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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143653/phylogenetic-study-of-the-endemic-species-oxytropis-almaatensis-fabaceae-based-on-nuclear-ribosomal-dna-its-sequences
#1
Shyryn Almerekova, Nashtay Mukhitdinov, Saule Abugalieva
BACKGROUND: Oxytropis almaatensis Bajt. is a rare, narrow endemic species of the Trans-Ili Alatau mountains in Kazakhstan. Up to now, no studies regarding the taxonomy and variation of key morphological traits of O. almaatensis were undertaken. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate phenotypic variation of O. almaatensis and assess the position of the species within the genus based on nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. RESULTS: Two populations of O...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139551/members-of-the-deal-subfamily-of-the-duf1218-gene-family-are-required-for-bilateral-symmetry-but-not-for-dorsoventrality-in-arabidopsis-leaves
#2
David Wilson-Sánchez, Sebastián Martínez-López, Sergio Navarro-Cartagena, Sara Jover-Gil, José Luis Micol
Most plant leaves exhibit bilateral symmetry, which has been hypothesized as an inevitable consequence of the existence of the proximodistal and dorsoventral axes. No gene has been described that affects leaf bilateral symmetry but not dorsoventrality in Arabidopsis thaliana. We screened for viable insertional mutations that affect leaf morphology, and out of more than 700 mutants found only one, desigual1-1 (deal1-1), that exhibited bilateral symmetry breaking but no obvious defects in dorsoventrality. We found that deal1-1 is an allele of VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY (VCC)...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138616/bipolaris-marantae-sp-nov-a-novel-helminthosporoid-species-causing-foliage-blight-of-the-garden-plant-maranta-leuconeura-in-brazil
#3
Carla Cristina Gomes Lourenço, Janaina Lana Alves, Eduardo Guatimosim, Adans Colman, Robert Weingart Barreto
A severe leaf spot, turning to foliage blight, was observed on leaves of Maranta leuconeura growing in a garden in Brazil (state of Rio de Janeiro) in 2015. A dematiaceous hyphomycete bearing a morphology typical of a helminthosporoid fungi was regularly found in association with diseased tissues. The fungus was isolated and pathogenicity was demonstrated through the completion of Koch's postulates. A morphology and molecular analysis led to the conclusion that the fungus belonged to the genus Bipolaris, which is characterized by having fusiform conidia, externally thickened and truncate hila and a bipolar pattern of germination...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133376/distinct-functions-of-starch-synthase-4-domains-in-starch-granule-formation
#4
Kuan-Jen Lu, Barbara Pfister, Camilla Jenny, Simona Eicke, Samuel C Zeeman
The formation of normal starch granules in Arabidopsis leaf chloroplasts requires STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4). In plants lacking SS4, chloroplasts typically produce only one round granule rather than multiple lenticular granules. The mechanisms by which SS4 determines granule number and morphology are not understood. The N-terminal region of SS4 is unique among SS isoforms and contains several long coiled-coil motifs, typically implicated in protein-protein interactions. The C-terminal region contains the catalytic glucosyltransferase domains, which are widely conserved in plant SS and bacterial glycogen synthase (GS) isoforms...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131846/how-many-species-and-under-what-names-using-dna-barcoding-and-genbank-data-for-west-central-african-amphibian-conservation
#5
Jessica L Deichmann, Daniel G Mulcahy, Hadrien Vanthomme, Elie Tobi, Addison H Wynn, Breda M Zimkus, Roy W McDiarmid
Development projects in west Central Africa are proceeding at an unprecedented rate, often with little concern for their effects on biodiversity. In an attempt to better understand potential impacts of a road development project on the anuran amphibian community, we conducted a biodiversity assessment employing multiple methodologies (visual encounter transects, auditory surveys, leaf litter plots and pitfall traps) to inventory species prior to construction of a new road within the buffer zone of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129931/mapping-functional-diversity-from-remotely-sensed-morphological-and-physiological-forest-traits
#6
Fabian D Schneider, Felix Morsdorf, Bernhard Schmid, Owen L Petchey, Andreas Hueni, David S Schimel, Michael E Schaepman
Assessing functional diversity from space can help predict productivity and stability of forest ecosystems at global scale using biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. We present a new spatially continuous method to map regional patterns of tree functional diversity using combined laser scanning and imaging spectroscopy. The method does not require prior taxonomic information and integrates variation in plant functional traits between and within plant species. We compare our method with leaf-level field measurements and species-level plot inventory data and find reasonable agreement...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125662/how-do-mediterranean-shrub-species-cope-with-shade-ecophysiological-response-to-different-light-intensities
#7
