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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338959/increase-in-leaf-temperature-opens-stomata-and-decouples-net-photosynthesis-from-stomatal-conductance-in-pinus-taeda-and-populus-deltoides-x-nigra
#1
Josef Urban, Miles W Ingwers, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey
The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338915/ungulate-herbivory-alters-leaf-functional-traits-and-recruitment-of-regenerating-aspen
#2
Aaron C Rhodes, Val Anderson, Samuel B St Clair
Herbivory by ungulates can affect forest regeneration success, but its long-term impacts on tree function and recruitment are less studied. We evaluated strategies of resistance, tolerance and vertical escape against ungulate herbivory by evaluating leaf traits (photosynthesis, morphology and chemistry) and growth rates of aspen in the presence and absence of ungulate herbivores 1, 2, 3 and 26 years after fires initiated aspen suckering. Over the initial 3-year period, ~60% of aspen stems in unfenced plots showed evidence of being browsed by ungulates...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302144/a-dosimetric-model-for-the-heterogeneous-delivery-of-radioactive-nanoparticles-in-vivo-a-feasibility-study
#3
Andrew B Satterlee, Peter Attayek, Bentley Midkiff, Leaf Huang
ᅟ: Accurate and quantitative dosimetry for internal radiation therapy can be especially challenging, given the heterogeneity of patient anatomy, tumor anatomy, and source deposition. Internal radiotherapy sources such as nanoparticles and monoclonal antibodies require high resolution imaging to accurately model the heterogeneous distribution of these sources in the tumor. The resolution of nuclear imaging modalities is not high enough to measure the heterogeneity of intratumoral nanoparticle deposition or intratumoral regions, and mathematical models do not represent the actual heterogeneous dose or dose response...
March 17, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257466/new-data-on-the-stem-and-leaf-anatomy-of-two-conifers-from-the-lower-cretaceous-of-the-araripe-basin-northeastern-brazil-and-their-taxonomic-and-paleoecological-implications
#4
Maria Edenilce Peixoto Batista, Delmira da Costa Silva, Marcos A F Sales, Artur A Sá, Antônio A F Saraiva, Maria Iracema Bezerra Loiola
Pseudofrenelopsis and Brachyphyllum are two conifers that were part of the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) taphoflora of the Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. The former genus includes, so far, P. capillata and indeterminate species, whilst the latter is mainly represented by B. obesum, the most common plant megafossil recovered from that stratigraphic unit. Here, the stem and leaf anatomy of Pseudofrenelopsis sp. and B. obesum specimens is revisited, including the first report of some epidermal and vascular traits for both taxa from the Crato Formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224067/repair-of-rotator-cuff-tear-with-delamination-independent-repairs-of-the-infraspinatus-and-articular-capsule
#5
Tomoyuki Mochizuki, Akimoto Nimura, Takashi Miyamoto, Hideyuki Koga, Keiichi Akita, Takeshi Muneta
We propose a technique to repair delamination, which often occurs during rotator cuff repair surgery. We have reported that the infraspinatus occupies most of the greater tuberosity with the articular capsule attached to a very wide area, and that the superficial layer is mainly composed of the infraspinatus, and the deep layer is mainly composed of the articular capsule. To repair such delamination with consideration of the detailed anatomy, we developed the following repair method with independent repair of the superficial layer (infraspinatus) and the deep layer (articular capsule): (1) the deep layer is pulled laterally and joined to the medial margin of the greater tuberosity using 4 simple sutures from 2 anchors; (2) the paired limbs (same color) of 4 knots are passed over the posterior leaf of the superficial layer at intervals; (3) a push-in anchor loaded with 1 thread each of 4 knots is placed on the anterolateral corner of the greater tuberosity to pull the superficial layer anterolaterally; (4) another push-in anchor (remaining threads) is pushed on the posterior corner of the greater tuberosity...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195353/screening-of-cadmium-and-copper-phytoremediation-ability-of-tagetes-erecta-using-biochemical-parameters-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-microanalysis
#6
Sunayana Goswami, Suchismita Das
Tagetes erecta thrived in phytotoxic levels of cadmium (Cd; 50-300 mg kg(-1) ) and copper (Cu; 150-400 mg kg(-1) ) for 21 d. It accumulated high metal contents in its above-ground tissues (3675 mg Cd kg(-1) dry wt and 3948 mg Cu kg(-1) dry wt) and showed greater root to shoot translocation and a high extraction coefficient, all of which pointed toward its potential as a hyperaccumulator. Both Cd stress and Cu stress reduced the plant biomass, foliar area, and number. In addition, there were significant declines in pigment contents as well as boosts in lipid peroxidation levels...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190899/physiological-responses-of-rosa-rubiginosa-to-saline-environment
#7
Tomasz Hura, Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek, Katarzyna Hura, Krzysztof Nowak, Bożena Pawłowska
The aim of this work was to analyse the response of Rosa rubiginosa to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. R. rubiginosa was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184011/immunity-at-cauliflower-hydathodes-controls-infection-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#8
Aude Cerutti, Alain Jauneau, Marie-Christine Auriac, Emmanuelle Lauber, Yves Martinez, Serge Chiarenza, Nathalie Leonhardt, Richard Berthomé, Laurent D Noel
Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata...
