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leaf morphology

Riyadh Muhaidat, Athena D McKown, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Zakariya Bani Domi, Osama Otoum
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulent leaves (radial symmetry). We tested whether this shift had a corresponding change in internal Kranz anatomy and tissue patterning. METHODS: For a comprehensive characterization of C4 photosynthesis across early ontogeny in T...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Florence Volaire, Frederic Lens, Hervé Cochard, Hueng Xu, Larissa Chacon-Doria, Pauline Bristiel, Jennifer Balachowski, Nick Rowe, Cyrille Violle, Catherine Picon-Cochard
Background and Aims: More intense droughts under climate change threaten species resilience. Hydraulic strategies determine drought survival in woody plants but have been hardly studied in herbaceous species. We explored the intraspecific variability of hydraulic and morphological traits as indicators of dehydration tolerance in a perennial grass, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), which has a large biogeographical distribution in Europe. Methods: Twelve populations of cocksfoot originating from Mediterranean, Temperate and Northern European areas were grown in a controlled environment in pots...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Miao Chen, Ranhao Wang, Yuqiu Zhu, Minzhuo Liu, Fawei Zhu, Jianbo Xiao, Xiaoqing Chen
Herein, for the first time, thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica (mSiO2 -SH) nanofibers with a spirally-curved twisted hexagonal morphology were synthesized via a simple one-pot protocol. 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acids (4-MPBA) were attached onto the mSiO2 -SH nanofibers via disulfide bond, serving as boronate affinity sorbent to selectively capture brassinosteroids (BRs) from plant extract. The resulting BRs-MPBA derivatives were easily eluted from the sorbent by cleaving the disulfide bond, which was subsequently subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Vítor Gabriel Ambrosini, Daniel José Rosa, George Wellington Bastos de Melo, Jovani Zalamena, Cesar Cella, Daniela Guimarães Simão, Leandro Souza da Silva, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Moreno Toselli, Tadeu Luis Tiecher, Gustavo Brunetto
High copper (Cu) soil contents, due to the continuous vineyard application of Cu fungicides throughout the years, may impair the growth of the shoot and modify the structure of the root system. The current study aimed to investigate the threshold levels of available Cu in the soil causing toxicity effects in young grapevine plants of 'Red Niagara' cultivated in clay soils. Grapevine plantlets were cultivated in pots containing vineyard devoted soils with increasing contents of available Cu (25, 80, 100 and 165 mg kg-1 ), for 53 days...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Giulia Castorina, Martina Persico, Massimo Zilio, Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Gabriella Consonni
Background and Aims: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones involved in many developmental processes as well as in plant-environment interactions. Their role was investigated in this study through the analysis of lilliputian1-1 (lil1-1), a dwarf mutant impaired in BR biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays). Methods: We isolated lil1-1 through transposon tagging in maize. The action of lil1 was investigated through morphological and genetic analysis. Moreover, by comparing lil1-1 mutant and wild-type individuals grown under drought stress, the effect of BR reduction on the response to drought stress was examined...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Botany
André B B Wilke, Chalmers Vasquez, Paul J Mauriello, John C Beier
BACKGROUND: A major public health concern is the emergence and geographical spread of vector-borne diseases such as Zika and yellow fever. Ornamental bromeliads retaining water in their leaf axils represent potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. As the role of ornamental bromeliads in breeding Aedes aegypti in Miami-Dade County, Florida is unknown, we hypothesize that ornamental bromeliads are important breeding sites for Ae. aegypti. Our objective was to survey bromeliads in areas with high densities of adult Ae...
