October 28, 2016: Genome Biology
Jolly Chatterjee, Jacqueline Dionora, Abigail Elmido-Mabilangan, Samart Wanchana, Vivek Thakur, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, Darshan S Brar, William Paul Quick
Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits...
2016: PloS One
Xiaolan Rao, Richard A Dixon
As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities, and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michelle Jooste, Léanne L Dreyer, Kenneth C Oberlander
BACKGROUND: The southern African Oxalis radiation is extremely morphologically variable. Despite recent progress in the phylogenetics of the genus, there are few morphological synapomorphies supporting DNA-based clades. Leaflet anatomy can provide an understudied and potentially valuable source of information on the evolutionary history and systematics of this lineage. Fifty-nine leaflet anatomical traits of 109 southern African Oxalis species were assessed in search of phylogenetically significant characters that delineate clades...
October 22, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ayumi Shiraki, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, H Roaki Ishii
Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Frank Sterck, Roman Zweifel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Moges Retta, Xinyou Yin, Peter E L van der Putten, Denis Cantre, Herman N C Berghuijs, Quang Tri Ho, Pieter Verboven, Paul C Struik, Bart M Nicolaï
The mechanism of photosynthesis in C4 crops depends on the archetypal Kranz-anatomy. To examine how the leaf anatomy, as altered by nitrogen supply and leaf age, affects the bundle sheath conductance (gbs), maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown under three contrasting nitrogen levels. Combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were done on fully grown leaves at two leaf ages. The measured data were analysed using a biochemical model of C4 photosynthesis to estimate gbs. The leaf microstructure and ultrastructure were quantified using images obtained from micro-computed tomography and microscopy...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Clara Bertel, Peter Schönswetter, Božo Frajman, Andreas Holzinger, Gilbert Neuner
Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden...
October 7, 2016: Protoplasma
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Maximilian Lauterbach, Kumari Billakurthi, Gudrun Kadereit, Martha Ludwig, Peter Westhoff, Udo Gowik
Some species of Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) convert from C3 photosynthesis during the seedling stage to the C4 pathway in adult leaves. This unique developmental transition of photosynthetic pathways offers the exceptional opportunity to follow the development of the derived C4 syndrome from the C3 condition within individual plants, avoiding phylogenetic noise. Here we investigate Salsola soda, a little-studied species from tribe Salsoleae, using an ontogenetic approach. Anatomical sections, carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values, transcriptome analysis by means of mRNA sequencing, and protein levels of the key C4 enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined from seed to adult plant stages...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tao Xu, Xin Liu, Rong Wang, Xiufen Dong, Xiaoxi Guan, Yanling Wang, Yun Jiang, Zihang Shi, Mingfang Qi, Tianlai Li
SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wen Guo, Jie Yang, Xu-Dong Sun, Guang-Jie Chen, Yong-Ping Yang, Yuan-Wen Duan
Polyploid species generally occupy harsher habitats (characterized by cold, drought and/or high altitude) than diploids, but the converse was observed for Chamerion angustifolium, in which diploid plants generally inhabit higher altitudes than their polyploid derivatives. Plants at high altitudes may experience cold-induced water stress, and we therefore examined the physiological responses of diploid and hexaploid C. angustifolium to water stress to better understand the ecological differentiation of plants with different ploidy levels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Oliver Binks, Patrick Meir, Lucy Rowland, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Steel Silva Vasconcelos, Alex Antonio Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leandro Ferreira, Maurizio Mencuccini
Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll...
September 10, 2016: Tree Physiology
S Vialet-Chabrand, J S A Matthews, O Brendel, M R Blatt, Y Wang, A Hills, H Griffiths, S Rogers, T Lawson
Intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi), the ratio of net CO2 assimilation (A) over stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), is a complex trait used to assess plant performance. Improving Wi could lead in theory to higher productivity or reduced water usage by the plant, but the physiological traits for improvement and their combined effects on Wi have not been clearly identified. Under fluctuating light intensity, the temporal response of gs is an order of magnitude slower than A, which results in rapid variations in Wi...
October 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Karolina Heyduk, Michael R McKain, Falak Lalani, James Leebens-Mack
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Giai Petit, Tadeja Savi, Martina Consolini, Tommaso Anfodillo, Andrea Nardini
Efficient leaf water supply is fundamental for assimilation processes and tree growth. Renovating the architecture of the xylem transport system requires an increasing carbon investment while growing taller, and any deficiency of carbon availability may result in increasing hydraulic constraints to water flow. Therefore, plants need to coordinate carbon assimilation and biomass allocation to guarantee an efficient and safe long-distance transport system. We tested the hypothesis that reduced branch elongation rates together with carbon-saving adjustments of xylem anatomy hydraulically compensate for the reduction in biomass allocation to xylem...
November 2016: Tree Physiology
Mengdi Zheng, Xiayan Liu, Shuang Liang, Shiying Fu, Yafei Qi, Jun Zhao, Jingxia Shao, Lijun An, Fei Yu
Chloroplast development requires the coordinated expressions of nuclear and chloroplast genomes, and both anterograde and retrograde signals exist and work together to facilitate this coordination. We have utilized the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) mutant as a tool to dissect the genetic regulatory network of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation of a new (to our knowledge) var2 genetic suppressor locus, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION9 (SVR9). SVR9 encodes a chloroplast-localized prokaryotic type translation initiation factor 3 (IF3)...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
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