February 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179182/chloroplast-and-its-phylogenies-to-understand-the-evolutionary-history-of-southern-south-american-azorella-laretia-and-mulinum-azorelloideae-apiaceae
#9
Martina Fernández, Cecilia Ezcurra, Carolina I Calviño
Azorella, Laretia and Mulinum are taxonomically complex, and good candidates to study evolutionary radiations in the Andes and the importance of hybridizations. Previous phylogenetic studies of subfamily Azorelloideae agree that Azorella and Mulinum as currently conceived are not monophyletic, and hence a revision of their circumscription is necessary. However, these phylogenies were based only on chloroplast DNA sequence data. Here, phylogenetic relationships within Azorelloideae were inferred using sequence data from five chloroplast DNA (rps16 intron, trnQ-rps16, rps16-trnK(UUU) 5' -exon, trnG(GCC)-trnS(GCU) and rpL32-trnL(UAG)), and from nuclear rDNA ITS regions to assess the monophyly of Azorella and Mulinum and discuss generic re-circumscriptions, determine hybridization and radiation events, identify and characterize important lineages, and propose hypotheses on evolution of key morphological characters...
March 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176042/acclimation-of-shade-tolerant-and-light-resistant-tradescantia-species-to-growth-light-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-electron-transport-and-xanthophyll-content
#10
Vladimir I Mishanin, Boris V Trubitsin, Svetlana V Patsaeva, Vasily V Ptushenko, Alexei E Solovchenko, Alexander N Tikhonov
In this study, we have compared the photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting species of Tradescantia plants, T. fluminensis (shade-tolerant species), and T. sillamontana (light-resistant species), grown under the low light (LL, 50-125 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) or high light (HL, 875-1000 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) conditions during their entire growth period. For monitoring the functional state of photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), we measured chlorophyll (Chl) a emission fluorescence spectra and kinetics of light-induced changes in the heights of fluorescence peaks at 685 and 740 nm (F 685 and F 740)...
February 8, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169290/knockdown-of-a-cellulose-synthase-gene-boicesa-affects-the-leaf-anatomy-cellulose-content-and-salt-tolerance-in-broccoli
#11
Shuangtao Li, Lei Zhang, Ying Wang, Fengfeng Xu, Mengyun Liu, Peng Lin, Shuxin Ren, Rui Ma, Yang-Dong Guo
Cellulose is the major component of cell wall materials. A 300 bp specific fragment from the cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into vector pFGC1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector. Knockdown of BoiCesA caused "dwarf" phenotype with smaller leaves and a loss of the content of cellulose. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the RNAi apparatus could repress expression of the CesA gene. Meanwhile, examination of the leaves from the T3 of RNAi transformants indicated reduction of cell expansion in vascular bundles, particularly on their abaxial surface...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153921/the-sites-of-evaporation-within-leaves
#12
Thomas N Buckley, Grace P John, Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack
The sites of evaporation within leaves are unknown, but they have drawn attention for decades due to their perceived implications for many factors, including patterns of leaf isotopic enrichment, the maintenance of mesophyll water status, stomatal regulation, and the interpretation of measured stomatal and leaf hydraulic conductances. We used a spatially explicit model of coupled water and heat transport outside the xylem, MOFLO 2.0, to map the distribution of net evaporation across leaf tissues in relation to anatomy and environmental parameters...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110279/walking-the-c4-pathway-past-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110276/photosynthesis-in-c3-c4-intermediate-moricandia-species
#14
Urte Schlüter, Andrea Bräutigam, Udo Gowik, Michael Melzer, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Samantha Kurz, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Andreas Pm Weber
