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leaf anatomy

Michelle Jooste, Léanne L Dreyer, Kenneth C Oberlander
BACKGROUND: The southern African Oxalis radiation is extremely morphologically variable. Despite recent progress in the phylogenetics of the genus, there are few morphological synapomorphies supporting DNA-based clades. Leaflet anatomy can provide an understudied and potentially valuable source of information on the evolutionary history and systematics of this lineage. Fifty-nine leaflet anatomical traits of 109 southern African Oxalis species were assessed in search of phylogenetically significant characters that delineate clades...
October 22, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ayumi Shiraki, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, H Roaki Ishii
Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Frank Sterck, Roman Zweifel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Moges Retta, Xinyou Yin, Peter E L van der Putten, Denis Cantre, Herman N C Berghuijs, Quang Tri Ho, Pieter Verboven, Paul C Struik, Bart M Nicolaï
The mechanism of photosynthesis in C4 crops depends on the archetypal Kranz-anatomy. To examine how the leaf anatomy, as altered by nitrogen supply and leaf age, affects the bundle sheath conductance (gbs), maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown under three contrasting nitrogen levels. Combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were done on fully grown leaves at two leaf ages. The measured data were analysed using a biochemical model of C4 photosynthesis to estimate gbs. The leaf microstructure and ultrastructure were quantified using images obtained from micro-computed tomography and microscopy...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Clara Bertel, Peter Schönswetter, Božo Frajman, Andreas Holzinger, Gilbert Neuner
Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden...
October 7, 2016: Protoplasma
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Maximilian Lauterbach, Kumari Billakurthi, Gudrun Kadereit, Martha Ludwig, Peter Westhoff, Udo Gowik
Some species of Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) convert from C3 photosynthesis during the seedling stage to the C4 pathway in adult leaves. This unique developmental transition of photosynthetic pathways offers the exceptional opportunity to follow the development of the derived C4 syndrome from the C3 condition within individual plants, avoiding phylogenetic noise. Here we investigate Salsola soda, a little-studied species from tribe Salsoleae, using an ontogenetic approach. Anatomical sections, carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values, transcriptome analysis by means of mRNA sequencing, and protein levels of the key C4 enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined from seed to adult plant stages...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tao Xu, Xin Liu, Rong Wang, Xiufen Dong, Xiaoxi Guan, Yanling Wang, Yun Jiang, Zihang Shi, Mingfang Qi, Tianlai Li
SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wen Guo, Jie Yang, Xu-Dong Sun, Guang-Jie Chen, Yong-Ping Yang, Yuan-Wen Duan
Polyploid species generally occupy harsher habitats (characterized by cold, drought and/or high altitude) than diploids, but the converse was observed for Chamerion angustifolium, in which diploid plants generally inhabit higher altitudes than their polyploid derivatives. Plants at high altitudes may experience cold-induced water stress, and we therefore examined the physiological responses of diploid and hexaploid C. angustifolium to water stress to better understand the ecological differentiation of plants with different ploidy levels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Oliver Binks, Patrick Meir, Lucy Rowland, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Steel Silva Vasconcelos, Alex Antonio Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leandro Ferreira, Maurizio Mencuccini
Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll...
September 10, 2016: Tree Physiology
S Vialet-Chabrand, J S A Matthews, O Brendel, M R Blatt, Y Wang, A Hills, H Griffiths, S Rogers, T Lawson
Intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi), the ratio of net CO2 assimilation (A) over stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), is a complex trait used to assess plant performance. Improving Wi could lead in theory to higher productivity or reduced water usage by the plant, but the physiological traits for improvement and their combined effects on Wi have not been clearly identified. Under fluctuating light intensity, the temporal response of gs is an order of magnitude slower than A, which results in rapid variations in Wi...
October 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Karolina Heyduk, Michael R McKain, Falak Lalani, James Leebens-Mack
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Giai Petit, Tadeja Savi, Martina Consolini, Tommaso Anfodillo, Andrea Nardini
Efficient leaf water supply is fundamental for assimilation processes and tree growth. Renovating the architecture of the xylem transport system requires an increasing carbon investment while growing taller, and any deficiency of carbon availability may result in increasing hydraulic constraints to water flow. Therefore, plants need to coordinate carbon assimilation and biomass allocation to guarantee an efficient and safe long-distance transport system. We tested the hypothesis that reduced branch elongation rates together with carbon-saving adjustments of xylem anatomy hydraulically compensate for the reduction in biomass allocation to xylem...
