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Justyna Zaborowska, Sylvain Egloff, Shona Murphy
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) II comprises conserved heptad repeats, and post-translational modification of the CTD regulates transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing. Recently, the spatial patterns of modification of the CTD repeats have been investigated, and new functions of CTD modification have been revealed. In addition, there are new insights into the roles of the enzymes that decorate the CTD. We review these new findings and reassess the role of the pol II CTD in the regulation of gene expression...
September 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Laura D Gallego, Medini Ghodgaonkar Steger, Anton A Polyansky, Tobias Schubert, Bojan Zagrovic, Ning Zheng, Tim Clausen, Franz Herzog, Alwin Köhler
Cotranscriptional ubiquitination of histone H2B is key to gene regulation. The yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 (human RNF20/40) pairs with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Rad6 to monoubiquitinate H2B at Lys123. How this single lysine residue on the nucleosome core particle (NCP) is targeted by the Rad6-Bre1 machinery is unknown. Using chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we identified the functional interfaces of Rad6, Bre1, and NCPs in a defined in vitro system. The Bre1 RING domain cross-links exclusively with distinct regions of histone H2B and H2A, indicating a spatial alignment of Bre1 with the NCP acidic patch...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tomohito Yamasaki, Masayuki Onishi, Eun-Jeong Kim, Heriberto Cerutti, Takeshi Ohama
Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in duplexed stem-loops in long precursor transcripts and are excised by sequential cleavage by DICER nuclease(s). In this miRNA biogenesis pathway, dsRNA-binding proteins play important roles in animals and plants by assisting DICER. However, these RNA-binding proteins are poorly characterized in unicellular organisms. Here we report that a unique RNA-binding protein, Dull slicer-16 (DUS16), plays an essential role in processing of primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii In animals and plants, dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis harbor two or three dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs), whereas DUS16 contains one dsRBD and also an ssRNA-binding domain (RRM)...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christine E Cucinotta, Karen M Arndt
Transcription elongation is a key regulatory step in gene expression that is controlled by many proteins, and mechanisms, ranging from RNA Polymerase II pausing to cotranscriptional histone modifications.
August 11, 2016: Cell
Ruth Sperling
The complex life of pre-mRNA from transcription to the production of mRNA that can be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm to encode for proteins entails intricate coordination and regulation of a network of processing events. Coordination is required between transcription and splicing and between several processing events including 5' and 3' end processing, splicing, alternative splicing and editing that are major contributors to the diversity of the human proteome, and occur within a huge and dynamic macromolecular machine-the endogenous spliceosome...
July 27, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Lian-Ju Li, Qing Huang, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of noncoding RNAs that form covalently closed RNA circles. The discovery of circRNAs discloses a new layer of gene regulation occurred post-transcriptionally. Identification of endogenous circRNAs benefits from the advance in high-throughput RNA sequencing and remains challenging. Many studies probing into the mechanisms of circRNAs formation occurred cotranscriptionally or posttranscriptionally emerge and conclude that canonical splicing mechanism, sequence properties, and certain regulatory factors are at play in the process...
August 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Jean-François Lemay, Samuel Marguerat, Marc Larochelle, Xiaochuan Liu, Rob van Nues, Judit Hunyadkürti, Mainul Hoque, Bin Tian, Sander Granneman, Jürg Bähler, François Bachand
Termination of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription is associated with RNA 3' end formation. For coding genes, termination is initiated by the cleavage/polyadenylation machinery. In contrast, a majority of noncoding transcription events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not rely on RNA cleavage for termination but instead terminates via a pathway that requires the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex. Here we show that the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of Nrd1, Seb1, does not function in NNS-like termination but promotes polyadenylation site selection of coding and noncoding genes...
July 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Gerald O Hunter, Melanie J Fox, Whitney R Smith-Kinnaman, Madelaine Gogol, Brian Fleharty, Amber L Mosley
In eukaryotes, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1 contains a heptapeptide repeat sequence of (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7)n that undergoes reversible phosphorylation through the opposing action of kinases and phosphatases. Rtr1 is a conserved protein that colocalizes with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and has been shown to be important for the transition from elongation to termination during transcription by removing RNAPII CTD serine 5 phosphorylation (Ser5-P) at a selection of target genes. In this study, we show that Rtr1 is a global regulator of the CTD code with deletion of RTR1 causing genome-wide changes in Ser5-P CTD phosphorylation and cotranscriptional histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3)...
