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leaf anatomy

Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Pedro Henrique Godoy Paiva, Lorrant Cavanha Gabriel, André Luiz Martinez de Oliveira, Karina Milani, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Maria Cristina Neves de Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias-Pereira, Renata Stolf-Moreira
Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense...
May 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Dan Feng, Yanwei Wang, Tiegang Lu, Zhiguo Zhang, Xiao Han
Leaf veins play a critical role in resource supplication and photosynthate translocation; thus, it is considered as an important agricultural trait for crop breeding. The rice minor veins are parallelly grown along all the parts of the leaf from base to tip. To understand the process of minor vein development, anatomy analysis was performed to reveal the initiation and development of minor veins in rice leaf. The frequency of minor vein initiation follows a decreased tendency from leaf base to tip. An iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis was performed in rice leaf sections...
May 11, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Marc Carriquí, Cyril Douthe, Arántzazu Molins, Jaume Flexas
Mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), a key photosynthetic trait, is strongly constrained by leaf anatomy. Leaf anatomical parameters such as cell wall thickness and chloroplast area exposed to the mesophyll intercellular airspace have been demonstrated to determine gm in species with diverging phylogeny, leaf structure and ontogeny. However, the potential implication of leaf anatomy, especially chloroplast movement, on the short-term response of gm to rapid changes (i.e. seconds to minutes) under different environmental conditions (CO2 , light or temperature) has not been examined...
May 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Guilin Wu, Hui Liu, Lei Hua, Qi Luo, Yixue Lin, Pengcheng He, Shiwei Feng, Juxiu Liu, Qing Ye
Global warming could increase leaf transpiration and soil evaporation, which can potentially cause water deficit to plants. As valves, leaf stomata can control plant water loss and carbon gain, particularly under water stress conditions. To investigate the responses of stomata to elevated temperature in Schima superba and Syzygium rehderianum , two co-occurring subtropical forest dominant tree species, functional traits related to gas exchange, stomatal anatomy, and drought resistance were measured under control and warming environment (ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Scott A M McAdam, Timothy John Brodribb
The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in enhancing plant survival during water deficit. Recent molecular evidence suggests that ABA is synthesized in the phloem companion cells and guard cells. However, the nature of cell turgor and water status in these two cell types cannot easily account for the rapid, water status-triggered ABA biosynthesis observed in leaves. Here we utilize the unique foliar anatomies of an angiosperm (Hakea lissosperma) and of four conifer species (Saxegothaea conspicua, Podocarpus latifolius, Cephalotaxus harringtonii, and Amentotaxus formosana) in which the mesophyll can be isolated from the vascular tissue to identify the main site of ABA biosynthesis in water-stressed leaves...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology
J M Budel, V Raman, L M Monteiro, V P Almeida, V B Bobek, G Heiden, I J M Takeda, I A Khan
We report for the first time the presence of cluster crystals of calcium oxalate within the glandular trichomes and oil bodies in the mesophyll for Baccharis species. Moreover, the comparative leaf anatomy and micro-morphology of six species of Baccharis, namely B. illinita, B. microdonta, B. pauciflosculosa, B. punctulata, B. reticularioides, and B. sphenophylla is investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The studied species exhibited differences in their leaf anatomical features such as the morphology of the cuticle, type and occurrence of the stomata, presence or absence of glandular trichomes, shape of the flagelliform trichomes, and the arrangement of the mesophyll tissues...
