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Roger A Lobo, J H Pickar, J C Stevenson, W J Mack, H N Hodis
In the late 1980s, several observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was beneficial for prevention of osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia and decreased all-cause mortality. In 1992, the American College of Physicians recommended HRT for prevention of coronary disease. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several randomized trials in older women suggested coronary harm and that the risks, including breast cancer, outweighed any benefit. HRT stopped being prescribed at that time, even for women who had severe symptoms of menopause...
October 6, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Nejdet Değermenci, İbrahim Cengiz, Ergun Yildiz, Alper Nuhoglu
In this study, following the pre-treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW), its treatment in a jet loop membrane bioreactor (JLMBR) was investigated. Among the pre-treatment options, the configuration composed of physical settling, cartridge filter and ceramic membrane showed the best performance in terms of investigated parameters. For the JLMBR that was fed by pretreated OMW, up to 93 and 87% removal efficiencies were achieved for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol, respectively, at volumetric organic load (VOL) of 17...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Martha M Yeshanew, Luigi Frunzo, Vincenzo Luongo, Francesco Pirozzi, Piet N L Lens, Giovanni Esposito
The present work studied the start-up process of a mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days using synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater. Anox Kaldness-K1 carriers were used as biofilm carrier material. The reactor performance and biofilm formation were evaluated during the process. The start-up process at lower liquid recirculation flow rate enhanced the biofilm formation and reactor performance. The organic substrate composition had a major impact on early colonization of methanogenic archaea onto the surface of the Kaldness carriers during the start-up process...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Baisuo Zhao, Jie Liu, Craig Frear, Mark Holtzapple, Shulin Chen
This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Çagatay Caglar, Adem Gul, Muhammed Batur, Tekin Yasar
PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and glaucoma probability score (GPS) between healthy and glaucomatous eyes with Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 (HRT-3). METHODS: The study included 120 eyes of 75 glaucoma patients and 138 eyes of 73 normal subjects, for a total of 258 eyes of 148 individuals. All measurements were performed with the HRT-3. Diagnostic test criteria (sensitivity, specificity, etc.) were used to evaluate how efficiently GPS and MRA algorithms in the HRT-3 discriminated between the glaucoma and control groups...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Tao Zhang, Zehua Huang, Xiaohong Chen, Mingzhi Huang, Jujun Ruan
Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as one of the most important and extensively used Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is known to likely cause dysfunctions of the endocrine systems, liver, and nervous systems of animals. In this paper, the degradation and behavior of DMP were investigated in a laboratory scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) treatment system. In addition, a degradation model including biodegradation and sorption was formulated so as to evaluate the fate of DMP in the treatment system, and a mass balance model was designed to determine kinetic parameters of the removal model...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yanlong Zhang, Haiyuan Ma, Qigui Niu, Rong Chen, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
The accumulation of soluble microbial production (SMP) in an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) and its effect on the reactor performance were investigated in this study. During the long-term experiment, an extended HRT resulted in the accumulation of SMP and the change of treatment performance. When the SMP increased from 10.5±1.5mgL(-1) to 31.7±6.4mgL(-1) with the increase of influent TN concentration from 313mgL(-1) to 2500mgL(-1), the TN removal efficiency was stable. However, when the influent TN concentration was 3500mgL(-1), the SMP concentration increased higher than 100mgL(-1), the reactor soon became inhibited...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Roger A Lobo
For several decades, the role of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has been debated. Early observational data on HRT showed many benefits, including a reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. More recently, randomized trials, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), studying mostly women many years after the the onset of menopause, showed no such benefit and, indeed, an increased risk of CHD and breast cancer, which led to an abrupt decrease in the use of HRT. Subsequent reanalyzes of data from the WHI with age stratification, newer randomized and observational data and several meta-analyses now consistently show reductions in CHD and mortality when HRT is initiated soon after menopause...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Charles R Ashby, Bhargav A Patel, Tanaji T Talele, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans...
2016: PloS One
En Shi, Jianzheng Li, Shao-Yuan Leu, Philip Antwi
To predict the dynamic profiles in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) during the startup of a 4-compartment ABR, a mathematical model was constructed by introducing pH and thermodynamic inhibition functions into the biochemical processes derived from the ADM1. The calibration of inhibition parameter for propionate uptake effectively improved the prediction accuracy of VFAs. The developed model could simulate the VFAs profiles very well no matter the observable change of pH or/and HRT...
September 20, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Pengyuan Ding, Libing Chu, Jianlong Wang
A novel process integrating anaerobic hydrolysis-acidification (HA) and anoxic/oxic (A/O) reactors was developed to treat the actual petrochemical wastewater, which was operated for more than 8 months, the removal efficiency of COD and NH4(+)-N was monitored, and the microbial community was analyzed. The results showed that the effluent concentrations were maintained at around 99 and 1.3 mg/L, with the removal efficiency of 70.6 and 95.4 %, respectively at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h...
