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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#1
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649269/a-comprehensive-technique-for-artificial-hybridization-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#2
Shweta Kalve, Million Tadege
BACKGROUND: Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. The important reason for the low success rate of the two procedures could be lack of detailed information on the flowering stages chosen for crossing together with the environment where plants grow...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647758/a-meta-analysis-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-resistance-in-tetraploid-cotton
#3
Abdelraheem Abdelraheem, Feng Liu, Mingzhou Song, Jinfa F Zhang
The number and location of mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on genetic populations and testing environments. The identification of consistent QTL across genetic backgrounds and environments is a pre-requisite to marker-assisted selection. This study analyzed a total of 661 abiotic and biotic stress resistance QTL based on our previous work and other publications using the meta-analysis software Biomercator. It identified chromosomal regions containing QTL clusters for different resistance traits and hotspots for a particular resistance trait in cotton from 98 QTL for drought tolerance under greenhouse (DT) and 150 QTL in field conditions (FDT), 80 QTL for salt tolerance in the greenhouse conditions (ST), 201 QTL for resistance to Verticillium wilt (VW, Verticillium dahliae), 47 QTL for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW, Fusarium oxysporum f...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645163/variations-in-chloroplast-movement-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-among-chloroplast-division-mutants-under-light-stress
#4
Siddhartha Dutta, Jeffrey A Cruz, Saif M Imran, Jin Chen, David M Kramer, Katherine W Osteryoung
Chloroplasts divide to maintain consistent size, shape, and number in leaf mesophyll cells. Altered expression of chloroplast division proteins in Arabidopsis results in abnormal chloroplast morphology. To better understand the influence of chloroplast morphology on chloroplast movement and photosynthesis, we compared the chloroplast photorelocation and photosynthetic responses of a series of Arabidopsis chloroplast division mutants with a wide variety of chloroplast phenotypes. Chloroplast movement was monitored by red light reflectance imaging of whole plants under increasing intensities of white light...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644898/spatio-temporal-orientation-of-microtubules-controls-conical-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-petals
#5
Huibo Ren, Xie Dang, Xianzhi Cai, Peihang Yu, Yajun Li, Shanshan Zhang, Menghong Liu, Binqing Chen, Deshu Lin
The physiological functions of epidermal cells are largely determined by their diverse morphologies. Most flowering plants have special conical-shaped petal epidermal cells that are thought to influence light capture and reflectance, and provide pollinator grips, but the molecular mechanisms controlling conical cell shape remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a live-confocal imaging approach to quantify geometric parameters of conical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (A.thaliana). Through genetic screens, we identified katanin (KTN1) mutants showing a phenotype of decreased tip sharpening of conical cells...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642781/effects-of-nitrogen-supply-on-water-stress-and-recovery-mechanisms-in-kentucky-bluegrass-plants
#6
Shah Saud, Shah Fahad, Chen Yajun, Muhammad Z Ihsan, Hafiz M Hammad, Wajid Nasim, Amanullah, Muhammad Arif, Hesham Alharby
Non-irrigated crops in temperate and irrigated crops in arid regions are exposed to an incessant series of drought stress and re-watering. Hence, quick and efficient recuperation from drought stress may be amongst the key determinants of plant drought adjustment. Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the capability to assuage water stress in crops by sustaining metabolic activities even at reduced tissue water potential. This study was designed to understand the potential of proper nutrition management by studying the morphological and physiological attributes, and assimilation of nitrogen in Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640221/use-of-chitosan-pva-hydrogels-with-copper-nanoparticles-to-improve-the-growth-of-grafted-watermelon
#7
Homero González Gómez, Francisca Ramírez Godina, Hortensia Ortega Ortiz, Adalberto Benavides Mendoza, Valentín Robledo Torres, Marcelino Cabrera De la Fuente
