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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#1
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510657/heteroblasty-in-epiphytic-bromeliads-functional-implications-for-species-in-understorey-and-exposed-growing-sites
#2
Joachim Beyschlag, Gerhard Zotz
Background and Aims: The functional relevance of heteroblasty, an abrupt morphological change in the ontogeny of a considerable number of angiosperm species, is still largely unresolved. During the ontogeny of many epiphytic Tillandsioids (Bromeliaceae), such a change occurs when small individuals transform into larger, tank-forming individuals that are capable of external water storage. Apart from its fundamental effect on plant water relations, the associated transition from narrow to broader leaves also affects plant architecture...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510203/begonia-myanmarica-begoniaceae-a-new-species-from-myanmar-and-molecular-phylogenetics-of-begonia-sect-monopteron
#3
Yu-Hsin Tseng, Young-Dong Kim, Ching-I Peng, Khin Myo Htwe, Seong-Hyun Cho, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung
BACKGROUND: A new species, Begonia myanmarica, was discovered from Myanmar and herein documented. Characterized by a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit, this species would be assigned to sect. Monopteron (sensu Doorenbos et al. in The sections of Begonia including descriptions, keys and species lists: studies in Begoniaceae VI. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1998) that is known by B. griffithiana and B. nepalensis from the Himalaya. To confirm its sectional assignment, we conducted morphological, phylogenetic and cytological studies...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507407/study-on-postpartum-estrus-of-guinea-pigs-cavia-cobaya-using-anredera-cordifolia-leaf-extract
#4
D Wijayanti, E T Setiatin, E Kurnianto
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504134/morphology-transport-characteristics-and-viscoelastic-polymer-chain-confinement-in-nanocomposites-based-on-thermoplastic-potato-starch-and-cellulose-nanofibers-from-pineapple-leaf
#5
Preetha Balakrishnan, M S Sreekala, Matjaž Kunaver, Miroslav Huskić, Sabu Thomas
Eco-friendly "green" nano composites were fabricated from potato starch and cellulose nanofibers from pineapple leaf. Nanocomposites of starch/cellulose nanofibers were prepared by solution mixing followed by casting. The investigation of the viscoelastic properties confirms starch macromolecular chain confinement around the nano scale cellulose surface, superior dispersion and very good interaction between thermoplastic starch and cellulose nanofibers. The degree of chain confinement was quantified. The chain confinement was associated with the immobilization of the starch macromolecular chains in the network formed by the nano-scale cellulose fibers as a result of hydrogen boding interactions...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501155/morphology-tunable-polydopamine-nanoparticles-and-their-application-in-fe-3-detection
#6
Peng Qi, Dun Zhang, Yi Wan
In this work, we discovered the morphology transformation property of polydopamine (PDA) nanomaterials, the addition of Fe(3+) initiated the dramatic morphology transformation of PDA dots from aggregated plate-like to uniform willow-leaf-like morphology. Further study revealed that this fascinating morphology transformation process could be attributed to the oxidative nature and coordination characteristic of Fe(3+). This is the first report on the morphology transformation ability of PDA, and a probable self-assembled mechanism was proposed to explain this issue...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500411/a-hairy-leaf-gene-blanket-leaf-of-wild-oryza-nivara-increases-photosynthetic-water-use-efficiency-in-rice
#7
Norimitsu Hamaoka, Hideshi Yasui, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Yoko Inoue, Naruto Furuya, Takuya Araki, Osamu Ueno, Atsushi Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. RESULTS: A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500269/dynamic-cytology-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-rice-lamina-joint-development
#8
Lijuan Zhou, Langtao Xiao, Hong-Wei Xue