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118139/anticipatory-flexibility-larval-population-density-in-moths-determines-male-investment-in-antennae-wings-and-testes
#8
Tamara L Johnson, Matthew R E Symonds, Mark A Elgar
Developmental plasticity provides individuals with a distinct advantage when the reproductive environment changes dramatically. Variation in population density, in particular, can have profound effects on male reproductive success. Females may be easier to locate in dense populations, but there may be a greater risk of sperm competition. Thus, males should invest in traits that enhance fertilization success over traits that enhance mate location. Conversely, males in less dense populations should invest more in structures that will facilitate mate location...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114253/overexpression-of-osrrk1-changes-leaf-morphology-and-defense-to-insect-in-rice
#9
Yinhua Ma, Yan Zhao, Xinxin Shangguan, Shaojie Shi, Ya Zeng, Yan Wu, Rongzhi Chen, Aiqing You, Lili Zhu, Bo Du, Guangcun He
It has been reported that the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) regulate many biological processes in plants, but only a few members have been functionally characterized. Here, we isolated a rice gene encoding AtRRK1 homology protein kinase, OsRRK1, which belongs to the RLCK VI subfamily. OsRRK1 transcript accumulated in many tissues at low to moderate levels and at high levels in leaves. Overexpression of OsRRK1 (OE-OsRRK1) caused adaxial rolling and erect morphology of rice leaves. In the rolled leaves of OE-OsRRK1 plants, both the number and the size of the bulliform cells are decreased compared to the wild-type (WT) plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111414/environmental-sensing-and-morphological-plasticity-in-plants
#10
REVIEW
Miya Mizutani, Masahiro M Kanaoka
All creatures on earth are affected by their surrounding environment. Animals can move and escape unfavorable environmental changes, whereas plants must respond to environmental stimuli. Plants adapt to changes with cellular-level responses to short-term environmental changes, but may adapt to changes in the environment by regulating their development and growth. In this review, we considered changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, dry/wet moisture conditions, flooding, and temperature as examples of environmental stimuli...
November 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104583/not-all-trees-sleep-the-same-high-temporal-resolution-terrestrial-laser-scanning-shows-differences-in-nocturnal-plant-movement
#11
András Zlinszky, Bence Molnár, Anders S Barfod
Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid measurement of distances to the targets, thus producing three dimensional point cloud models of sub-centimeter resolution and accuracy in a few minutes. Here, we aim to gain an overview of the variability of circadian movement of small trees across different taxonomic groups, growth forms and leaf anatomies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102903/ultrasonication-of-in-vitro-potato-single-node-explants-activation-and-recovery-of-antioxidant-defence-system-and-growth-responses
#12
Judit Dobránszki, Georgina Asbóth, Dávid Homoki, Piroska Bíró-Molnár, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Judit Remenyik
The ability to use sound or ultrasound (US) to modify plant growth in vitro, and if possible, to improve yield or productivity, would benefit horticultural scientists. In this study, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) in vitro node segments with a single leaf were exposed to US (35 kHz, 70 W, for 20 min). Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. Treatment with US 24 h after ultrasonication temporarily accelerated shoot growth but inhibited the development and growth of roots due to a decrease in the level of AA directly after ultrasonication...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101854/response-of-biofilms-leaves-of-two-submerged-macrophytes-to-high-ammonium
#13
Lixue Gong, Songhe Zhang, Deqiang Chen, Kaihui Liu, Jian Lu
Submerged macrophytes can provide attached surface for biofilms (known as periphyton) growth. In the present study, the alterations in biofilms formation, and chemical compositions and physiological responses were investigated on leaves of Vallisneria asiatica and Hydrilla verticillata exposed to 0.1 mg L(-1) (control) or with 10 mg L(-1) NH4(+)-N for 13 days. Results from physiological and biochemical indices (content of H2O2, malondialdehyde, total chlorophyll and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) showed that high ammonium caused oxidative damage to leaves of two species of plant...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101586/a-lariat-derived-circular-rna-is-required-for-plant-development-in-arabidopsis
#14
Jinping Cheng, Yong Zhang, Ziwei Li, Taiyun Wang, Xiaotuo Zhang, Binglian Zheng
Lariat RNA is produced during pre-mRNA splicing, and it is traditionally thought as by-products, due to the quick turnover by debranching followed by degradation. However, recent findings identified many lariat RNAs accumulate with a circular form in higher eukaryotes. Although the remarkable accumulation, biological consequence of lariat-derived circular RNAs (here we name laciRNAs) remains largely unknown. Here, we report that a specific laciRNA from At5g37720 plays an essential role in plant development by regulating gene expression globally...
