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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926862/comparison-of-the-morphology-anatomy-and-chemical-profile-of-mikania-glomerata-and-mikania-laevigata
#1
Vanessa Cruz de Oliveira Costa, Alexandre Augusto Borghi, Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya
Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata are medicinal plants popularly used in Brazil for colds and asthma. Although several studies report differences in their composition, they are frequently used indistinctly, which may be due to misidentification of the species or the plant part used. Herein, the chemical, anatomical, and morphological profiles of both species were evaluated, seeking to differentiate them. Due to the pattern of secondary metabolites found in M. glomerata and M. laevigata, the chemical profile of the leaves was the characteristic that best differentiated the two species...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924506/automated-classification-of-tropical-shrub-species-a-hybrid-of-leaf-shape-and-machine-learning-approach
#2
Miraemiliana Murat, Siow-Wee Chang, Arpah Abu, Hwa Jen Yap, Kien-Thai Yong
Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922753/effects-of-periodic-photoinhibitory-light-exposure-on-physiology-and-productivity-of-arabidopsis-plants-grown-under-low-light
#3
Yonglan Tian, Joanna Sacharz, Maxwell A Ware, Huayong Zhang, Alexander V Ruban
This work examined the long-term effects of periodic high light stress on photosynthesis, morphology, and productivity of low-light-acclimated Arabidopsis plants. Significant photoinhibition of Arabidopsis seedlings grown under low light (100 μmol photons m-2 s-1) was observed at the beginning of the high light treatment (three times a day for 30 min at 1800 μmol photons m-2 s-1). However, after 2 weeks of treatment, similar photosynthesis yields (Fv/Fm) to those of control plants were attained. The daily levels of photochemical quenching measured in the dark (qPd) indicated that the plants recovered from photoinhibition within several hours once transferred back to low light conditions, with complete recovery being achieved overnight...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#4
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919945/distribution-karyomorphology-and-morphology-of-aspidistra-subrotata-asparagaceae-at-different-ploidy-levels-in-limestone-areas-of-asia
#5
Jian-She Chen, Qi Gao, Hao Zhou, Yu-Song Huang, Mikinori Ogisu, Ming Cao
Aspidistra subrotata Y. Wan & C.C. Huang, 1987 is considered for the first time as a widespread polyploidy complex in the genus Aspidistra Ker Gawler, 1823 from limestone areas of Asia. The chromosome number of the tetraploid is 2n = 76 and the karyotype is formulated as 2n = 44 m + 8 sm + 24 st, while the chromosome number of the diploid is 2n = 38 and the karyotype formula 2n = 22 m + 4 sm + 12 st. In our studies, diploids occupy broader geographical and environmental niche spaces than tetraploids. Although the leaf-shape of Aspidistra subrotata varies quantitatively between and within diploid and/or tetraploid population(s), no obvious discontinuity in the width of leaf has been observed...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919904/plasticity-of-sorghum-stem-biomass-accumulation-in-response-to-water-deficit-a-multiscale-analysis-from-internode-tissue-to-plant-level
#6
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917864/bulk-vs-nano-zno-influence-of-fire-retardant-behavior-on-sisal-fibre-yarn
#7
Mahendra Sheshama, Hitesh Khatri, Manish Suthar, Santanu Basak, Wazed Ali
Flame retardant functionality was imparted in sisal (leaf fibre) yarn whereas a strong scientific finding has been established between fire retardant efficacy of bulk and nano zinc oxide based formulations. Bulk and nano ZnO treated sisal yarns have been compared on the basis of their flame retardant efficacy, weight add-on% and tensile strength. Limiting oxygen index and char length of the 12% ZnO treated sisal was found to be well comparable with the 1% nano ZnO treated yarn. Further, add-on% and the tensile strength of the nano ZnO treated sample is 70-80% lower and 20% more, respectively, compared to the 12% bulk ZnO treated sisal yarn...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916319/inhibition-of-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-clinical-bacterial-isolates-by-nio-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-eucalyptus-globulus-plants
#8
Samia Saleem, Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Majed Al-Shaeri, Javed Musarrat
Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912793/diverse-rice-landraces-of-north-east-india-enables-the-identification-of-novel-genetic-resources-for-magnaporthe-resistance
#9
Bangale Umakanth, Balija Vishalakshi, P Sathish Kumar, S J S Rama Devi, Vijay Pal Bhadana, P Senguttuvel, Sudhir Kumar, Susheel Kumar Sharma, Pawan Kumar Sharma, M S Prasad, Maganti S Madhav
North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes (Pitp, Pi33, Pi54, Pib, Pi20, Pi38, Pita2, Pi1, Piz, Pi9, Pizt, and Pi40) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904774/phenotypic-differentiation-of-the-solidago-virgaurea-complex-along-an-elevational-gradient-insights-from-a-common-garden-experiment-and-population-genetics
#10
Masaaki Hirano, Shota Sakaguchi, Koichi Takahashi
Plant species distributed along wide elevational or latitudinal gradients show phenotypic variation due to their heterogeneous habitats. This study investigated whether phenotypic variation in populations of the Solidago virgaurea complex along an elevational gradient is caused by genetic differentiation. A common garden experiment was based on seeds collected from nine populations of the S. virgaurea complex growing at elevations from 1,597 m to 2,779 m a.s.l. on Mt. Norikura in central Japan. Population genetic analyses with microsatellite markers were used to infer the genetic structure and levels of gene flow between populations...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901723/the-arms-race-between-heliconiine-butterflies-and-passiflora-plants-new-insights-on-an-ancient-subject
#11
Érika C P de Castro, Mika Zagrobelny, Márcio Z Cardoso, Søren Bak
Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides...
