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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#1
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424203/relationships-between-the-timing-of-budburst-plant-traits-and-distribution-of-24-coexisting-woody-species-in-a-warm-temperate-forest-in-japan
#2
Noriyuki Osada
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Timing of budburst (DBB) may be related to the functional traits and distributions of woody species in temperate regions. Although many previous studies have investigated DBB in a number of temperate species, it has seldom been linked to multiple plant trait relationships. METHODS: DBB and plant traits were investigated for 24 woody species for 2 years in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Particular attention was paid to differences in trait relationships between coexisting deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407076/differential-gene-expression-and-transport-functionality-in-the-bundle-sheath-versus-mesophyll-a-potential-role-in-leaf-mineral-homeostasis
#3
Noa Wigoda, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Tianyuan Yang, Ling Yu, Menachem Moshelion, Nava Moran
Under fluctuating ambient conditions, the ability of plants to maintain hydromineral homeostasis requires the tight control of long distance transport. This includes the control of radial transport within leaves, from veins to mesophyll. The bundle sheath is a structure that tightly wraps around leaf vasculature. It has been suggested to act as a selective barrier in the context of radial transport. This suggestion is based on recent physiological transport assays of bundle sheath cells (BSCs), as well as the anatomy of these cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399215/eleutherococcus-senticosus-araliaceae-leaf-morpho-anatomy-essential-oil-composition-and-its-biological-activity-against-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#4
Chunmei Zhai, Mei Wang, Vijayasankar Raman, Junaid U Rehman, Yonghai Meng, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Zhenkun Khan, Ikhlas A Khan
The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387789/evolution-of-wood-anatomical-characters-in-nepenthes-and-close-relatives-of-caryophyllales
#5
Rachel Schwallier, Barbara Gravendeel, Hugo de Boer, Stephan Nylinder, Bertie Joan van Heuven, Anton Sieder, Sukaibin Sumail, Rogier van Vugt, Frederic Lens
Background and Aims: Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation...
April 6, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379522/can-increased-leaf-photosynthesis-be-converted-into-higher-crop-mass-production-a-simulation-study-for-rice-using-the-crop-model-gecros
#6
Xinyou Yin, Paul C Struik
Various genetic engineering routes to enhance C3 leaf photosynthesis have been proposed to improve crop productivity. However, their potential contribution to crop productivity needs to be assessed under realistic field conditions. Using 31 year weather data, we ran the crop model GECROS for rice in tropical, subtropical, and temperate environments, to evaluate the following routes: (1) improving mesophyll conductance (gm); (2) improving Rubisco specificity (Sc/o); (3) improving both gm and Sc/o; (4) introducing C4 biochemistry; (5) introducing C4 Kranz anatomy that effectively minimizes CO2 leakage; (6) engineering the complete C4 mechanism; (7) engineering cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters; (8) engineering a more elaborate cyanobacterial CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) with the carboxysome in the chloroplast; and (9) a mechanism that combines the low ATP cost of the cyanobacterial CCM and the high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf nitrogen...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370895/microscopic-diagnosis-of-the-leaf-and-stem-of-piper-solmsianum-c-dc
#7
A R P Bertocco, I P Migacz, V L P Santos, C R C Franco, R Z Silva, R A Yunes, V Cechinel-Filho, J M Budel
Piper solmsianum C.DC., which is popularly known as pariparoba, is a shrub that measures 1-3 m in height and it inhabits areas with wet tropical soils. The objective of this study was to analyze the leaf and stem anatomy using light microscopy, scanning electron micrographs, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to provide information for species identification. The anatomical profile showed the following main microscopic markers: hypostomatic leaf; hypodermis layer on both sides; pearl glands; biconvex midrib shape; five collateral vascular bundles in open arc with the central bundle larger than the others; circular stem shape; collateral vascular bundles arranged in two rings; sinuous sclerenchymatic sheath in the pith; secretory idioblasts; and starch grains in the mesophyll, in the ground parenchyma of the midrib, petiole, and in the stem; and six morphotypes of calcium oxalate crystals (styloids, cuneiform, tabular crystal rosettes, cuneiform crystal rosettes, elongated square dipyramids, as well as very elongated square dipyramids)...
