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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088104/biofabrication-of-size-controllable-silver-nanoparticles-a-green-approach
#1
Sireesh Babu Maddinedi, Badal Kumar Mandal, Swetha Kameswari Maddili
A facile biosynthetic approach for the size controllable production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Cinnamomum tsoi as reducing and capping agent is developed. The polyphenolic functionalities present in the extract are essentially responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs were effectively tuned by changing the volume of the extract. The availability of oxidized polyphenols play key role in tuning the size and morphology of the prepared NPs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078746/a-gly65val-substitution-in-an-actin-ghact_li1-disrupts-cell-polarity-and-f-actin-organization-resulting-in-dwarf-lintless-cotton-plants
#2
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078262/the-leaf-of-diospyros-kaki-thumb-ameliorates-renal-oxidative-damage-in-mice-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Myung-Sook Choi, Mi Ji Jeong, Yong Bok Park, Sang Ryong Kim, Un Ju Jung
Diabetic kidney disease is the most common and severe chronic complication of diabetes. The leaf of Diospyros kaki Thumb (persimmon) has been commonly used for herbal tea and medicinal purposes to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, the effect of persimmon leaf on kidney failure has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the role of persimmon leaf in protecting the diabetes-associated kidney damage in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet with or without powered persimmon leaf (5%, w/w) for 5 weeks...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075047/growing-larger-with-domestication-a-matter-of-physiology-morphology-or-allocation
#4
R Milla, S Matesanz
• Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. • We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether the photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size, and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074956/tunable-superapolar-lotus-to-rose-hierarchical-nanosurfaces-via-vertical-carbon-nanotubes-driven-electrohydrodynamic-lithography
#5
Chiara Busà, Jonathan James Stanley Rickard, Eugene Chun, Yaw Chong, Viroshan Navaratnam, Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer
The development of a robust, cost-effective, scalable and simple technique that enables the design and construction of well-controlled large area superhydrophobic surface structures which can be easily tuned from lotus-leaf to rose-petal state is essential to enable progress in realising the full applied potential of such surfaces. In this study, we introduce the tuneable carbon nanotubes-based electrohydrodynamic lithography (CNT-EHL) to fabricate unique multiscale structured cones and nanohair-like architectures with various periodicities and dimensions, successfully enabling surface energy minimization...
January 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073097/moringa-oleifera-a-species-with-potential-analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#6
Claudia Lizbeth Martínez-González, Laura Martínez, Efraín J Martínez-Ortiz, María Eva González-Trujano, Myrna Déciga-Campos, Rosa Ventura-Martínez, Irene Díaz-Reval
Moringa oleifera has long been used in large demand in folk medicine to treat pain. The present study was undertaken to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory spectrum of M. oleifera leaf extracts discriminating the constituents' nature by using different kind of experimental models in rats. Pharmacological evaluation of a non-polar and/or polar extracts at several doses (30-300mg/kg, p.o.) was explored through experimental nociception using formalin test, carrageenan-induced paw edema and arthritis with subcutaneous injection of collagen in rats...
January 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070322/carotenoid-profiling-of-the-leaves-of-selected-african-eggplant-accessions-subjected-to-drought-stress
#7
Elias K Mibei, Jane Ambuko, James J Giovannoni, Arnold N Onyango, Willis O Owino
African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068426/screening-of-candidate-leaf-morphology-genes-by-integration-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-technologies-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#8
Hongju Jian, Bo Yang, Aoxiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Xinfu Xu, Jiana Li, Liezhao Liu
Leaf size and shape play important roles in agronomic traits, such as yield, quality and stress responses. Wide variations in leaf morphological traits exist in cultivated varieties of many plant species. By now, the genetics of leaf shape and size have not been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of leaf morphology traits. Furthermore, fresh young leaves of extreme lines with more leaf lobes (referred to as 'A') and extreme lines with fewer lobes (referred to as 'B') selected from the RIL population and leaves of dissected lines (referred to as 'P') were used for transcriptional analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066963/phenotiki-an-open-software-and-hardware-platform-for-affordable-and-easy-image-based-phenotyping-of-rosette-shaped-plants
#9
Massimo Minervini, Mario Valerio Giuffrida, Pierdomenico Perata, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
Phenotyping is important to understand plant biology but current solutions are either costly, not versatile or difficult to deploy. To solve this problem, we present Phenotiki, an affordable system for plant phenotyping which, relying on off-the-shelf parts, provides an easy to install and maintain platform, offering an out-of-box experience for a well established phenotyping need: imaging rosette-shaped plants. The accompanying software (with available source code) processes data originating from our device seamlessly and automatically...