October 31, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101473/tracking-maize-pollen-development-by-the-leaf-collar-method
#15
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant...
November 4, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093514/causes-of-variation-among-rice-models-in-yield-response-to-co2-examined-with-free-air-co2-enrichment-and-growth-chamber-experiments
#16
Toshihiro Hasegawa, Tao Li, Xinyou Yin, Yan Zhu, Kenneth Boote, Jeffrey Baker, Simone Bregaglio, Samuel Buis, Roberto Confalonieri, Job Fugice, Tamon Fumoto, Donald Gaydon, Soora Naresh Kumar, Tanguy Lafarge, Manuel Marcaida Iii, Yuji Masutomi, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Philippe Oriol, Françoise Ruget, Upendra Singh, Liang Tang, Fulu Tao, Hitomi Wakatsuki, Daniel Wallach, Yulong Wang, Lloyd Ted Wilson, Lianxin Yang, Yubin Yang, Hiroe Yoshida, Zhao Zhang, Jianguo Zhu
The CO2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO2] (E-[CO2]) by comparison to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO2] varied significantly among the rice models...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093177/leaf-anatomy-of-a-late-palaeozoic-cycad
#17
Zhuo Feng, Yong Lv, Yun Guo, Hai-Bo Wei, Hans Kerp
Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089842/geometric-morphometrics-analysis-of-the-hind-wing-of-leaf-beetles-proximal-and-distal-parts-are-separate-modules
#18
Jing Ren, Ming Bai, Xing-Ke Yang, Run-Zhi Zhang, Si-Qin Ge
The success of beetles is mainly attributed to the possibility to hide the hindwings under the sclerotised elytra. The acquisition of the transverse folding function of the hind wing is an important event in the evolutionary history of beetles. In this study, the morphological and functional variances in the hind wings of 94 leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelinae) is explored using geometric morphometrics based on 36 landmarks. Principal component analysis and Canonical variate analysis indicate that changes of apical area, anal area, and middle area are three useful phylogenetic features at a subtribe level of leaf beetles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083039/changes-in-the-allocation-of-endogenous-strigolactone-improve-plant-biomass-production-on-phosphate-poor-soils
#19
Guowei Liu, Johannes Pfeifer, Rita de Brito Francisco, Aurelia Emonet, Marina Stirnemann, Christian Gübeli, Olivier Hutter, Joëlle Sasse, Christian Mattheyer, Ernst Stelzer, Achim Walter, Enrico Martinoia, Lorenzo Borghi
Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived phytohormones shaping plant architecture and inducing the symbiosis with endomycorrhizal fungi. In Petunia hybrida, SL transport within the plant and towards the rhizosphere is driven by the ABCG-class protein PDR1. PDR1 expression is regulated by phytohormones and by the soil phosphate abundance, and thus SL transport integrates plant development with nutrient conditions. We overexpressed PDR1 (PDR1 OE) to investigate whether increased endogenous SL transport is sufficient to improve plant nutrition and productivity...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080424/mechanisms-of-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-bromeliad-pitcairnia-burchellii-mez-biochemical-adjustments-and-structural-changes
#20
Evandro Alves Vieira, Kleber Resende Silva, Aline Oriani, Camila Fernandes Moro, Marcia Regina Braga
Rocky outcrops represent the diversity center of vascular desiccation tolerant (DT) plants. Vegetation in this environment is exposed to an extended dry season and extreme conditions due to rocky soils and high sun exposure. In this study, we demonstrated that Pitcairnia burchellii, a bromeliad from rocky outcrops, tolerates intense desiccation for about 90 days due to strategies as accumulation of compatible osmolytes and antioxidant substances together with leaf morphological changes. In dehydrated plants, an increase in antioxidant activity was observed and the vacuolization of parenchyma cells was accompanied by proline accumulation in leaves and rhizomes...
October 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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