March 30, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369162/species-climate-range-influences-hydraulic-and-stomatal-traits-in-eucalyptus-species
#8
Aimee E Bourne, Danielle Creek, Jennifer M R Peters, David S Ellsworth, Brendan Choat
Background and Aims: Plant hydraulic traits influence the capacity of species to grow and survive in water-limited environments, but their comparative study at a common site has been limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether selective pressures on species originating in drought-prone environments constrain hydraulic traits among related species grown under common conditions. Methods: Leaf tissue water relations, xylem anatomy, stomatal behaviour and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were measured on six Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden to determine whether these traits were related to current species climate range and to understand linkages between the traits...
March 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338959/increase-in-leaf-temperature-opens-stomata-and-decouples-net-photosynthesis-from-stomatal-conductance-in-pinus-taeda-and-populus-deltoides-x-nigra
#9
Josef Urban, Miles W Ingwers, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey
The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338915/ungulate-herbivory-alters-leaf-functional-traits-and-recruitment-of-regenerating-aspen
#10
Aaron C Rhodes, Val Anderson, Samuel B St Clair
Herbivory by ungulates can affect forest regeneration success, but its long-term impacts on tree function and recruitment are less studied. We evaluated strategies of resistance, tolerance and vertical escape against ungulate herbivory by evaluating leaf traits (photosynthesis, morphology and chemistry) and growth rates of aspen in the presence and absence of ungulate herbivores 1, 2, 3 and 26 years after fires initiated aspen suckering. Over the initial 3-year period, ~60% of aspen stems in unfenced plots showed evidence of being browsed by ungulates...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302144/a-dosimetric-model-for-the-heterogeneous-delivery-of-radioactive-nanoparticles-in-vivo-a-feasibility-study
#11
Andrew B Satterlee, Peter Attayek, Bentley Midkiff, Leaf Huang
ᅟ: Accurate and quantitative dosimetry for internal radiation therapy can be especially challenging, given the heterogeneity of patient anatomy, tumor anatomy, and source deposition. Internal radiotherapy sources such as nanoparticles and monoclonal antibodies require high resolution imaging to accurately model the heterogeneous distribution of these sources in the tumor. The resolution of nuclear imaging modalities is not high enough to measure the heterogeneity of intratumoral nanoparticle deposition or intratumoral regions, and mathematical models do not represent the actual heterogeneous dose or dose response...
March 17, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257466/new-data-on-the-stem-and-leaf-anatomy-of-two-conifers-from-the-lower-cretaceous-of-the-araripe-basin-northeastern-brazil-and-their-taxonomic-and-paleoecological-implications
#12
Maria Edenilce Peixoto Batista, Delmira da Costa Silva, Marcos A F Sales, Artur A Sá, Antônio A F Saraiva, Maria Iracema Bezerra Loiola
Pseudofrenelopsis and Brachyphyllum are two conifers that were part of the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) taphoflora of the Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. The former genus includes, so far, P. capillata and indeterminate species, whilst the latter is mainly represented by B. obesum, the most common plant megafossil recovered from that stratigraphic unit. Here, the stem and leaf anatomy of Pseudofrenelopsis sp. and B. obesum specimens is revisited, including the first report of some epidermal and vascular traits for both taxa from the Crato Formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224067/repair-of-rotator-cuff-tear-with-delamination-independent-repairs-of-the-infraspinatus-and-articular-capsule
#13
Tomoyuki Mochizuki, Akimoto Nimura, Takashi Miyamoto, Hideyuki Koga, Keiichi Akita, Takeshi Muneta
We propose a technique to repair delamination, which often occurs during rotator cuff repair surgery. We have reported that the infraspinatus occupies most of the greater tuberosity with the articular capsule attached to a very wide area, and that the superficial layer is mainly composed of the infraspinatus, and the deep layer is mainly composed of the articular capsule. To repair such delamination with consideration of the detailed anatomy, we developed the following repair method with independent repair of the superficial layer (infraspinatus) and the deep layer (articular capsule): (1) the deep layer is pulled laterally and joined to the medial margin of the greater tuberosity using 4 simple sutures from 2 anchors; (2) the paired limbs (same color) of 4 knots are passed over the posterior leaf of the superficial layer at intervals; (3) a push-in anchor loaded with 1 thread each of 4 knots is placed on the anterolateral corner of the greater tuberosity to pull the superficial layer anterolaterally; (4) another push-in anchor (remaining threads) is pushed on the posterior corner of the greater tuberosity...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195353/screening-of-cadmium-and-copper-phytoremediation-ability-of-tagetes-erecta-using-biochemical-parameters-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-microanalysis
#14
Sunayana Goswami, Suchismita Das
Tagetes erecta thrived in phytotoxic levels of cadmium (Cd; 50-300 mg kg(-1) ) and copper (Cu; 150-400 mg kg(-1) ) for 21 d. It accumulated high metal contents in its above-ground tissues (3675 mg Cd kg(-1) dry wt and 3948 mg Cu kg(-1) dry wt) and showed greater root to shoot translocation and a high extraction coefficient, all of which pointed toward its potential as a hyperaccumulator. Both Cd stress and Cu stress reduced the plant biomass, foliar area, and number. In addition, there were significant declines in pigment contents as well as boosts in lipid peroxidation levels...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190899/physiological-responses-of-rosa-rubiginosa-to-saline-environment
#15
Tomasz Hura, Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek, Katarzyna Hura, Krzysztof Nowak, Bożena Pawłowska
The aim of this work was to analyse the response of Rosa rubiginosa to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. R. rubiginosa was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184011/immunity-at-cauliflower-hydathodes-controls-infection-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#16
Aude Cerutti, Alain Jauneau, Marie-Christine Auriac, Emmanuelle Lauber, Yves Martinez, Serge Chiarenza, Nathalie Leonhardt, Richard Berthomé, Laurent D Noel
Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata...