January 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062411/mapping-morphological-shape-as-a-high-dimensional-functional-curve
#10
Guifang Fu, Mian Huang, Wenhao Bo, Han Hao, Rongling Wu
Detecting how genes regulate biological shape has become a multidisciplinary research interest because of its wide application in many disciplines. Despite its fundamental importance, the challenges of accurately extracting information from an image, statistically modeling the high-dimensional shape and meticulously locating shape quantitative trait loci (QTL) affect the progress of this research. In this article, we propose a novel integrated framework that incorporates shape analysis, statistical curve modeling and genetic mapping to detect significant QTLs regulating variation of biological shape traits...
January 6, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062406/anatomically-preserved-strobili-and-leaves-from-the-permian-of-china-dorsalistachyaceae-fam-nov-broaden-knowledge-of-noeggerathiales-and-constrain-their-possible-taxonomic-affinities
#11
Shi-Jun Wang, Richard M Bateman, Alan R T Spencer, Jun Wang, Longyi Shao, Jason Hilton
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Noeggerathiales are an extinct group of heterosporous shrubs and trees that were widespread and diverse during the Pennsylvanian-Permian Epochs (323-252 Ma) but are of controversial taxonomic affinity. Groups proposed as close relatives include leptosporangiate ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, or the extant eusporangiate fern Tmesipteris. Previously identified noeggerathialeans lacked anatomical preservation, limiting taxonomic comparisons to their external morphology and spore structure...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060487/how-does-the-amount-and-composition-of-pm-deposited-on-platanus-acerifolia-leaves-change-across-different-cities-in-europe
#12
Chiara Baldacchini, Ana Castanheiro, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Gregorio Sgrigna, Jolien Verhelst, Rocio Alonso, Jorge H Amorim, Patrick Bellan, Juergen Breuste, Oliver Bühler, Ilie C Cântar, Paloma Cariñanos, Giulia Carriero, Galina Churkina, Lucian Dinca, Raffaela Esposito, Stanislaw W Gawronski, Maren Kern, Didier Le Thiec, Marco Moretti, Tine Ningal, Eleni C Rantzoudi, Iztok Sinjur, Biljana Stojanova, Mira Aničić Urošević, Violeta Velikova, Ivana Zivojinovic, Lilit Sahakyan, Carlo Calfapietra, Roeland Samson
Particulate matter (PM) deposited on Platanus acerifolia tree leaves has been sampled in the urban areas of 28 European cities, over 20 countries, with the aim of testing leaf deposited particles as indicator of atmospheric PM concentration and composition. Leaves have been collected close to streets characterised by heavy traffic and within urban parks. Leaf surface density, dimensions, and elemental composition of leaf deposited particles have been compared with leaf magnetic content, and discussed in connection with air quality data...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058722/cell-level-anatomical-characteristics-explain-high-mesophyll-conductance-and-photosynthetic-capacity-in-sclerophyllous-mediterranean-oaks
#13
José Javier Peguero-Pina, Sergio Sisó, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés, Ana García-Nogales, Ülo Niinemets, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Miguel Ángel Saz, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
Leaf mass per area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), which is the most limiting factor for area-based photosynthesis (AN ) in many Mediterranean sclerophyll species. However, despite their high LMA, these species have similar AN to plants from other biomes. Variations in other leaf anatomical traits, such as mesophyll and chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular air space (Sm /S and Sc /S), may offset the restrictions imposed by high LMA in gm and AN in these species...