Modern agriculture requires alternative practices that improve crop growth without negatively affecting the environment, as resources such as water and arable land grow scarcer while the human population continues to increase. Grafting is a cultivation technique that allows the plant to be more efficient in its utilization of water and nutrients, while nanoscale material engineering provides the opportunity to use much smaller quantities of consumables compared to conventional systems but with similar or superior effects...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639015/phytoextraction-of-pb-cr-ni-and-zn-using-the-aquatic-plant-limnobium-laevigatum-and-its-potential-use-in-the-treatment-of-wastewater
#8
Daniela Silvina Arán, Carlos Alfredo Harguinteguy, Alicia Fernandez-Cirelli, María Luisa Pignata
In order to study the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn and the stress response, the floating aquatic plant Limnobium laevigatum was exposed to increasing concentrations of a mixture of these metals for 28 days, and its potential use in the treatment of wastewater was evaluated. The metal concentrations of the treatment 1 (T1) were Pb 1 μg L(-1), Cr 4 μg L(-1), Ni 25 μg L(-1), and Zn 30 μg L(-1); of treatment 2 (T2) were Pb 70 μg L(-1), Cr 70 μg L(-1), Ni 70 μg L(-1), and Zn 70 μg L(-1); and of treatment 3 (T3) were Pb 1000 μg L(-1), Cr 1000 μg L(-1), Ni 500 μg L(-1), and Zn 100 μg L(-1), and there was also a control group (without added metal)...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#9
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627054/effect-of-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-supplementation-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broiler-chickens
#10
I Khan, H Zaneb, S Masood, M S Yousaf, H F Rehman, H Rehman
Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624682/effect-of-the-fungus-piriformospora-indica-on-physiological-characteristics-and-root-morphology-of-wheat-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#11
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter
This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624639/ozone-exposure-and-flux-based-response-relationships-with-photosynthesis-leaf-morphology-and-biomass-in-two-poplar-clones
#12
Bo Shang, Zhaozhong Feng, Pin Li, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Vicent Calatayud
Poplar clones 546 (P. deltoides cv. '55/56'×P. deltoides cv. 'Imperial') and 107 (P. euramericana cv. '74/76') were exposed to five ozone concentrations in 15 open-top chambers (OTCs). Both ozone exposure (AOT40, Accumulation Over a Threshold hourly ozone concentration of 40ppb) and flux-based (POD7, Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above an hourly flux threshold of 7nmol O3 m(-2) PLA (projected leaf area) s(-1)) response relationships were established with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass variables. Increases in both metrics showed significant negative relationships with light-saturated photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per area, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light and root biomass but not with stomatal conductance (gs), leaf and stem biomass...
June 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623306/diversity-of-endophytic-mycobiota-of-tropical-tree-tectona-grandis-linn-f-spatiotemporal-and-tissue-type-effects
#13
Dheeraj K Singh, Vijay K Sharma, Jitendra Kumar, Ashish Mishra, Satish K Verma, Thomas N Sieber, Ravindra N Kharwar
Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaf, bark and stem of Tectona grandis Linn.f. sampled at four geographical locations in winter, summer and monsoon seasons. The recovered 5089 isolates were assigned to 45 distinct morphotypes based on morphology. The sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nrDNA of some morphotypes were identical, but morphological differences were strong enough to consider these morphotypes as separate species. Forty-three morphotypes were assigned to ascomycotina and two to basidiomycotina...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618206/grazing-of-leaf-associated-cercomonads-protists-rhizaria-cercozoa-structures-bacterial-community-composition-and-function
#14
Sebastian Flues, David Bass, Michael Bonkowski
Preferential food selection in protists is well documented, but we still lack basic understanding on how protist predation modifies the taxonomic and functional composition of bacterial communities. We conducted feeding trials using leaf-associated cercomonad Cercozoa by incubating them on a standardized, diverse bacterial community washed from plant leaves. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional changes of the bacterial community after five days protist predation upon bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617536/effects-of-mulberry-leaf-polysaccharide-on-oxidative-stress-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#15
