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leaf morphology

Niloofar Vaghefi, Julie R Kikkert, Frank S Hay, Gavriela D Carver, Lori B Koenick, Melvin D Bolton, Linda E Hanson, Gary A Secor, Sarah J Pethybridge
The taxonomy and evolutionary species boundaries in a global collection of Cercospora isolates from Beta vulgaris was investigated based on sequences of six loci. Species boundaries were assessed using concatenated multi-locus phylogenies, Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), Poisson Tree Processes (PTP), and Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) framework. Cercospora beticola was confirmed as the primary cause of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) on B. vulgaris. Cercospora apii, C. cf. flagellaris, Cercospora sp...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Christina Pfaff, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Maria Flores-Tornero, Brian B Soerensen, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Stefanie Sprunck, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
The regulated transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to the cytosol is a critical step linking transcript synthesis and processing with translation. However, in plants, only few of the factors that act in the mRNA export pathway have been functionally characterised. Flowering plant genomes encode several members of the ALY protein family, which function as mRNA export factors in other organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana ALY1-4 are commonly detected in root and leaf cells, but are differentially expressed in reproductive tissue...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mingyan Li, Weihua Guo, Ning Du, Zhenwei Xu, Xiao Guo
Light and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are among the important environmental factors influencing plant growth and forest regeneration. We used Quercus acutissima, a dominant broadleaf tree species native to the deciduous forests of Northern China, to study the combined effects of light exposure and N addition on leaf physiology and individual plant growth. In the greenhouse, we exposed Quercus acutissima seedlings to one of two light conditions (8% and 80% of full irradiation) and one of three N treatments (0, 6, and 12 g N m-2 y-1)...
2018: PloS One
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Paola Mattei, Alessandro Gnesini, Cristina Gonnelli, Chiara Marraccini, Grazia Masciandaro, Cristina Macci, Serena Doni, Renato Iannelli, Stefano Lucchetti, Francesco P Nicese, Giancarlo Renella
Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiang-Guang Ma, Wen-Guang Sun, Hang Sun
In the present study, we used genetic data and ecological niche modelling to explore possible historical introgressions among the species of Rodgersia (Saxifragaceae) in central-southwest China. Markedly differentiated chloroplast haplotypes were found in R. aesculifolia, R. sambucifolia and the Lijiang (LJ) population of R. pinnata, respectively, and differentiated chloroplast haplotypes within each of them showed the closest relationships with haplotypes from different species. ITS cloning did not reveal any shared ribotype between R...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ilenia Siciliano, Sara Franco Ortega, Giovanna Gilardi, Pietro Bosio, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino
Alternaria leaf-spot is a new disease recently reported on basil in Italy. The correct identification of Alternaria species has suffered from many reclassifications in function of morphological features and molecular data. In our study, we performed an overall approach to obtain a better characterization of basil Alternaria isolates. Morphological characteristics, seven-genome region phylogenic analysis, and secondary metabolite profile differentiated the majority of the isolates as A. alternata. OPA 1-3 and OPA 10-2 were the best molecular regions to discriminate among the isolates...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Célia Fernandes, Etelvina Figueira, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a worldwide used pesticide that raises concerns from the environmental and human health perspectives. The presence of pesticides such as CPF in edible vegetables has been already reported, but little is known about the effects induced by this pesticide stress on the morphology, oxidative response and lipid composition of treated plants. In this work, green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to increasing concentrations of CPF and the different plant parts (roots, stem bases, stem, leaves, pods and beans) were subjected to different analyses...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhaoxian Xu, Ling Qin, Mufeng Cai, Wenbo Hua, Mingjie Jin
Bacterial systems have drawn an increasing amount of attention on lignin valorization due to their rapid growth and powerful environmental adaptability. In this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae NX-1, Pseudomonas putida NX-1, and Ochrobactrum tritici NX-1 with ligninolytic potential were isolated from leaf mold samples. Their ligninolytic capabilities were determined by measuring (1) the cell growth on kraft lignin as the sole carbon source, (2) the decolorization of kraft lignin and lignin-mimicking dyes, (3) the micro-morphology changes and transformations of chemical groups in kraft lignin, and (4) the ligninolytic enzyme activities of these three isolates...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs...
