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ebola diagnostic

Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Atul Vashist, Rahul Dev Jayant, Asahi Tomitaka, Sharif Ahmad, Y K Gupta, Madhavan Nair
Since centuries, the rapid spread and cure of infectious diseases have been a major concern to the progress and survival of humans. These diseases are a global burden and the prominent cause for worldwide deaths and disabilities. Nanomedicine has emerged as the most excellent tool to eradicate and halt their spread. Various nanoformulations (NFs) using advanced nanotechnology are in demand. Recently, hydrogel and nanogel based drug delivery devices have posed new prospects to simulate the natural intelligence of various biological systems...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Bassirou Diarra, David Safronetz, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, Amadou Kone, Moumine Sanogo, Sady Tounkara, Antieme C G Togo, Fatoumata Daou, Almoustapha I Maiga, Sounkalo Dao, Kyle Rosenke, Darryl Falzarano, Seydou Doumbia, Kathryn C Zoon, Michael Polis, Sophia Siddiqui, Samba Sow, Tom G Schwan, Heinz Feldmann, Souleyman Diallo, Ousmane A Koita
Aware of the rapid spread of Ebola virus (EBOV) during the current West African epidemic, Mali took several proactive steps to rapidly identify cases within its borders. Under the Mali International Center for Excellence in Research program, a collaboration between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Malian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research established a national EBOV diagnostic site at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako in the SEREFO Laboratory...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Byron Kiiza Yafesi Bitanihirwe
Infectious disease continues to have dramatic effects on morbidity and mortality around the world. Few events could cause such loss of life and damage to livelihoods. As witnessed with the recent West African Ebola outbreak, raising alerts and identifying the outbreak in the community took too long. As a consequence local health systems were quickly overwhelmed. In addition, response at the international level proved slow and poorly coordinated. Rapid diagnostics, effective therapeutics, protective equipment, and a vaccine were all lacking...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Ellen J Eckes, Debbie Gutierrez, Ann Peterson, Melissa Hubbard, Kevin Barrett, Ann Marie Matlock
Nurses manage patients with common infectious diseases by following institutional guidelines based on expert advice, evidence in the literature, and a wealth of experience. Today nurses are challenged to provide care to patients with multidrug-resistant organisms and virulent infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease. Management of some patients with virulent infectious diseases occurs in the context of minimal experience with the pathogen, course of infection, diagnostics, nursing care, and treatment...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Maru Aregawi, Samuel J Smith, Musa Sillah-Kanu, John Seppeh, Anitta R Y Kamara, Ryan O Williams, John J Aponte, Andrea Bosman, Pedro Alonso
BACKGROUND: As emergency response to the Ebola epidemic, the Government of Sierra Leone and its partners implemented a large-scale Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) covering >2.7 million people in the districts hardest hit by Ebola during December 2014-January 2015. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) evaluated the impact of the MDA on malaria morbidity at health facilities and the number of Ebola alerts received at District Ebola Command Centres...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jason W Benzine, Kerry M Brown, Krystle N Agans, Ronald Godiska, Chad E Mire, Krishne Gowda, Brandon Converse, Thomas W Geisbert, David A Mead, Yogesh Chander
A molecular diagnostic method for robust detection of Ebola virus (EBOV) at the point of care (POC) directly from blood samples is described. This assay is based on reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) of the glycoprotein gene of EBOV. Complete reaction formulations were lyophilized in 0.2-mL polymerase chain reaction tubes. RT-LAMP reactions were performed on a battery-operated isothermal instrument. Limit of detection of this RT-LAMP assay was 2.8 × 10(2) plaque-forming units (PFU)/test and 1 × 10(3) PFU/test within 40 minutes for EBOV-Kikwit and EBOV-Makona, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Romy Kerber, Ralf Krumkamp, Boubacar Diallo, Anna Jaeger, Martin Rudolf, Simone Lanini, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Erna Fleischmann, Kilian Stoecker, Silvia Meschi, Stéphane Mély, Edmund N C Newman, Fabrizio Carletti, Jasmine Portmann, Misa Korva, Svenja Wolff, Peter Molkenthin, Zoltan Kis, Anne Kelterbaum, Anne Bocquin, Thomas Strecker, Alexandra Fizet, Concetta Castilletti, Gordian Schudt, Lisa Ottowell, Andreas Kurth, Barry Atkinson, Marlis Badusche, Angela Cannas, Elisa Pallasch, Andrew Bosworth, Constanze Yue, Bernadett Pályi, Heinz Ellerbrok, Claudia Kohl, Lisa Oestereich, Christopher H Logue, Anja Lüdtke, Martin Richter, Didier Ngabo, Benny Borremans, Dirk Becker, Sophie Gryseels, Saïd Abdellati, Tine Vermoesen, Eeva Kuisma, Annette Kraus, Britta Liedigk, Piet Maes, Ruth Thom, Sophie Duraffour, Sandra Diederich, Julia Hinzmann, Babak Afrough, Johanna Repits, Marc Mertens, Inês Vitoriano, Amadou Bah, Andreas Sachse, Jan Peter Boettcher, Stephanie Wurr, Sabrina Bockholt, Andreas Nitsche, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Marc Strasser, Giuseppe Ippolito, Stephan Becker, Herve Raoul, Miles W Carroll, Hilde De Clerck, Michel Van Herp, Armand Sprecher, Lamine Koivogui, N'Faly Magassouba, Sakoba Keïta, Patrick Drury, Cèline Gurry, Pierre Formenty, Jürgen May, Martin Gabriel, Roman Wölfel, Stephan Günther, Antonino Di Caro
BACKGROUND:  A unit of the European Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) consortium was deployed to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) treatment unit in Guéckédou, Guinea, from March 2014 through March 2015. METHODS:  The unit diagnosed EVD and malaria, using the RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and a malaria rapid diagnostic test, respectively. RESULTS:  The cleaned EMLab database comprised 4719 samples from 2741 cases of suspected EVD from Guinea...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Edgar Simulundu, Aaron S Mweene, Katendi Changula, Mwaka Monze, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba, Ayato Takada, Guiseppe Ippolito, Francis Kasolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections...