September 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Alexander C DeHaven, Ian S Norden, Aaron A Hoskins
The process of removing intronic sequences from a precursor to messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) to yield a mature mRNA transcript via splicing is an integral step in eukaryotic gene expression. Splicing is carried out by a cellular nanomachine called the spliceosome that is composed of RNA components and dozens of proteins. Despite decades of study, many fundamentals of spliceosome function have remained elusive. Recent developments in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy have afforded new tools to better probe the spliceosome and the complex, dynamic process of splicing by direct observation of single molecules...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Marie-Christine Hoffmann, Koral Ali, Marleen Sonnenschein, Laura Robrahn, Daria Strauss, Franz Narberhaus, Bernd Masepohl
Many enzymes require the molybdenum cofactor, Moco. Under Mo-limiting conditions, the high-affinity ABC transporter ModABC permits molybdate uptake and Moco biosynthesis in bacteria. Under Mo-replete conditions, Escherichia coli represses modABC transcription by the one-component regulator, ModE, consisting of a DNA-binding and a molybdate-sensing domain. Instead of a full-length ModE protein, many bacteria have a shorter ModE protein, ModE(S) , consisting of a DNA-binding domain only. Here, we asked how such proteins sense the intracellular molybdenum status...
September 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Jason Talkish, Stephanie Biedka, Jelena Jakovljevic, Jingyu Zhang, Lan Tang, John R Strahler, Philip C Andrews, Janine R Maddock, John L Woolford
In higher eukaryotes, pre-rRNA processing occurs almost exclusively post-transcriptionally. This is not the case in rapidly dividing yeast, as the majority of nascent pre-rRNAs are processed cotranscriptionally, with cleavage at the A2 site first releasing a pre-40S ribosomal subunit followed by release of a pre-60S ribosomal subunit upon transcription termination. Ribosome assembly is driven in part by hierarchical association of assembly factors and r-proteins. Groups of proteins are thought to associate with pre-ribosomes cotranscriptionally during early assembly steps, whereas others associate later, after transcription is completed...
June 2016: RNA
Sheng-Rui Liu, Chun-Gen Hu, Jin-Zhi Zhang
RNAs, which play significant roles in many fundamental biological processes of life, fold into sophisticated and precise structures. RNA folding is a dynamic and intricate process, which conformation transition of coding and noncoding RNAs form the primary elements of genetic regulation. The cellular environment contains various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that potentially affect RNA folding in vivo, and experimental and theoretical evidence increasingly indicates that the highly flexible features of the RNA structure are affected by these factors, which include the flanking sequence context, physiochemical conditions, cis RNA-RNA interactions, and RNA interactions with other molecules...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Liman Zhang, Chen Wu, Gaihong Cai, She Chen, Keqiong Ye
The eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is associated cotranscriptionally with numerous factors into an enormous 90S preribosomal particle that conducts early processing of small ribosomal subunits. The assembly pathway and structure of the 90S particle is poorly understood. Here, we affinity-purified and analyzed the constituents of yeast 90S particles that were assembled on a series of plasmid-encoded 3'-truncated pre-18S RNAs. We determined the assembly point of 65 proteins and the U3, U14, and snR30 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), revealing a stepwise and dynamic assembly map...
March 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Kirill A Afonin, Mathias Viard, Philip Tedbury, Eckart Bindewald, Lorena Parlea, Marshall Howington, Melissa Valdman, Alizah Johns-Boehme, Cara Brainerd, Eric O Freed, Bruce A Shapiro
Current work reports the use of single-stranded RNA toeholds of different lengths to promote the reassociation of various RNA-DNA hybrids, which results in activation of multiple split functionalities inside human cells. The process of reassociation is analyzed and followed with a novel computational multistrand secondary structure prediction algorithm and various experiments. All of our previously designed RNA/DNA nanoparticles employed single-stranded DNA toeholds to initiate reassociation. The use of RNA toeholds is advantageous because of the simpler design rules, the shorter toeholds, and the smaller size of the resulting nanoparticles (by up to 120 nucleotides per particle) compared to the same hybrid nanoparticles with single-stranded DNA toeholds...