April 27, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Li Ru Chen, Yang Yang Li
With a precipitation manipulation experiment (Control, +45% and -50%), the responses of stem hydraulic traits in two dominant shrubs (Salix psammophila and Caragana korshinskii) of water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau to projected precipitation variation were examined to elucidate their adaptability to future precipitation changes. Results showed that the specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks ), leaf specific conductivity (Kl ) and Huber value in S. psammophila increased significantly by irrigation but showed no responses to drought...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Patrícia V Ellsworth, Patrick Z Ellsworth, Nuria K Koteyeva, Asaph B Cousins
Diffusion of CO2 from the leaf intercellular air space to the site of carboxylation (gm ) is a potential trait for increasing net rates of CO2 assimilation (Anet ), photosynthetic efficiency, and crop productivity. Leaf anatomy plays a key role in this process; however, there are few investigations into how cell wall properties impact gm and Anet . Online carbon isotope discrimination was used to determine gm and Anet in Oryza sativa wild-type (WT) plants and mutants with disruptions in cell wall mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) production (CslF6 knockouts) under high- and low-light growth conditions...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Gülay Ecevit-Genç, Betül Büyükkılıç-Altınbaşak, Taner Özcan, Tuncay Dirmenci
Teucrium alyssifolium Stapf (endemic), Teucrium pestalozzae Boiss. (endemic) and Teucrium brevifolium Schreb. are three closely related taxa in Teucrium sect. Teucrium. The obtained data from the anatomical studies revealed that these three taxa represent the general anatomical characteristics of the Lamiaceae family. Leaves, anatomical features such as thick cuticle, abundant trichomes, rich palisade parenchyma layer in the mesophyll provide evidence that these three species are xeromorphic structures. Leaf and stem anatomy showed that the taxa have generally similar anatomical features...
2018: PhytoKeys
Chris J Blackman, Sean M Gleason, Alicia M Cook, Yvonne Chang, Claire A Laws, Mark Westoby
Background and Aims: The structural properties of leaf venation and xylem anatomy strongly influence leaf hydraulics, including the ability of leaves to maintain hydraulic function during drought. Here we examined the strength of the links between different leaf venation traits and leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (expressed as P50leaf by rehydration kinetics) in a diverse group of 26 woody angiosperm species, representing a wide range of leaf vulnerabilities, from four low-nutrient sites with contrasting rainfall across eastern Australia...
April 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Aurislaine S Ribeiro, Mariana S Ribeiro, Suzan K V Bertolucci, Wanderley J M Bittencourt, Alexandre A DE Carvalho, Wesley N Tostes, Eduardo Alves, José E B P Pinto
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of colored shade nets on the growth, anatomy and essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of Pogostemon cablin. The plants were cultivated under full sunlight, black, blue and red nets. The harvesting was performed 5 months after planting and it was followed by the analysis of plant growth parameters, leaf anatomy, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition. The plants grown under red net have produced more leaf, shoot, total dry weight and leaf area...
April 16, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yuling Zhang, Rita Giuliani, Youjun Zhang, Yang Zhang, Wagner Luiz Araujo, Baichen Wang, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Asaph Cousins, Gerald Edwards, Alisdair Fernie, Thomas P Brutnell, Pinghua Li
In C4 photosynthesis, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyzes the regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate in the carbon shuttle pathway. Although the biochemical function of PPDK in maize is well characterized, a genetic analysis of PPDK has not been reported. In this study, we utilize the maize transposable elements Mutator and Ds to generate multiple mutant alleles of PPDK. Loss-of-function mutants are seedling lethal even when plants were grown under 2% CO2 , and they show very low capacity for CO2 assimilation indicating C4 photosynthesis is essential in maize...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Veit Martin Dörken, Bernard Lepetit
Morphology, anatomy and physiology of sun and shade leaves of Abies alba were investigated and major differences were identified, such as sun leaves being larger, containing a hypodermis and palisade parenchyma as well as possessing more stomata, while shade leaves exhibit a distinct leaf dimorphism. The large size of sun leaves and their arrangement crowded on the upper side of a plagiotropic shoot leads to self-shading which is explainable as protection from high solar radiation and to reduce the transpiration via the lamina...