March 5, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Lia R Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Comfort Omoigemete Olurishe, Helen Ochuko Kwanashie, Abdulkadiri Umar Zezi, Nuhu Mohammed Danjuma, Bisalla Mohammed
OBJECTIVE: Sitagliptin (ST) and Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam (Moringaceae) are used concomitantly by diabetic patients, with no study ascertaining for potential favorable or otherwise renal implications. We investigated the effect of coadministration of ST and MO leaf extract on functional and morphological biomarkers of alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150 mg/kg of alloxan intraperitoneally...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Karen P Zanewich, David W Pearce, Stewart B Rood
Heterosis or hybrid vigor is common in hybrid poplars, and to investigate its occurrence and physiological basis we compared narrowleaf cottonwoods, Populus angustifolia James, prairie cottonwoods, Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh, and their native intersectional hybrids, P. ×acuminata Rydb., from Alberta, Canada. Clonal replicates from 10 separate trees from each taxon were raised in growth chambers at different temperatures (T). Growth was similarly vigorous across the taxa at 20 and 24 °C, and morphological and physiological traits of the hybrids were generally intermediate between the parental species, or similar to the larger parent, demonstrating additive inheritance or dominance, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Tree Physiology
Dingxuan He, Pin Guo, Paul F Gugger, Youhao Guo, Xing Liu, Jinming Chen
Many plant species exhibit different leaf morphologies within a single plant, or heterophylly. The molecular mechanisms regulating this phenomenon, however, have remained elusive. In this study, the transcriptomes of submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic heterophyllous plant, Potamogeton octandrus Poir, at different stages of development, were sequenced using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq), in order to aid gene discovery and functional studies of genes involved in heterophylly. A total of 81,103 unigenes were identified in submerged and floating leaves and 6,822 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing samples at differing time points of development...
2018: PeerJ
Alessandro Catenazzi, Alex Ttito
We describe a new species of small strabomantid frog (genus Psychrophrynella ) from a humid montane forest in the Peruvian Department of Puno. Specimens were collected at 2,225 m a.s.l. in the leaf litter of primary montane forest near Thiuni, along the Macusani-San Gabán road, in the province of Carabaya. The new species is assigned to Psychrophrynella on the basis of morphological similarity, including presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and call composed of multiple notes. We also include genetic distances for 16S rRNA partial sequences between the new species and other strabomantid frogs...
2018: PeerJ
Karolina Sakowska, Giorgio Alberti, Lorenzo Genesio, Alessandro Peressotti, Gemini Delle Vedove, Damiano Gianelle, Roberto Colombo, Mirco Rodeghiero, Cinzia Panigada, Radosław Juszczak, Marco Celesti, Micol Rossini, Matthew Haworth, Benjamin W Campbell, Jean-Philippe Mevy, Loris Vescovo, M Pilar Cendrero-Mateo, Uwe Rascher, Franco Miglietta
The photosynthetic, optical and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with two green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space...
March 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Andrus Voitk, Irja Saar, Steven Trudell, Viacheslav Spirin, Michael Beug, Urmas Kõljalg
Geographic, morphological, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based molecular review of collections identified as Polyozellus multiplex revealed that it is a complex of five phylogenetic species. Average spore size-either less or more than 7 × 6 µm-splits the complex into a small-spored group of two (P. multiplex and P. atrolazulinus) and a large-spored group of three (P. mariae, P. marymargaretae, and P. purpureoniger). Basidiocarps of the small-spored species are somewhat smaller than the large-spored ones, are various shades of blue, dark all the way to black, with brownish tomentum only in early growth, have dark context, and have pilei that tend to flare out at the edge...
December 14, 2017: Mycologia
Rupal Purena, Rohit Seth, Renu Bhatt
Nephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of cisplatin on 11th day (12 mg/kg body weight, i...
2018: Toxicology Reports
M Akbari, H Salehi, A Niazi
The main goals of the present study were to screen Iranian common bermudagrasses to find cold-tolerant accessions and evaluate their genetic and morphological variabilities. In this study, 49 accessions were collected from 18 provinces of Iran. One foreign cultivar of common bermudagrass was used as control. Morphological variation was evaluated based on 14 morphological traits to give information about taxonomic position of Iranian common bermudagrass. Data from morphological traits were evaluated to categorize all accessions as either cold sensitive or tolerant using hierarchical clustering with Ward's method in SPSS software...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
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