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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342280/epigenetic-differentiation-of-natural-populations-of-lilium-bosniacum-associated-with-contrasting-habitat-conditions
#1
V Zoldoš, I Biruš, E Muratovic, Z Šatovic, A Vojta, O Robin, F Pustahija, F Bogunic, V Vicic Bockor, S Siljak-Yakovlev
Epigenetic variation in natural populations with contrasting habitats might be an important element, in addition to the genetic variation, in plant adaptation to environmental stress. Here, we assessed genetic, epigenetic and cytogenetic structure of the three Lilium bosniacum populations growing on distinct habitats. One population was growing under habitual ecological conditions for this species and the other two were growing under stress associated with high altitude and serpentine soil. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses revealed that the three populations did not differentiate genetically, but were clearly separated in the three distinct clusters according to DNA methylation profiles...
January 12, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334027/patient-specific-quality-assurance-using-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-and-elekta-log-files-for-prostate-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy
#2
Yoshiyuki Katsuta, Noriyuki Kadoya, Yukio Fujita, Eiji Shimizu, Kenichi Matsunaga, Kinya Sawada, Haruo Matsushita, Kazuhiro Majima, Keiichi Jingu
Log file-based methods are attracting increasing interest owing to their ability to validate volumetric-modulated arc therapy outputs with high resolution in the leaf and gantry positions and in delivered dose. Cross-validation of these methods for comparison with measurement-based methods using the ionization chamber/ArcCHECK-3DVH software (version 3.2.0) under the same conditions of treatment anatomy and plan enables an efficient evaluation of this method. In this study, with the purpose of cross-validation, we evaluate the accuracy of a log file-based method using Elekta log files and an X-ray voxel Monte Carlo dose calculation technique in the case of leaf misalignment during prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333039/pharmacognostic-assesment-of-the-endemic-and-vulnerable-medicinal-climber-cayratia-pedata-lam-gagnep-var-glabra-gamble-and-its-antibacterial-activity
#3
S Sharmila, K Kalaichelvi, S M Dhivya, P Premamalini, P Abirami, G Jayanthi
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. Materials and Methods: The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220546/differential-coordination-of-stomatal-conductance-mesophyll-conductance-and-leaf-hydraulic-conductance-in-response-to-changing-light-across-species
#4
Dongliang Xiong, Cyril Douthe, Jaume Flexas
Stomatal conductance (gs ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ) represent major constraints to photosynthetic rate (A), and these traits are expected to coordinate with leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ) across species, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. However, empirical information about their coordination is scarce. In this study, Kleaf , gas exchange, stomatal kinetics, and leaf anatomy in 10 species including ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms were investigated to elucidate the correlation of H2 O and CO2 diffusion inside leaves under varying light conditions...
February 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215745/impacts-of-long-term-precipitation-manipulation-on-hydraulic-architecture-and-xylem-anatomy-of-pi%C3%A3-on-and-juniper-in-southwest-usa
#5
P J Hudson, J M Limousin, D J Krofcheck, A L Boutz, R E Pangle, N Gehres, N G McDowell, W T Pockman
Hydraulic architecture imposes a fundamental control on water transport, underpinning plant productivity and survival. The extent to which hydraulic architecture of mature trees acclimates to chronic drought is poorly understood, limiting accuracy in predictions of forest responses to future droughts. We measured seasonal shoot hydraulic performance for multiple years to assess xylem acclimation in mature piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) after 3+ years of precipitation manipulation. Our treatments consisted of water addition (+20% ambient precipitation), partial precipitation-exclusion (-45% ambient precipitation), and exclusion-structure control...