January 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#14
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056394/facile-biosynthesis-characterization-and-solar-assisted-photocatalytic-effect-of-zno-nanoparticles-mediated-by-leaves-of-l-speciosa
#15
V Sai Saraswathi, J Tatsugi, Paik-Kyun Shin, K Santhakumar
Synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using novel methodologies always attracts great importance in research. The use of plant extract to synthesize nano-particle has been considered as one of the eco-friendly methods. This paper describes the biosynthetic route of preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from the Lagerstroemia speciosa leaf extract. This approach appears to be low-cost preparation and alternative method to conventional methods. Highly stable and hexagonal phase ZnO NPs with average particle size of 40nm were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (surface Plasmon resonance), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (surface functionalities), X-ray Diffraction analysis (crystallinity), TEM and SEM (size and morphology), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (elemental composition), Thermogravimetric analysis (weight loss) and Zeta potential (stability)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052395/herbivores-sculpt-leaf-traits-differently-in-grasslands-depending-on-life-form-and-land-use-histories
#16
Jennifer Firn, Martin Schütz, Huong Nguyen, Anita C Risch
Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life forms (forbs, legumes, grasses, sedges) correlated with their dominance...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049858/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-maize-leaf-physiological-and-biochemical-traits-using-hyperspectral-reflectance
#17
Craig R Yendrek, Tiago Tomaz, Christopher M Montes, Youyuan Cao, Alison M Morse, Patrick J Brown, Lauren M McIntyre, Andrew D B Leakey, Elizabeth A Ainsworth
High-throughput, noninvasive field phenotyping has revealed genetic variation in crop morphological, developmental, and agronomic traits, but rapid measurements of the underlying physiological and biochemical traits are needed to fully understand genetic variation in plant-environment interactions. This study tested the application of leaf hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 500-2,400 nm) as a high-throughput phenotyping approach for rapid and accurate assessment of leaf photosynthetic and biochemical traits in maize (Zea mays)...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040672/diversity-and-association-of-phenotypic-and-metabolomic-traits-in-the-close-model-grasses-brachypodium-distachyon-b-stacei-and-b-hybridum
#18
Diana López-Álvarez, Hassan Zubair, Manfred Beckmann, John Draper, Pilar Catalán
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Morphological traits in combination with metabolite fingerprinting were used to investigate inter- and intraspecies diversity within the model annual grasses Brachypodium distachyon, Brachypodium stacei and Brachypodium hybridum METHODS: Phenotypic variation of 15 morphological characters and 2219 nominal mass (m/z) signals generated using flow infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS) were evaluated in individuals from a total of 174 wild populations and six inbred lines, and 12 lines, of the three species, respectively...
December 30, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039117/size-dependent-sex-allocation-and-reproductive-investment-in-a-gynodioecious-shrub
#19
Akari Shibata, Gaku Kudo
In sexually dimorphic plants, resource allocation to reproduction often differs between sex morphs. In gynodioecious species, i.e. coexisting hermaphrodite and female plants within a population, females often produce more fruits than hermaphrodites. Since fruit production is costlier than flower production, hermaphrodites and females may regulate flower and fruit production differently in response to resource availability. To clarify the gender-specific strategies of reproductive allocation, we assessed sexual dimorphism in reproductive traits, size-dependent resource allocation, morphological traits, and photosynthetic capacity in a natural population of a gynodioecious shrub, Daphne jezoensis Hermaphrodites had larger flowers and increased flower number with plant size at a rate greater than females, but showed consistently smaller fruit production...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035276/nitrogen-phosphorous-supply-ratio-and-allometry-in-five-alpine-plant-species
#20
Xi Luo, Susan J Mazer, Hui Guo, Nan Zhang, Jacob Weiner, Shuijin Hu
: In terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly increased N availability relative to other elements, particularly phosphorus (P). Alterations in the availability of N relative to P can affect plant growth rate and functional traits, as well as resource allocation to above- versus belowground biomass (MA and MB). Biomass allocation among individual plants is broadly size-dependent, and this can often be described as an allometric relationship between MA and MB, as represented by the equation MA=αMBβ, or log MA = logα + βlog MB...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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