October 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gyucheol Choi, Jaai Kim, Changsoo Lee
Mixed-culture fermentation that does not require an energy-intensive sterilization process is a viable approach for the economically feasible production of lactic acid (LA) due to the potential use of organic waste as feedstock. This study investigated mixed-culture LA fermentation of whey, a high-strength organic wastewater, in continuous mode. Variations in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 120 to 8 h under different pH regimes in two thermophilic reactors (55 °C) were compared for their fermentation performance...
October 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lei Yan, Peng Chen, Shuang Zhang, Suyue Li, Xiaojuan Yan, Ningbo Wang, Ning Liang, Hongyu Li
We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ivar Snorrason, Michael R Walther, T David Elkin, Douglas W Woods
Although cognitive behavioral treatments (CBTs) have been recommended as first-line interventions for trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder [HPD]), research on CBT for young children with HPD is limited. We illustrate the use of family-based CBT for HPD in an 8-year-old boy. The client had a 5-year history of chronic HPD and several large bald spots on the crown of his head. Treatment primarily comprised habit reversal training (HRT) and function-based interventions. The child showed significant improvement in HPD severity and impairment after 8 weekly sessions, although complete abstinence was not achieved...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Frédérique Albarel, Jeanne Perrin, Margaux Jegaden, Florence Roucher-Boulez, Rachel Reynaud, Thierry Brue, Blandine Courbiere
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mutations are the most frequent aetiologies of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH). Phenotypes may vary, and puberty may be absent in affected individuals. To date, only two pregnancies have been described in 46,XX CLAH patients with StAR mutations; these patients exhibited ovarian steroidogenesis along with spontaneous puberty and menarche and normal menses. The patient described here presented with CLAH caused by the homozygous (unreported, 1 bp) deletion c...
October 3, 2016: Human Reproduction
Bin Ji, Taoyuan Wei, Wei Chen, Jie Fan, Jian Wang, Lei Zhu, Kai Yang
A sequencing batch biofilm filter (SBBF) was applied to treat domestic sewage. The bioreactor consisted of fibrous filler in the upper part and ceramsite filter media in the lower part. The impacts of the most important factors including dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were evaluated on contaminants removal during the operation of the SBBF. Changes in DO (1.5-4.0 mg/L) and water temperature (2-30 °C) had little effect on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), but had a greater impact on the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and NH4(+)-N...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
E L Moss, S Taneja, F Munir, C Kent, L Robinson, N Potdar, P Sarhanis, H McDermott
The ever-improving prognosis of women diagnosed with cervical cancer has meant that survivorship and treatment-related sequelae are being brought more into the spotlight in an attempt to try to reduce morbidity and improve women's long-term health. However, there are many issues surrounding an iatrogenic menopause in cervical cancer, a variety of potential management options and barriers to treatment. Women who have become menopausal under the age of 45 years as a result of cervical cancer are significantly less likely to start hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or continue it long term as compared with those who have undergone a surgical menopause for a benign reason...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Takashi Yazawa, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Kaoru Miyamoto, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Junsuke Uwada, Akihiro Umezawa, Takanobu Taniguchi
Steroid hormones are mainly produced in adrenal glands and gonads. Because steroid hormones play vital roles in various physiological processes, replacement of deficient steroid hormones by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. In addition to HRT, tissue regeneration using stem cells is predicted to provide novel therapy. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into steroidogenic cells following ectopic expression of nuclear receptor (NR) 5A subfamily proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (also known as adrenal 4 binding protein) and liver receptor homolog-1, with the aid of cAMP signaling...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Joseph F McGuire
Persistent tic disorders and Tourette disorder (TD) are neuropsychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although historically managed with pharmacological agents such as antipsychotics and alpha-2 agonists, behavioral interventions like habit reversal training (HRT) and the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics have demonstrated considerable efficacy in reducing tic symptom severity. This case study illustrates the implementation of behavior therapy in reducing tic symptom severity of an adolescent with TD...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jinkai Xue, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Two identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 742 consecutive days for raw and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment. The MBRs not only substantially degraded OSPW classical and oxidized NAs, but also demonstrated outstanding membrane fouling control performance (the MBR receiving raw OSPW experienced its first severe fouling with a transmembrane pressure (TMP) of -35 kPa on Day 433). The mild ozonation (30 mg O3/L) pretreatment of OSPW remarkably enhanced OSPW NA degradation, and improved the MBR's fouling control in terms of prolonged long-term slow TMP growth phase and reduced TMP jump frequency...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
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