April 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yoshihito Niimura, Atsushi Matsui, Kazushige Touhara
Primates have traditionally been regarded as vision-oriented animals with low olfactory ability, though this "microsmatic primates" view has been challenged recently. To clarify when and how degeneration of the olfactory system occurred and to specify the relevant factors during primate evolution, we here examined the olfactory receptor (OR) genes from 24 phylogenetically and ecologically diverse primate species. The results revealed that strepsirrhines with curved noses had functional OR gene repertoires that were nearly twice as large as those for haplorhines with simple noses...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Shuai Kang, Jing Lu, Ji Zhang, Chao-Jie Lian, Ai-Hua Wei, Shuang-Cheng Ma
Epimedii Folium is a commonly used traditional Chinese drug, and now still depends on the wild resource. In recent years, with the surge in consumption, the resources are declining, the use of market varieties are constantly changing. In this paper, Production and sales situation of the five species contained in pharmacopoeia(Epimedium brevicornu, E. sagittatum, E. pubescens, E. koreanum and E. wushanense) have been studied on the basis of the existing researches, in-depth investigation and collection of accurate plant specimens and samples...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yushan Wu, Wanzhuo Gong, Yangmei Wang, Taiwen Yong, Feng Yang, Weigui Liu, Xiaoling Wu, Junbo Du, Kai Shu, Jiang Liu, Chunyan Liu, Wenyu Yang
Leaf anatomy and the stomatal development of developing leaves of plants have been shown to be regulated by the same light environment as that of mature leaves, but no report has yet been written on whether such a long-distance signal from mature leaves regulates the total leaf area of newly emerged leaves. To explore this question, we created an investigation in which we collected data on the leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf anatomy, cell size, cell number, gas exchange and soluble sugar content of leaves from three soybean varieties grown under full sunlight (NS), shaded mature leaves (MS) or whole plants grown in shade (WS)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Estefanía Montero, Ana Marta Francisco, Enrique Montes, Ana Herrera
Background and Aims: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be induced by salinity, thus conferring the plant higher water-use efficiency. Talinum triangulare does not frequently encounter salt in its natural habitat but is cultivated in soils that may become salinized. Here we examined whether plants of T. triangulare can grow in saline soils and show salt-induced CAM. Methods: Leaf gas exchange, carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C), nocturnal acid accumulation (ΔH+), water relations, photosynthetic pigment and mineral contents, leaf anatomy and growth were determined in greenhouse in plants irrigated with 0, 150, 300 and 400 mm NaCl...
March 26, 2018: Annals of Botany
Michaël Belluau, Bill Shipley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Species' habitat affinities along environmental gradients should be determined by a combination of physiological (hard) and morpho-anatomical (soft) traits. Using a gradient of soil water availability, we address three questions: How well can we predict habitat affinities from hard traits, from soft traits, and from a combination of the two? How well can we predict species' physiological responses to drought (hard traits) from their soft traits? Can we model a causal sequence as soft traits → hard traits → species distributions? METHODS: We chose 25 species of herbaceous dicots whose affinities for soil moisture have already been linked to 5 physiological traits (stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis measured at soil field capacity, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance and soil water potential measured when leaves begin to wilt)...
2018: PloS One
Yuliang Huang, Haizhen Yue, Meijiao Wang, Sha Li, Jian Zhang, Zhuolun Liu, Yibao Zhang
PURPOSE: Eclipse treatment planning system has not been able to optimize the jaw positions for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). The arbitrary and planner-dependent jaw placements define the maximum field size within which multi-leaf-collimator (MLC) sequences can be optimized to modulate the beam. Considering the mechanical constraints of MLC transitional speed and range, suboptimal X jaw settings may impede the optimization or undermine the deliverability. This work searches optimal VMAT jaw settings automatically based on Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface (ESAPI) and RapidPlan knowledge-based planning...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Maria K Paulmann, Grit Kunert, Matthias R Zimmermann, Nina Theis, Anatoli Ludwig, Doreen Meichsner, Ralf Oelmüller, Jonathan Gershenzon, Antje Habekuss, Frank Ordon, Alexandra C U Furch, Torsten Will
Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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