December 7, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173901/clinical-impact-of-dosimetric-changes-for-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-in-log-file-based-patient-dose-calculations
#6
Yoshiyuki Katsuta, Noriyuki Kadoya, Yukio Fujita, Eiji Shimizu, Kenichi Matsunaga, Haruo Matsushita, Kazuhiro Majima, Keiichi Jingu
PURPOSE: A log file-based method cannot detect dosimetric changes due to linac component miscalibration because log files are insensitive to miscalibration. Herein, clinical impacts of dosimetric changes on a log file-based method were determined. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five head-and-neck and five prostate plans were applied. Miscalibration-simulated log files were generated by inducing a linac component miscalibration into the log file. Miscalibration magnitudes for leaf, gantry, and collimator at the general tolerance level were ±0...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159723/anatomical-and-diffusional-determinants-inside-leaves-explain-the-difference-in-photosynthetic-capacity-between-cypripedium-and-paphiopedilum-orchidaceae
#7
Zhong-Hui Yang, Wei Huang, Qiu-Yun Yang, Wei Chang, Shi-Bao Zhang
Comparing with other angiosperms, most members within the family Orchidaceae have lower photosynthetic capacities. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Cypripedium and Paphiopedilum are closely related phylogenetically in Orchidaceae, but their photosynthetic performances are different. We explored the roles of internal anatomy and diffusional conductance in determining photosynthesis in three Cypripedium and three Paphiopedilum species, and quantitatively analyzed their diffusional and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis...
November 20, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155921/aridification-as-a-driver-of-biodiversity-a-case-study-for-the-cycad-genus-dioon-zamiaceae
#8
José Said Gutiérrez-Ortega, Takashi Yamamoto, Andrew P Vovides, Miguel Angel Pérez-Farrera, José F Martínez, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Yasuyuki Watano, Tadashi Kajita
Background and Aims: Aridification is considered a selective pressure that might have influenced plant diversification. It is suggested that plants adapted to aridity diversified during the Miocene, an epoch of global aridification (≈15 million years ago). However, evidence supporting diversification being a direct response to aridity is scarce, and multidisciplinary evidence, besides just phylogenetic estimations, is necessary to support the idea that aridification has driven diversification...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136411/shoot-apical-meristem-and-plant-body-organization-a-cross-species-comparative-study
#9
Renáta Schnablová, Tomáš Herben, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the key organizing element in the plant body and is responsible for the core of plant body organization and shape. Surprisingly, there are almost no comparative data that would show links between parameters of the SAM and whole-plant traits as drivers of the plant's response to the environment. Methods: Interspecific differences in SAM anatomy were examined in 104 perennial herbaceous angiosperms. Key Results: There were differences in SAM parameters among individual species, their phylogenetic patterns, and how their variation is linked to variation in plant above-ground organs and hence species' environmental niches...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136280/transitqa-a-new-method-for-transit-dosimetry-of-tomotherapy-patients
#10
Olivier Pisaturo, Frédéric Miéville, Pierre-Alain Tercier, Abdelkarim Said Allal
PURPOSE: TransitQA is an innovative method for Tomotherapy transit dosimetry using the on-board detector (OBD). Our previously published model for Tomotherapy treatment plan verification (AirQA) has been enhanced to take into account patient and couch transmission. AirQA estimates the OBD signal during irradiation with nothing in the beam path from the leaf control sinogram, allowing us to check whether the planned treatment is correctly delivered by the machine. TransitQA allows us to check the treatment delivery with the patient on the couch, potentially showing the effects of changes in the patient anatomy and delivery errors...
November 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104583/not-all-trees-sleep-the-same-high-temporal-resolution-terrestrial-laser-scanning-shows-differences-in-nocturnal-plant-movement
#11
András Zlinszky, Bence Molnár, Anders S Barfod
Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid measurement of distances to the targets, thus producing three dimensional point cloud models of sub-centimeter resolution and accuracy in a few minutes. Here, we aim to gain an overview of the variability of circadian movement of small trees across different taxonomic groups, growth forms and leaf anatomies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093177/leaf-anatomy-of-a-late-palaeozoic-cycad
#12
Zhuo Feng, Yong Lv, Yun Guo, Hai-Bo Wei, Hans Kerp
Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065171/alleviatory-effects-of-silicon-on-the-foliar-micromorphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-under-simulated-acid-rain
#13
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056456/re-creation-of-a-key-step-in-the-evolutionary-switch-from-c3-to-c4-leaf-anatomy
#14
Peng Wang, Roxana Khoshravesh, Shanta Karki, Ronald Tapia, C Paolo Balahadia, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, W Paul Quick, Robert Furbank, Tammy L Sage, Jane A Langdale
The C4 photosynthetic pathway accounts for ∼25% of primary productivity on the planet despite being used by only 3% of species. Because C4 plants are higher yielding than C3 plants, efforts are underway to introduce the C4 pathway into the C3 crop rice. This is an ambitious endeavor; however, the C4 pathway evolved from C3 on multiple independent occasions over the last 30 million years, and steps along the trajectory are evident in extant species. One approach toward engineering C4 rice is to recapitulate this trajectory, one of the first steps of which was a change in leaf anatomy...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056440/making-roots-shoots-and-seeds-idd-gene-family-diversification-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
Carla P Coelho, Pu Huang, Dong-Yeon Lee, Thomas P Brutnell
The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) family of transcriptional regulators controls a diversity of processes in a variety of plant tissues and organs and at different stages of plant development. Several recent reports describe the genetic characterization of IDD family members, including those that are likely to regulate C4 kranz anatomy, with implications for the engineering of C4 traits into C3 crops. In this review we summarize the reported functions of IDD members in the regulation of metabolic sensing and leaf, root, seed, and inflorescence development...
