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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#1
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903256/revealing-hidden-species-diversity-in-closely-related-species-using-nuclear-snps-ssrs-and-dna-sequences-a-case-study-in-the-tree-genus-milicia
#2
Kasso Daïnou, Céline Blanc-Jolivet, Bernd Degen, Priscilla Kimani, Dyana Ndiade-Bourobou, Armel S L Donkpegan, Félicien Tosso, Esra Kaymak, Nils Bourland, Jean-Louis Doucet, Olivier J Hardy
BACKGROUND: Species delimitation in closely related plant taxa can be challenging because (i) reproductive barriers are not always congruent with morphological differentiation, (ii) use of plastid sequences might lead to misinterpretation, (iii) rare species might not be sampled. We revisited molecular-based species delimitation in the African genus Milicia, currently divided into M. regia (West Africa) and M. excelsa (from West to East Africa). We used 435 samples collected in West, Central and East Africa...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898837/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns-between-nonhyperhydric-and-hyperhydric-peach-leaves
#3
Yakup Bakir, Vahap Eldem, Gokmen Zararsiz, Turgay Unver
Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898333/chemical-synthesis-and-supercapacitive-properties-of-lanthanum-telluride-thin-film
#4
S J Patil, A C Lokhande, D-W Lee, J H Kim, C D Lokhande
Lanthanum telluride (La2Te3) thin films are synthesized via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The crystal structure, surface morphology and surface wettability properties are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and contact angle goniometer techniques, respectively. The La2Te3 material exhibits a specific surface area of 51m(2)g(-1) determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896031/salinity-and-temperature-significantly-influence-seed-germination-seedling-establishment-and-seedling-growth-of-eelgrass-zostera-marina-l
#5
Shaochun Xu, Yi Zhou, Pengmei Wang, Feng Wang, Xiaomei Zhang, Ruiting Gu
Globally, seagrass beds have been recognized as critical yet declining coastal habitats. To mitigate seagrass losses, seagrass restorations have been conducted in worldwide over the past two decades. Seed utilization is considered to be an important approach in seagrass restoration efforts. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L. (Swan Lake, northern China). We initially tested the effects of salinity (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and water temperature (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C) on seed germination to identify optimal levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895478/biosynthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-bioactivities-of-leaf-extract-mediated-biocompatible-silver-nanoparticles-from-an-early-tracheophyte-pteris-tripartita-sw
#6
Xavierravi Baskaran, Antony Varuvel Geo Vigila, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan, Doulathabad Muralidhara-Rao, Shouzhou Zhang
The objective of the study was to characterize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their bioactivities in early tracheophytes (Pteridophyta). Aqueous leaf extract of a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw., was used for one-step green synthesis of Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889935/the-effects-of-becoming-taller-direct-and-pleiotropic-effects-of-artificial-selection-on-plant-height-in-brassica-rapa
#7
Pengjuan Zu, Florian P Schiestl
Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits...
November 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889521/azacytidine-and-mir156-promote-rooting-in-adult-but-not-in-juvenile-arabidopsis-tissues
#8
Mehdi Massoumi, Frans A Krens, Richard G F Visser, Geert-Jan M De Klerk
Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR formation and rooting is usually much reduced or even fully inhibited in adult tissues. It has been reported that the phase change is characterized by an increase in DNA-methylation and a decrease in the expression of microRNA156 (miR156)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881800/genetic-stability-of-physiological-responses-to-defoliation-in-a-eucalypt-and-altered-chemical-defence-in-regrowth-foliage
#9
Christina L Borzak, Brad M Potts, Karen M Barry, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Defoliation may initiate physiological recovery and chemical defence mechanisms that allow a plant to improve fitness after damage. Such responses may result in changes in plant resource allocation that influence growth and foliar chemistry. In this study, we investigated the nature and stability of the defoliation response of juvenile plants from three divergent populations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. A partial defoliation treatment that removed all upper crown leaves and the apical buds was applied to plants sourced from eight families from each of three populations representing contrasting chemical resistance to mammalian herbivory...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881798/acclimation-of-leaf-water-status-and-stem-hydraulics-to-drought-and-tree-neighbourhood-alternative-strategies-among-the-saplings-of-five-temperate-deciduous-tree-species
#10
Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880006/impairing-both-hma4-homeologs-is-required-for-cadmium-reduction-in-tobacco
#11
Verena Liedschulte, Hélène Laparra, James Nicolas Duncan Battey, Joanne Deborah Schwaar, Hervé Broye, Régis Mark, Markus Klein, Simon Goepfert, Lucien Bovet
In tobacco, the heavy metal P1B-ATPases HMA4.1 and HMA4.2 function in root-to-shoot zinc and cadmium transport. We present greenhouse and field data that dissect the possibilities to impact the two homeologous genes in order to define the best strategy for leaf cadmium reduction. In a first step, both genes were silenced using an RNAi approach leading to >90% reduction of leaf cadmium content. To modulate HMA4 function more precisely, mutant HMA4.1 and HMA4.2 alleles of a TILLING population were combined...