March 9, 2016: Nano Letters
Noemí Sánchez-Hernández, Stéphanie Boireau, Ute Schmidt, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Cobo, Cristina Hernández-Munain, Edouard Bertrand, Carlos Suñé
Coupling between transcription and RNA processing is key for gene regulation. Using live-cell photobleaching techniques, we investigated the factor TCERG1, which coordinates transcriptional elongation with splicing. We demonstrate that TCERG1 is highly mobile in the nucleoplasm and that this mobility is slightly decreased when it is associated with speckles. Dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) but not α-amanitin treatment reduced the mobility of TCERG1, which suggests interaction with paused transcription elongation complexes...
April 2016: RNA
Dilshad H Khan, Carolina Gonzalez, Nikesh Tailor, Mohammad K Hamedani, Etienne Leygue, James R Davie
Pre-mRNA splicing is a cotranscriptional process affected by the chromatin architecture along the body of coding genes. Recruited to the pre-mRNA by splicing factors, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and K-acetyltransferases (KATs) catalyze dynamic histone acetylation along the gene. In colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells, HDAC inhibition specifically increased KAT2B occupancy as well as H3 and H4 acetylation of the H3K4 trimethylated (H3K4me3) nucleosome positioned over alternative exon 2 of the MCL1 gene, an event paralleled with the exclusion of exon 2...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Domagoj Hodko, Taylor Ward, Guillaume Chanfreau
Rtr1p is a phosphatase that impacts gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we show that Rtr1p is a component of a novel mRNA degradation pathway that promotes its autoregulation through turnover of its own mRNA. We show that the 3'UTR of the RTR1 mRNA contains a cis element that destabilizes this mRNA. RTR1 mRNA turnover is achieved through binding of Rtr1p to the RTR1 mRNP in a manner that is dependent on this cis element...
April 2016: RNA
Venkata R Chalamcharla, H Diego Folco, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, Shiv I S Grewal
Cotranscriptional RNA processing and surveillance factors mediate heterochromatin formation in diverse eukaryotes. In fission yeast, RNAi machinery and RNA elimination factors including the Mtl1-Red1 core and the exosome are involved in facultative heterochromatin assembly; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that RNA elimination factors cooperate with the conserved exoribonuclease Dhp1/Rat1/Xrn2, which couples pre-mRNA 3'-end processing to transcription termination, to promote premature termination and facultative heterochromatin formation at meiotic genes...
December 22, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vladimir Pak, Tristan T Eifler, Stefanie Jäger, Nevan J Krogan, Koh Fujinaga, B Matija Peterlin
Transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinases play important roles in eukaryotic gene expression. CDK7, CDK9 (P-TEFb), and CDK13 are also critical for HIV replication. However, the function of CDK11 remained enigmatic. In this report, we determined that CDK11 regulates the cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) of all viral transcripts. CDK11 was found associated with the TREX/THOC, which recruited this kinase to DNA. Once at the viral genome, CDK11 phosphorylated serines at position 2 in the CTD of RNAPII, which increased levels of CPA factors at the HIV 3' end...
November 11, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Yang Yu, Jiaqi Gu, Ying Jin, Yicheng Luo, Jonathan B Preall, Jinbiao Ma, Benjamin Czech, Gregory J Hannon
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is a small RNA-based innate immune system that defends germ cell genomes against transposons. In Drosophila ovaries, the nuclear Piwi protein is required for transcriptional silencing of transposons, though the precise mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Here we show that the CG9754 protein is a component of Piwi complexes that functions downstream of Piwi and its binding partner, Asterix, in transcriptional silencing. Enforced tethering of CG9754 to nascent messenger RNA transcripts causes cotranscriptional silencing of the source locus and the deposition of repressive chromatin marks...
October 16, 2015: Science
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