September 1, 2016: Tree Physiology
Mengdi Zheng, Xiayan Liu, Shuang Liang, Shiying Fu, Yafei Qi, Jun Zhao, Jingxia Shao, Lijun An, Fei Yu
Chloroplast development requires the coordinated expressions of nuclear and chloroplast genomes, and both anterograde and retrograde signals exist and work together to facilitate this coordination. We have utilized the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) mutant as a tool to dissect the genetic regulatory network of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation of a new (to our knowledge) var2 genetic suppressor locus, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION9 (SVR9). SVR9 encodes a chloroplast-localized prokaryotic type translation initiation factor 3 (IF3)...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Jian-Ying Ma, Wei Sun, Nuria K Koteyeva, Elena Voznesenskaya, Samantha S Stutz, Anthony Gandin, Andreia M Smith-Moritz, Joshua L Heazlewood, Asaph B Cousins
There are numerous studies describing how growth conditions influence the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. However, it remains unclear how changes in the biochemical capacity versus leaf anatomy drives this acclimation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how growth light and nitrogen availability influence leaf anatomy, biochemistry and the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus × giganteus. There was an increase in the mesophyll cell wall surface area but not cell well thickness in the high-light (HL) compared to the low-light (LL) grown plants suggesting a higher mesophyll conductance in the HL plants, which also had greater photosynthetic capacity...
August 16, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
Mariana Fernández Honaine, M Laura Benvenuto, Natalia L Borrelli, Margarita Osterrieth
Grasses accumulate high amounts of silica deposits in tissues of all their organs, especially at mature stage. However, when and under which conditions do grass seedlings begin to produce these silica deposits and their relation with anatomy and development is little known. We investigated the silicification process in the first leaves and roots of seedlings of Bothriochloa laguroides grown in different substrate and Si treatments. Distribution and content of silica deposits in the organs were analyzed through staining techniques and SEM-EDAX analyses...
August 4, 2016: Plant Biology
Bo Wang, Fangyuan Xia, Michael S Engel, Vincent Perrichot, Gongle Shi, Haichun Zhang, Jun Chen, Edmund A Jarzembowski, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust
Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy...
June 2016: Science Advances
Chandra Bellasio, Marjorie R Lundgren
In C4 photosynthesis CO2 assimilation and reduction are typically coordinated across mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells, respectively. This system consequently requires sufficient light to reach BS to generate enough ATP to allow ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration in BS. Leaf anatomy influences BS light penetration and therefore constrains C4 cycle functionality. Using an absorption scattering model (coded in Excel, and freely downloadable) we simulate light penetration profiles and rates of ATP production in BS across the C3 , C3 -C4 and C4 anatomical continua...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Cecilia C Panizzo, Paula V Fernández, Darío Colombatto, Marina Ciancia, Andrea S Vega
BACKGROUND: The present study combines morphological and anatomical studies, cell wall chemical composition, as well as the assessment of the nutritional value of Guadua chacoensis foliage leaves. RESULTS: Foliage leaves of G. chacoensis are a promising source of forage because: (a) as a native woody bamboo it is adapted and it helps to maintain environmental conditions in America, (b) leaf anatomical studies exhibit discontinuous sclerenchyma, scarcely developed; pilose indumentum, silica cells, prickles, and hooks are also scarce, (c) it has a high protein content, similar to that of Medicago sativa, while other nutritional parameters are similar to those of common forages, and (d) glucuronoarabinoxylan, the major extracted polysaccharide, has 1/3 of the 4-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl units of the backbone substituted mainly with α-l-arabinofuranose as single stubs or non reducing end of short chains, but also 5-linked α-l-arabinofuranose units, terminal β-d-xylopyranose and d-galactopyranose units, and α-d-glucuronic acid residues, and small amounts of its 4-O-methylated derivative...
July 1, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hoa T Nguyen, Patrick Meir, Joe Wolfe, Maurizio Mencuccini, Marilyn C Ball
A three-domain pressure - volume relationship (PV curve) was studied in relation to leaf anatomical structure during dehydration in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina. In domain 1, relative water content (RWC) declined 13% with 0.85 MPa decrease in leaf water potential, reflecting a decrease in extracellular water stored primarily in trichomes and petiolar cisternae. In domain 2, RWC decreased by another 12% with further reduction in leaf water potential to -5.1 MPa, the turgor loss point. Given the osmotic potential at full turgor (-4...
June 30, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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