February 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179182/chloroplast-and-its-phylogenies-to-understand-the-evolutionary-history-of-southern-south-american-azorella-laretia-and-mulinum-azorelloideae-apiaceae
#17
Martina Fernández, Cecilia Ezcurra, Carolina I Calviño
Azorella, Laretia and Mulinum are taxonomically complex, and good candidates to study evolutionary radiations in the Andes and the importance of hybridizations. Previous phylogenetic studies of subfamily Azorelloideae agree that Azorella and Mulinum as currently conceived are not monophyletic, and hence a revision of their circumscription is necessary. However, these phylogenies were based only on chloroplast DNA sequence data. Here, phylogenetic relationships within Azorelloideae were inferred using sequence data from five chloroplast DNA (rps16 intron, trnQ-rps16, rps16-trnK(UUU) 5' -exon, trnG(GCC)-trnS(GCU) and rpL32-trnL(UAG)), and from nuclear rDNA ITS regions to assess the monophyly of Azorella and Mulinum and discuss generic re-circumscriptions, determine hybridization and radiation events, identify and characterize important lineages, and propose hypotheses on evolution of key morphological characters...
March 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176042/acclimation-of-shade-tolerant-and-light-resistant-tradescantia-species-to-growth-light-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-electron-transport-and-xanthophyll-content
#18
Vladimir I Mishanin, Boris V Trubitsin, Svetlana V Patsaeva, Vasily V Ptushenko, Alexei E Solovchenko, Alexander N Tikhonov
In this study, we have compared the photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting species of Tradescantia plants, T. fluminensis (shade-tolerant species), and T. sillamontana (light-resistant species), grown under the low light (LL, 50-125 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) or high light (HL, 875-1000 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) conditions during their entire growth period. For monitoring the functional state of photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), we measured chlorophyll (Chl) a emission fluorescence spectra and kinetics of light-induced changes in the heights of fluorescence peaks at 685 and 740 nm (F 685 and F 740)...
February 8, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169290/knockdown-of-a-cellulose-synthase-gene-boicesa-affects-the-leaf-anatomy-cellulose-content-and-salt-tolerance-in-broccoli
#19
Shuangtao Li, Lei Zhang, Ying Wang, Fengfeng Xu, Mengyun Liu, Peng Lin, Shuxin Ren, Rui Ma, Yang-Dong Guo
Cellulose is the major component of cell wall materials. A 300 bp specific fragment from the cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into vector pFGC1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector. Knockdown of BoiCesA caused "dwarf" phenotype with smaller leaves and a loss of the content of cellulose. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the RNAi apparatus could repress expression of the CesA gene. Meanwhile, examination of the leaves from the T3 of RNAi transformants indicated reduction of cell expansion in vascular bundles, particularly on their abaxial surface...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153921/the-sites-of-evaporation-within-leaves
#20
Thomas N Buckley, Grace P John, Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack
The sites of evaporation within leaves are unknown, but they have drawn attention for decades due to their perceived implications for many factors, including patterns of leaf isotopic enrichment, the maintenance of mesophyll water status, stomatal regulation, and the interpretation of measured stomatal and leaf hydraulic conductances. We used a spatially explicit model of coupled water and heat transport outside the xylem, MOFLO 2.0, to map the distribution of net evaporation across leaf tissues in relation to anatomy and environmental parameters...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
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