Rice leaf angle is determined by lamina joint and an important agricultural trait determining leaf erectness and hence the photosynthesis efficiency and grain yield. Genetic studies reveal a complex regulatory network of lamina joint development; however, the morphological changes, cytological transitions, and underlying transcriptional programming remain to be elucidated. A systemic morphological and cytological study reveals a dynamic developmental process and suggests a common but distinct regulation of lamina joint...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499223/decomposing-the-land-use-specific-response-of-plant-functional-traits-along-environmental-gradients
#9
Veronika Fontana, Marina Kohler, Georg Niedrist, Michael Bahn, Ulrike Tappeiner, Georg Frenck
Environmental conditions affect functional trait variability within communities and thus shape ecosystem properties. With the ability of plants to adapt morphologically and physiologically to changing abiotic conditions, gradient analysis was shown to be a suitable tool to identify the drivers which determine trait values. Apart from direct environmental drivers and indirect gradients such as elevation, also anthropogenic effects (e.g. irrigation, grazing) can influence trait variability. Our aim was to assess the interactive effects of different environmental drivers on major plant traits and to investigate how these are modulated within two different land-use types (hay meadow vs...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499089/nanoencapsulation-of-aloe-vera-in-synthetic-and-naturally-occurring-polymers-by-electro-hydrodynamic-processing-of-interest-in-food-technology-and-bioactive-packaging
#10
Sergio Torres-Giner, Sabina Wilkanowicz, Beatriz Meléndez-Rodríguez, Jose M Lagaron
This work originally reports on the use of electro-hydrodynamic processing (EHDP) to encapsulate Aloe vera (AV) (Aloe barbadensis Miller) using both synthetic polymers, i.e. polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and naturally occurring polymers, i.e. barley starch (BS), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and maltodextrin. The AV leaf juice was used as the water-based solvent for EHDP and the resultant biopolymer solution properties were evaluated to determine their effect on the process. Morphological analysis revealed that, at the optimal processing conditions, synthetic polymers mainly produced fiber-like structures while naturally occurring polymers generated capsules...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497373/morphological-histobiochemical-and-molecular-characterisation-of-low-lignin-phloem-fibre-llpf-mutant-of-dark-jute-corchorus-olitorius-l
#11
S B Choudhary, I Chowdhury, R K Singh, S P Pandey, H K Sharma, A Anil Kumar, P G Karmakar, N Kumari, J Souframanien, S J Jambhulkar
Lignin is a versatile plant metabolite challenging high-end industrial applications of several plant products including jute. Application of developmental mutant in regulation of lignification in jute may open up door for much awaited jute based diversified products. In the present study, a novel dark jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) mutant with low lignin (7.23%) in phloem fibre being compared to wild-type JRO 204 (13.7%) was identified and characterised. Unique morphological features including undulated stem, petiole and leaf vein distinguished the mutant in gamma ray irradiated mutant population...
May 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491065/osphyb-mediating-novel-regulatory-pathway-for-drought-tolerance-in-rice-root-identified-by-a-global-rna-seq-transcriptome-analysis-of-rice-genes-in-response-to-water-deficiencies
#12
Yo-Han Yoo, Anil K Nalini Chandran, Jong-Chan Park, Yun-Shil Gho, Sang-Won Lee, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
Water deficiencies are one of the most serious challenges to crop productivity. To improve our understanding of soil moisture stress, we performed RNA-Seq analysis using roots from 4-week-old rice seedlings grown in soil that had been subjected to drought conditions for 2-3 d. In all, 1,098 genes were up-regulated in response to soil moisture stress for 3 d, which causes severe damage in root development after recovery, unlikely that of 2 d. Comparison with previous transcriptome data produced in drought condition indicated that more than 68% of our candidate genes were not previously identified, emphasizing the novelty of our transcriptome analysis for drought response in soil condition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486656/canopy-gradients-in-leaf-functional-traits-for-species-that-differ-in-growth-strategies-and-shade-tolerance
#13
Adam P Coble, Marilyn L Fogel, Geoffrey G Parker
In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh...