C-G Liu, Y-P Ma, X-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore and discuss the effects and mechanisms of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) on oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells of type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of diabetic rats was established by inducing the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with high-sugar and high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then giving them streptozotocin (STZ) by single intraperitoneal injection. The mulberry leaf polysaccharide was administered via gavage daily for 8 weeks, and the tissue morphology was observed through electron microscopy...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615866/virulence-assay-and-role-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-ts110-as-biocontrol-agent-against-the-larval-stages-of-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis
#16
Tuhin Subhra Ghosh, Soumendranath Chatterjee, Syed Afrin Azmi, Abhijit Mazumdar, Tushar Kanti Dangar
The bacterial isolate Bacillus thuringiensis TS110 was isolated from the rice field soil of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. Bioassay test of the bacteria TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was carried out. Cut leaf assay, potted plant assay and field assay were done. During filed assay, it has been observed that the LC50 (×10(7)) values of TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of C. medinalis were 3.77, 5.29, 4.83 and 4.93, 4.42, 4.72 in dry and wet season, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614606/antagonism-of-trichoderma-isolates-against-leucoagaricus-gongylophorus-singer-m%C3%A3-ller
#17
Mariela Otoni do Nascimento, Renato de Almeida Sarmento, Gil Rodrigues Dos Santos, Cléia Almeida de Oliveira, Danival José de Souza
Filamentous fungi from the genus Trichoderma are commonly found in soil. They are considered facultative mycoparasites, and are antagonists of other fungi such as the cultivar of leaf-cutting ants (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus). The aim of the present study was to bioprospect Trichoderma spp. from different soils collected from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, for antagonistic effects against the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. To isolate filamentous fungi, samples were collected from six locations. Preliminarily, isolates were identified by morphological analysis as belonging to Trichoderma...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611818/long-term-effects-of-red-and-blue-light-emitting-diodes-on-leaf-anatomy-and-photosynthetic-efficiency-of-three-ornamental-pot-plants
#18
Liang Zheng, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
Light quality critically affects plant development and growth. Development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enables the use of narrow band red and/or blue wavelengths as supplementary lighting in ornamental production. Yet, long periods under these wavelengths will affect leaf morphology and physiology. Leaf anatomy, stomatal traits, and stomatal conductance, leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), and photosynthetic efficiency were investigated in three ornamental pot plants, namely Cordyline australis (monocot), Ficus benjamina (dicot, evergreen leaves), and Sinningia speciosa (dicot, deciduous leaves) after 8 weeks under LED light...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611072/decoupled-leaf-and-root-carbon-economics-is-a-key-component-in-the-ecological-diversity-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-deciduous-and-evergreen-lineages-of-genus-rhododendron
#19
Juliana S Medeiros, Jean H Burns, Jaynell Nicholson, Louisa Rogers, Oscar Valverde-Barrantes
PREMISE: We explored trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for 27 Rhododendron species while accounting for phylogenetic relationships and within-species variation to investigate whether leaf and root traits are coordinated across environments and over evolutionary time, as part of a whole-plant economics spectrum. METHODS: We examined specific leaf area (SLA) and four root traits: specific root length (SRL), specific root tip abundance (SRTA), first order diameter, and link average length, for plants growing in a cold, seasonal climate (Kirtland, Ohio) and a warmer, less seasonal climate (Federal Way, Washington) in the United States...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610227/revision-and-phylogeny-of-i-hypotelus-i-erichson-a-neotropical-genus-of-minute-rove-beetles-coleoptera-staphylinidae-piestinae
#20
Sidnei Bortoluzzi, Edilson Caron, Cibele S Ribeiro-Costa
The rove beetle genus Hypotelus Erichson, 1839 is one of seven extant genera of a subfamily with a historically misinterpreted concept, status and phylogenetic position. The genus comprises minute species that have been found under the bark of trees or in leaf litter mainly in Neotropical forests. The major aim of this study was to test the monophyly of this genus based on adult morphology and to review its species. Cladistic analyses were performed and Hypotelus is a monophyletic genus supported by 8 synapomorphies and includes five new species: H...
June 7, 2017: Zootaxa
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