November 23, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870885/a-negative-relationship-between-foliar-carbon-isotope-composition-and-mass-based-nitrogen-concentration-on-the-eastern-slope-of-mount-gongga-china
#12
Jiazhu Li, Guoan Wang, Runan Zhang, Li Li
Plants adopt ecological strategy to resist environmental changes and increase their resource-use efficiency. The ecological strategy includes changes in physiological traits and leaf morphology, which may result in simultaneous variations in foliar N concentration and the ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca). This in turn links to foliar carbon isotope discrimination, and thus, a relationship between foliar N concentration and foliar carbon isotope composition (δ13C) is expected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870873/herbivore-induced-dna-demethylation-changes-floral-signalling-and-attractiveness-to-pollinators-in-brassica-rapa
#13
Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864639/molecular-phylogeny-of-the-cosmopolitan-aquatic-plant-genus-limosella-scrophulariaceae-with-a-particular-focus-on-the-origin-of-the-australasian-l-curdieana
#14
Yu Ito, Norio Tanaka, Dirk C Albach, Anders S Barfod, Bengt Oxelman, A Muthama Muasya
Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862015/vulnerability-to-xylem-embolism-as-a-major-correlate-of-the-environmental-distribution-of-rainforest-species-on-a-tropical-island
#15
Santiago Trueba, Robin Pouteau, Frederic Lens, Taylor S Feild, Sandrine Isnard, Mark E Olson, Sylvain Delzon
Increases in drought-induced tree mortality are being observed in tropical rainforests worldwide, and are also likely to affect the geographical distribution of tropical vegetation. However, the mechanisms underlying the drought vulnerability and environmental distribution of tropical species have been little studied. We measured vulnerability to xylem embolism (P50 ) of 13 woody species endemic to New Caledonia and with different xylem conduit morphologies. We examined the relation between P50 , along with other leaf and xylem functional traits, and a range of habitat variables...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859364/significance-of-structural-variation-in-thylakoid-membranes-in-maintaining-functional-photosystems-during-reproductive-growth
#16
Hatsumi Nozue, Kaori Oono, Yoshinobu Ichikawa, Shun Tanimura, Kana Shirai, Kintake Sonoike, Masayuki Nozue, Nobuaki Hayashida
Structural variation in the stroma-grana arrangement of the thylakoid membranes, such as changes in the thickness of the grana stacks and in the ratio between grana and inter-grana thylakoid, is often observed. Broadly, such alterations are considered acclimation to changes in growth and the environment. However, the relation of thylakoid morphology to plant growth and photosynthesis remains obscure. Here, we report changes in the thylakoid during leaf development under a fixed light condition. Histological studies on the chloroplasts of fresh green Arabidopsis leaves have shown that characteristically shaped thylakoid membranes lacking the inter-grana region, referred to hereafter as isolated-grana, occurred adjacent to highly ordered, large grana layers...
November 17, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857718/variance-genetic-control-and-spatial-phenotypic-plasticity-of-morphological-and-phenological-traits-in-prunus-spinosa-and-its-large-fruited-forms-p-x-fruticans
#17
Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge, Arion Turcsán, Leander Depypere, Marijke Steenackers
Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow). As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855648/genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-characterises-the-gene-space-of-macadamia-integrifolia-proteaceae
#18
Catherine J Nock, Abdul Baten, Bronwyn J Barkla, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry, Graham J King
BACKGROUND: The large Gondwanan plant family Proteaceae is an early-diverging eudicot lineage renowned for its morphological, taxonomic and ecological diversity. Macadamia is the most economically important Proteaceae crop and represents an ancient rainforest-restricted lineage. The family is a focus for studies of adaptive radiation due to remarkable species diversification in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots, and numerous evolutionary transitions between biomes. Despite a long history of research, comparative analyses in the Proteaceae and macadamia breeding programs are restricted by a paucity of genetic information...
November 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855495/pharmacological-importance-characterization-and-applications-of-gold-and-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-panax-ginseng-fresh-leaves
#19
Priyanka Singh, Hina Singh, Sungeun Ahn, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Zuly Jiménez, Shakina Yesmin Simu, Yeon Ju Kim, Deok Chun Yang
Previously, we showed the rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles within 3 and 45 min by fresh leaves extract of herbal medicinal plant Panax ginseng. In addition, we characterized the nanoparticles in terms of shape, size, morphology and stability by FE-TEM, EDX, elemental mapping, SEAD, XRD and particles size analysis. In addition of this, we showed their antimicrobial, anti-coagulant, and biofilm inhibition activity of nanoparticles. Continuing our previous study, here we highlight the further characterization and biomedical applications of P...
November 18, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854158/impact-of-erecta-mutation-on-leaf-serration-differs-between-arabidopsis-accessions
#20
Toshiaki Tameshige, Satoshi Okamoto, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
Serration or teeth of plant leaves is a morphological trait regulated genetically and environmentally. Very recently, it has been reported that the receptor kinases encoded by three ERECTA (ER)-family genes, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1) and ERL2, redundantly play a role in tooth growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the report, Columbia (Col) accession was used for analyses, where none of the signal mutant of the ER-family genes exhibited serration defects. The toothless, smooth leaf margin phenotype was evident only when two out of the three ER-family genes were lost...
November 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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