Evolution of C4 photosynthesis is not distributed evenly in the plant kingdom. Particularly interesting is the situation in the Brassicaceae, because the family contains no C4 species, but several C3-C4 intermediates, mainly in the genus Moricandia Investigation of leaf anatomy, gas exchange parameters, the metabolome, and the transcriptome of two C3-C4 intermediate Moricandia species, M. arvensis and M. suffruticosa, and their close C3 relative M. moricandioides enabled us to unravel the specific C3-C4 characteristics in these Moricandia lines...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099574/anatomy-and-micromorphometric-analysis-of-leaf-catasetum-x-apolloi-benelli-grade-with-addition-of-potassium-silicate-under-different-light-sources
#15
L Eburneo, N G Ribeiro-Júnior, I V Karsburg, A A B Rossi, I V Silva
The aim of this study was to compare vitroplants Catasetum x apolloi grown under natural light and artificial light and different concentrations of potassium silicate, providing data on the anatomical differentiation that aids the acclimatization process of this species. Plants from in vitro seeding were used; 5 protocorms of approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated into vials with a capacity of 500 mL containing 100 mL of alternative culture medium plus potassium silicate (0.0, 0.5; 1.0 mL L-1), pH adjusted to 5...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074485/light-temperature-and-tocopherol-status-influence-foliar-vascular-anatomy-and-leaf-function-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Jared J Stewart, Stephanie K Polutchko, William W Adams, Christopher M Cohu, Coleman A Wenzl, Barbara Demmig-Adams
This study addressed whether the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana can adjust foliar phloem and xylem anatomy both differentially and in parallel. In plants acclimated to hot versus cool temperature, foliar minor vein xylem-to-phloem ratio was greater, whereas xylem and phloem responded concomitantly to growth light intensity. Across all growth conditions, xylem anatomy correlated with transpiration rate, while phloem anatomy correlated with photosynthetic capacity for two plant lines (wildtype Col-0 and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant) irrespective of tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070293/functional-community-structure-of-african-monodominant-gilbertiodendron-dewevrei-forest-influenced-by-local-environmental-filtering
#17
Elizabeth Kearsley, Hans Verbeeck, Koen Hufkens, Frederik Van de Perre, Sebastian Doetterl, Geert Baert, Hans Beeckman, Pascal Boeckx, Dries Huygens
Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064192/leaf-anatomy-bvoc-emission-and-co2-exchange-of-arctic-plants-following-snow-addition-and-summer-warming
#18
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062725/capacitive-water-release-and-internal-leaf-water-relocation-delay-drought-induced-cavitation-in-african-maesopsis-eminii
#19
Jackie Epila, Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Lidewei L Vergeynst, Wouter H Maes, Hans Beeckman, Kathy Steppe
The impact of drought on the hydraulic functioning of important African tree species, like Maesopsis eminii Engl., is poorly understood. To map the hydraulic response to drought-induced cavitation, sole reliance on the water potential at which 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (ψ50) occurs might be limiting and at times misleading as the value alone does not give a comprehensive overview of strategies evoked by M. eminii to cope with drought. This article therefore uses a methodological framework to study the different aspects of drought-induced cavitation and water relations in M...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062590/shared-characteristics-underpinning-c4-leaf-maturation-derived-from-analysis-of-multiple-c3-and-c4-species-of-flaveria
#20
Britta M C Kümpers, Steven J Burgess, Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Richard Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Julian M Hibberd
Most terrestrial plants use C3 photosynthesis to fix carbon. In multiple plant lineages a modified system known as C4 photosynthesis has evolved. To better understand the molecular patterns associated with induction of C4 photosynthesis, the genus Flaveria that contains C3 and C4 species was used. A base to tip maturation gradient of leaf anatomy was defined, and RNA sequencing was undertaken along this gradient for two C3 and two C4 Flaveria species. Key C4 traits including vein density, mesophyll and bundle sheath cross-sectional area, chloroplast ultrastructure, and abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of C4 photosynthesis were quantified...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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