May 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kohtaroh Shutoh, Kenji Suetsugu, Shingo Kaneko, Takahide Kurosawa
The genus Pyrola includes species with different degree of mycoheterotrophy; some species possess individuals that rely on all carbon through their associations with fungi (full mycoheterotrophy, FM), whereas some species obtain carbon through both fungi and photosynthesis by itself (partial mycoheterotrophy, PM). To investigate how plant functional traits of photosynthesis and reproduction are related to the degree of mycoheterotrophy in the initial stage of the transition from PM to FM, we determined morphological traits in FM (or nearly FM) and PM species in two independent lineages, P...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kun-Yu Tu, Shin-Fu Tsai, Tzu-Wei Guo, Hou-Ho Lin, Zhi-Wei Yang, Chung-Ta Liao, Wen-Po Chuang
Atmospheric temperature increases along with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This is a major concern for agroecosystems. Although the impact of an elevated temperature or increased CO2 has been widely reported, there are few studies investigating the combined effect of these two environmental factors on plant-insect interactions. In this study, plant responses (phenological traits, defensive enzyme activity, secondary compounds, defense-related gene expression and phytohormone) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) -susceptible and resistant rice under various conditions (environment, soil type, variety, C...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Cristina Lúcia Silveira Sisinno, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Worldwide, various guidelines and directives for human health and the environment aim to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission. Forest ecosystems are natural sinks of this element, transferring it from the atmosphere to litter and soil. Millipedes play an important role in litter/soil and may be negatively affected by contamination. As a pioneering contribution to ecotoxicological test guidelines with millipedes in litter, the present study evaluated food preference of millipedes and mercury toxicity, to prevent interference of food types in toxicity responses...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jiayin Pang, Ruchi Bansal, Hongxia Zhao, Emilien Bohuon, Hans Lambers, Megan H Ryan, Kosala Ranathunge, Kadambot H M Siddique
Root foraging and root physiology such as exudation of carboxylates into the rhizosphere are important strategies for plant phosphorus (P) acquisition. We used 100 chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes with diverse genetic backgrounds to study the relative roles of root morphology and physiology in P acquisition. Plants were grown in pots in a low-P sterilized river sand supplied with 10 μg P g-1 soil as FePO4 , a poorly soluble form of P. There was a large genotypic variation in root morphology (total root length, root surface area, mean root diameter, specific root length and root hair length), and root physiology (rhizosheath pH, carboxylates and acid phosphatase activity)...
May 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Naomi J Paull, Peter J Irga, Fraser R Torpy
Poor air quality is an emerging world-wide problem, with most urban air pollutants arising from vehicular emissions. As such, localized high pollution environments, such as traffic tunnels pose a significant health risk. Phytoremediation, including the use of active (ventilated) green walls or botanical biofilters, is gaining recognition as a potentially effective method for air pollution control. Research to date has tested the capacity of these systems to remove low levels of pollutants from indoor environments...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Caroline Odewumi, Lekan M Latinwo, Roy Leonard Lyles, Veera L D Badisa, Cobb-Abdullah Ahkinyala, Marijo Kent-First
Cadmium (Cd), an economically valuable metal, is widely used in various industrial processes. Although it is of economic value, it is hazardous to human health. Cd accumulates in vital organs where it causes various diseases. Natural compounds with chelating or antioxidant properties have been tested to reduce the toxic effect of Cd. The anti‑oxidant, anti‑diabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) leaves make it a candidate for investigation as protective agent against Cd‑induced toxicity...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xing Liu, Hui Zhen Qiu, Wen Ming Zhang, Chun Hong Zhang, Ya Fei Wang, Xing Ma
The Yellow River irrigation area in middle Gansu Province is one of the main production bases for processing potato and potato tuber seeds in China. However, continuous potato cropping (CPC), resulting from intensive cultivation, has been affecting the sound development of the potato industry. A long-term field experiment was carried out in order to reveal the mechanisms of CPC obstacles. Five treatments, with different years of continuous potato cropping, were designed marking as 0-5 a, 0 a was maize-potato rotation, used as the control (CK)...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Mei Yu Guo, Wen Tao Li, Xiao Long Yang, Xiu Mei Zhang, Jian Ying Liu, Chang Jun Li
Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass species widely distributed in the coastal regions of northern hemisphere, has suffered with a great decline due to a variety of anthropogenic and environmental stresses. In order to examine the adaptability of eelgrass to different environmental stresses, studies on the morphology and reproductive capacity of eelgrass had been carried out monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 at four different habitats of the Swan Lake, including patch area inintertidal area and subtidal area, eelgrass meadow edge, and eelgrass meadow area...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ge Tian, Fen Wang, Ling Peng, Liu He, Yuan Mao Jiang, Shun Feng Ge
In order to explore the effects of potassium fertilizer on the absorption and utilization of nitrogen fertilizer, and provide theoretical basis for scientific fertilization in apple orchard, Malus hupehensis seedlings were used to study the effects of different potassium levels (K0 , K1 , K2 , K3 , K4 , K5 , and K6 equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol·L-1 K+ , respectively) on growth and NO3 - uptake and utilization using the track technology of 15 N and non-damage microtest technique. The results showed that root vigor, nitrate reductase activity and root morphological index of seedlings in K3 treatment were significantly higher than those in the other treatments...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Qian Chen, Ning Ding, Zhan Ling Zhu, Ling Peng, Shun Feng Ge, Yuan Mao Jiang
Two-year-old potted Fuji 3 apple trees on different rootstocks [Fuji 3/M. micromalus Makin (joe), Fuji 3/M7 (semi-dwarf) and Fuji 3/M26/M. micromalus Makin (dwarf)] were used to study leaf morphology and photosynthesis and the characteristics of distribution and utilization of 13 C and 15 N at different nitrogen supply levels (0N, 25%N and 100%N, the N content in 100% N treatment was the same as that in Hoagland complete nutrient solution) under sand culture condition. The main results were as follows: At shoot growth cessation stage in autumn, the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic rate were found the highest in Fuji 3/M...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guilin Wu, Hui Liu, Lei Hua, Qi Luo, Yixue Lin, Pengcheng He, Shiwei Feng, Juxiu Liu, Qing Ye
Global warming could increase leaf transpiration and soil evaporation, which can potentially cause water deficit to plants. As valves, leaf stomata can control plant water loss and carbon gain, particularly under water stress conditions. To investigate the responses of stomata to elevated temperature in Schima superba and Syzygium rehderianum , two co-occurring subtropical forest dominant tree species, functional traits related to gas exchange, stomatal anatomy, and drought resistance were measured under control and warming environment (ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Francisca Silva, Lucicléia Torres, Larissa Silva, Raimundo Figueiredo, Deborah Garruti, Tamara Araújo, Antoniella Duarte, Débora Brito, Nágila Ricardo
Cashew gum and maltodextrin microcapsules containing green tea leaf extracts were made using a spray-dryer. Green tea extracts were submitted to cytotoxicity analysis and characterization of bioactive compounds. Three formulations of microcapsules were performed, which were then submitted to characterization through morphological study, particle diameter and distribution, zeta potential, Exploratory Differential Calorimetry, entrapment efficiency, dissolution test and X-ray diffraction. The extract had a high bioactive compound content and no cytotoxicity was observed...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Barbara Piwowarczyk, Krzysztof Tokarz, Ewa Muszyńska, Wojciech Makowski, Roman Jędrzejczyk, Zbigniew Gajewski, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska
Kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria L.) is a well-known Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn often occurs with Pb in one ore; thus, plants inhabiting waste dumps are exposed not only to Zn but also to Pb toxicity. While the response of kidney vetch to Zn toxicity is relatively well known, the Pb survival strategy of Anthyllis vulneraria has not been the subject of investigations. The aim of presented research was to determine the survival strategy of kidney vetch exposed to high lead concentrations. Shoot explants of a calamine kidney vetch ecotype were placed on agar media containing 0...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Haifang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Houbin Chen, Yong Lu, Xingyu Lu, Congcong Wang, Biyan Zhou
Litchi is one of the most important subtropical evergreen fruit trees in southern Asia. Previous studies indicated that high-temperature conditions encourage growth of rudimentary leaves in panicles and suppress flowering. We have demonstrated that methyl viologen dichloride hydrate (MV) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted flowering in litchi partially by inhibiting the growth of rudimentary leaves via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we examined the microstructure and ultrastructure, programmed cell death (PCD) ratio, nuclei morphology of the rudimentary leaves, and the expression of senescence-related genes after the treatment with ROS or NO...
2018: Horticulture Research
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