October 19, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053190/quantitative-mesophyll-parameters-rather-than-whole-leaf-traits-predict-response-of-c3-steppe-plants-to-aridity
#16
Larissa A Ivanova, Polina K Yudina, Dina A Ronzhina, Leonid A Ivanov, Norbert Hölzel
We studied the impact of aridity on leaf and mesophyll traits in dominant and very abundant plant species of Eurasian steppe plant communities. We covered a 500-km latitudinal gradient across three vegetation zones in the Volga region of southern European Russia. Whole-leaf traits, volumetric fractions of leaf tissues, quantitative parameters of photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts, and chlorophyll, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents were analyzed and related to plant functional type (PFT), type of mesophyll anatomy, phylogeny and climate aridity...
October 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043573/structural-and-physiological-responses-of-halodule-wrightii-to-ocean-acidification
#17
Geniane Schneider, Paulo Antunes Horta, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Camilla Reis Augusto da Silva, Isabel Brandalise, José Bonomi Barufi, João Silva, Ana Claudia Rodrigues
Coastal areas face high variability of seawater pH. Ocean acidification (OA) and local stressors are enhancing this variability, which poses a threat to marine life. However, these organisms present potential phenotypic plasticity that can offer physiological and structural tools to survive in these extreme conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of elevated CO2 levels and consequent pH reduction on the physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the seagrass Halodule wrightii. A mesocosm study was conducted in an open system during a 30-day experiment, where different concentrations of CO2 were simulated following the natural variability observed in coastal reef systems...
October 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036408/physiological-differences-between-root-suckers-and-saplings-enlarge-the-regeneration-niche-in-eucryphia-cordifolia-cav
#18
Antonio B Escandón, Roke Rojas, Loreto V Morales, Luis J Corcuera, Rafael E Coopman, Susana Paula
Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033649/study-of-the-leaf-anatomy-in-cross-section-in-the-iberian-species-of-festuca-l-poaceae-and-its-systematic-significance
#19
Gloria Martínez-Sagarra, Pilar Abad, Juan Antonio Devesa
A study of the leaf anatomy in the species of the genus Festuca present in the Iberian Peninsula was made. A total of 68 taxa were included and 15 characters were measured in leaf cross-section. The major anatomical features of each taxonomic group were characterized, and some variability was observed in the taxa. The anatomical patterns observed were compared and discussed with the relationships suggested by the molecular analyses. The leaf outline, the presence or absence of complete girders, and the development degree of the bulliform cells were the main characters to differentiate among fescue species of the fine-leaved clade and those of the broad-leaved clade...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993735/comparative-physiological-biochemical-and-genetic-responses-to-prolonged-waterlogging-stress-in-okra-and-maize-given-exogenous-ethylene-priming
#20
Emuejevoke Vwioko, Onyekachukwu Adinkwu, Mohamed A El-Esawi
Waterlogging is an environmental challenge affecting crops worldwide. Ethylene induces the expression of genes linked to important agronomic traits under waterlogged conditions. The ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) and maize (Zea mays L.) given exogenous ethylene priming to tolerate prolonged waterlogged conditions was investigated in this study. The investigation was carried out as field experiments using 3 week-old plants grouped into four treatments; control, waterlogged plants, ethylene priming of plants before waterlogging, and ethylene priming of plants after waterlogging...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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