September 13, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900166/development-of-novel-meju-starter-culture-using-plant-extracts-with-reduced-bacillus-cereus-counts-and-enhanced-functional-properties
#12
Shruti Shukla, Juyeon Park, Jung Hyun Park, Jong Suk Lee, Myunghee Kim
We developed a novel type of Meju starter culture using single and combined extracts of Allium sativum (garlic clove), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus leaves), and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo leaves) to improve the quality and functionality of Meju-based fermented products. Meju samples fermented with plant extracts (10 mg/ml) showed phenolic contents of 11.4-31.6 mg/g (gallic acid equivalents). Samples of extracts (garlic clove, lotus leaves, ginkgo leaves and their combination) fermented with Meju strongly inhibited tyrosinase, α-glucosidase, and elastase activities by 36...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895654/graft-accelerated-virus-induced-gene-silencing-facilitates-functional-genomics-in-rose-flowers
#13
Huijun Yan, Shaochuan Shi, Nan Ma, Xiaoqian Cao, Hao Zhang, Xianqin Qiu, Qigang Wang, Hongying Jian, Ningning Zhou, Zhao Zhang, Kaixue Tang
Rose has emerged as a model ornamental plant for studies of flower development, senescence, and morphology, as well as the metabolism of floral fragrances and colors. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has long since been used in functional genomics studies of rose by vacuum infiltration of cuttings or seedlings with an Agrobacterium suspension carrying TRV-derived vectors. However, VIGS in rose flowers remains a challenge because of its low efficiency and long time to silencing. Here we present a novel and rapid VIGS method that can be used to analyze gene function in rose, called 'graft-accelerated VIGS', where axillary sprouts are cut off the rose plant and vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895530/cell-type-boundaries-organize-plant-development
#14
Monica Pia Caggiano, Xiulian Yu, Neha Bhatia, Andre Larsson, Hasthi Ram, Carolyn K Ohno, Pia Sappl, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson, Marcus G Heisler
In plants the dorsoventral boundary of leaves defines an axis of symmetry through the centre of the organ separating the top (dorsal) and bottom (ventral) tissues. Although the positioning of this boundary is critical for leaf morphogenesis, how the boundary is established and how it influences development remains unclear. Using live-imaging and perturbation experiments we show that leaf orientation, morphology and position are pre-patterned by HD-ZIPIII and KAN gene expression in the shoot, leading to a model in which dorsoventral genes coordinate to regulate plant development by localizing auxin response between their expression domains...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895147/root-traits-are-more-than-analogues-of-leaf-traits-the-case-for-diaspore-mass
#15
Joana Bergmann, Masahiro Ryo, Daniel Prati, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Root traits are often thought to be analogues of leaf traits along the plant economics spectrum. But evolutionary pressures have most likely shaped above- and belowground patterns differentially. Here, we aimed to identify the most important aboveground traits for explaining root traits without an a priori focus on known concepts. We measured morphological root traits in a glasshouse experiment on 141 common Central European grassland species. Using random forest algorithms, we built predictive models of six root traits from 97 aboveground morphological, ecological and life history traits...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894101/intense-natural-selection-preceded-the-invasion-of-new-adaptive-zones-during-the-radiation-of-new-world-leaf-nosed-bats
#16
Daniela M Rossoni, Ana Paula A Assis, Norberto P Giannini, Gabriel Marroig
The family Phyllostomidae, which evolved in the New World during the last 30 million years, represents one of the largest and most morphologically diverse mammal families. Due to its uniquely diverse functional morphology, the phyllostomid skull is presumed to have evolved under strong directional selection; however, quantitative estimation of the strength of selection in this extraordinary lineage has not been reported. Here, we used comparative quantitative genetics approaches to elucidate the processes that drove cranial evolution in phyllostomids...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893216/antimalarial-efficacy-of-pongamia-pinnata-l-pierre-against-plasmodium-falciparum-3d7-strain-and-plasmodium-berghei-anka
#17
P V V Satish, K Sunita
BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). METHODS: The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India...
September 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892792/bamboo-leaf-extract-ameliorates-cardiac-fibrosis-possibly-via-alleviating-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#18
Lili Zhang, Yizhen Mao, Jiajun Pan, Shanshan Wang, Lei Chen, Jie Xiang
Previous studies have shown that inflammatory process contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac damage induced by diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanisms and strategies to alleviate inflammatory injury in the diabetic heart are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential role and related mechanism of bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozocin (STZ) in rats, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc) were measured...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889909/organization-and-evolution-of-mating-type-genes-in-three-stagonosporopsis-species-causing-gummy-stem-blight-of-cucurbits-and-leaf-spot-and-dry-rot-of-papaya
#19
Hao-Xi Li, Thomas M Gottilla, Marin Talbot Brewer
Population divergence and speciation of closely related lineages can result from reproductive differences leading to genetic isolation. An increasing number of fungal diseases of plants and animals have been determined to be caused by morphologically indistinguishable species that are genetically distinct, thereby representing cryptic species. We were interested in identifying if mating systems among three Stagonosporopsis species (S. citrulli, S. cucurbitacearum, and S. caricae) causing gummy stem blight (GSB) of cucurbits or leaf spot and dry rot of papaya differed, possibly underlying species divergence...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886311/effect%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-sucrose-concentrations-on-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-tissue-culture-and-gene-expression
#20
T Ghorbani, D Kahrizi, M Saeidi, I Arji
Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM)...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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