May 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484469/long-term-overgrazing-induced-memory-decreases-photosynthesis-of-clonal-offspring-in-a-perennial-grassland-plant
#14
Weibo Ren, Ningning Hu, Xiangyang Hou, Jize Zhang, Huiqin Guo, Zhiying Liu, Lingqi Kong, Zinian Wu, Hui Wang, Xiliang Li
Previous studies of transgenerational plasticity have demonstrated that long-term overgrazing experienced by Leymus chinensis, an ecologically dominant, rhizomatous grass species in eastern Eurasian temperate grassland, significantly affects its clonal growth in subsequent generations. However, there is a dearth of information on the reasons underlying this overgrazing-induced memory effect in plant morphological plasticity. We characterized the relationship between a dwarf phenotype and photosynthesis function decline of L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481403/contribution-of-morphoagronomic-traits-to-grain-yield-and-earliness-in-grain-sorghum
#15
K J da Silva, P E Teodoro, C B de Menezes, M P M Júlio, V F de Souza, M J da Silva, L D Pimentel, A Borém
Given the importance of selecting lines to obtain hybrids, we aimed to verify the relationship between morphological traits that can be used as the criteria for the selection of sorghum lines with high grain yield and earliness. A total of 18 traits were evaluated in 160 sorghum elite lines, in an incomplete block design with two replicates. A correlation network was used to graphically express the estimates of phenotypic and genotypic correlations between the traits. Two path analyses were processed, the first considering grain yield and the second considering flowering as the principle dependent variable...
May 4, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480411/pharmacognostic-standardization-of-the-leaf-of-melaleuca-alternifolia-maiden-betche-cheel
#16
Gagan Shah, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) is a well-known, commonly used, tall shrub plant in Ayurvedic medicine. Traditionally, it is used for its antimicrobial potential to treat cutaneous infections. No attempts have been made regarding pharmacognostic investigation of the plant till date. So, the present study was aimed to establish standards with the help of different pharmacognostic parameters. METHODS: Various pharmacognostic parameters (morphological, microscopic, physicochemical evaluations and preliminary phytochemical screening) were studied along with fluorescent and thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extract...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475464/rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-inhibits-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-invasion-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-hacat-keratinocytes
#17
Sutthirat Srisuwan, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has an ability to invade nonprofessional phagocytic cells, resulting in persistent infections and most likely host cell death. Series of our studies have claimed pronounced antibacterial efficacy of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract. This study was to further investigate potency of the extract in intracellular killing of human HaCaT keratinocytes. Pretreatment of MRSA with the extract resulted in a remarkable reduction in the bacterial adhesion to HaCaT keratinocytes, compared with untreated control (p < 0...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473841/contrasting-hydraulic-architectures-of-scots-pine-and-sessile-oak-at-their-southernmost-distribution-limits
#18
Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Isabel Dorado-Liñán, Uwe G Hacke, Hannes Seidel, Annette Menzel
Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species' responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466187/water-wisteria-as-an-ideal-plant-to-study-heterophylly-in-higher-aquatic-plants
#19
Gaojie Li, Shiqi Hu, Jingjing Yang, Elizabeth A Schultz, Kurtis Clarke, Hongwei Hou
The semi-aquatic plant Water-Wisteria is suggested as a new model to study heterophylly due to its many advantages and typical leaf phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors and phytohormones. Water-Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis (Acanthaceae), is a fast growing semi-aquatic plant that exhibits a variety of leaf shapes, from simple leaves to highly branched compound leaves, depending on the environment. The phenomenon by which leaves change their morphology in response to environmental conditions is called heterophylly...
May 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465577/development-of-structural-colour-in-leaf-beetles
#20
Olimpia D Onelli, Thomas van de Kamp, Jeremy N Skepper, Janet Powell, Tomy Dos Santos Rolo, Tilo Baumbach, Silvia Vignolini
Structural colours in living organisms have been observed and analysed in a large number of species, however the study of how the micro- and nano-scopic natural structures responsible of such colourations develop has been largely ignored. Understanding the interplay between chemical composition, structural morphology on multiple length scales, and mechanical constraints requires a range of investigation tools able to capture the different aspects of natural hierarchical architectures. Here, we report a developmental study of the most widespread strategy for structural colouration in nature: the cuticular multilayer...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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