September 5, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Bobbie R Erickson, Tara K Sealy, Tim Flietstra, Laura Morgan, Brima Kargbo, Victor E Matt-Lebby, Aridth Gibbons, Ayan K Chakrabarti, James Graziano, Lance Presser, Mike Flint, Brian H Bird, Shelley Brown, John D Klena, Dianna M Blau, Aaron C Brault, Jessica A Belser, Johanna S Salzer, Amy J Schuh, Michael Lo, Marko Zivcec, Rachael A Priestley, Meredith Pyle, Christin Goodman, Scott Bearden, Brian R Amman, Alison Basile, Éric Bergeron, Michael D Bowen, Kimberly A Dodd, Molly M Freeman, Laura K McMullan, Christopher D Paddock, Brandy J Russell, Angela J Sanchez, Jonathan S Towner, David Wang, Galina E Zemtsova, Robyn A Stoddard, Maryann Turnsek, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Shannon L Emery, Janae Stovall, Markus H Kainulainen, Jamie L Perniciaro, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Gulchekhra Shakirova, Jörn Winter, Christopher Sexton, Feng Liu, Kimetha Slater, Raydel Anderson, Lauren Andersen, Cheng-Feng Chiang, Wen-Pin Tzeng, Samuel J Crowe, Matthew J Maenner, Christina F Spiropoulou, Stuart T Nichol, Ute Ströher
During the Ebola virus outbreak of 2013-2016, the Viral Special Pathogens Branch field laboratory in Sierra Leone tested approximately 26 000 specimens between August 2014 and October 2015. Analysis of the B2M endogenous control Ct values showed its utility in monitoring specimen quality, comparing results with different specimen types, and interpretation of results. For live patients, blood is the most sensitive specimen type and oral swabs have little diagnostic utility. However, swabs are highly sensitive for diagnostic testing of corpses...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
M L Boisen, J N Hartnett, A Goba, M A Vandi, D S Grant, J S Schieffelin, R F Garry, L M Branco
The 2013-16 West African Ebola outbreak is the largest, most geographically dispersed, and deadliest on record, with 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths recorded to date in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. We provide a review of the epidemiology and management of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa aimed at stimulating reflection on lessons learned that may improve the response to the next international health crisis caused by a pathogen that emerges in a region of the world with a severely limited health care infrastructure...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Todd Cutts, Allen Grolla, Shane Jones, Bradley W M Cook, Xiangguo Qiu, Steven S Theriault
Personnel deployed to remote areas during infectious disease outbreaks have limited access to mechanical and chemical inactivation resources. The inactivation of infectious agents present in diagnostic samples is critical to ensure the safety of personnel and the containment of the disease. We evaluated the efficacy of thermal inactivation (exposure to 56°C for 1 hour) and chemical inactivation with 0.5% Tween-20 against a high titer of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) variant Makona in spiked human serum samples...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Vincent J Munster, Andrea Marzi, Darryl Falzarano, Clayton O Onyango, Melvin Ochieng, Bonventure Juma, Robert J Fischer, Joseph B Prescott, David Safronetz, Victor Omballa, Collins Owuor, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Cynthia Martellaro, Neeltje van Doremalen, Galina Zemtsova, Joshua Self, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin McNally, Thomas Rowe, Shannon L Emery, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Allen Grolla, James E Strong, Gary Kobinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Kathryn C Zoon, Jorgen Stassijns, Ruggero Giuliani, Martin de Smet, Stuart T Nichol, Barry Fields, Armand Sprecher, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. METHODS: All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Pengfei Wei, Zelang Cai, Jinwen Hua, Weijia Yu, Jiajie Chen, Kang Kang, Congling Qiu, Lanlan Ye, Jiayun Hu, Kunmei Ji
Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China's infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system...
2016: BioMed Research International
Matthew L Boisen, Robert W Cross, Jessica N Hartnett, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Mohamed Fullah, Michael Gbakie, Sidiki Safa, Mbalu Fonnie, Francis Baimba, Veronica J Koroma, Joan B Geisbert, Stephanie McCormick, Diana K S Nelson, Molly M Millett, Darin Oottamasathien, Abby B Jones, Ha Pham, Bethany L Brown, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, Brima Kargbo, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, Russell B Wilson, Kelly R Pitts, Thomas W Geisbert, Luis M Branco, Sheik H Khan, Donald S Grant, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is the largest recorded. Triage on the basis of clinical signs had limited success, and the time to diagnosis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) could exceed 5 days. Here we describe the development and field validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) to aid triage of individuals with suspected EVD. METHODS:  Samples from patients with suspected EVD were submitted to Kenema Government Hospital, Sierra Leone, for Lassa fever and EVD screening throughout 2014...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
George P Anderson, Daniel D Teichler, Dan Zabetakis, Lisa C Shriver-Lake, Jinny L Liu, Stephen G Lonsdale, Sarah A Goodchild, Ellen R Goldman
Single-domain antibodies derived from the unique New Antigen Receptor found in sharks have numerous potential applications, ranging from diagnostic reagents to therapeutics. Shark-derived single-domain antibodies possess the same characteristic ability to refold after heat denaturation found in single-domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies. Recently, two shark derived single-domain antibodies specific for the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus were described. Our evaluation confirmed their high affinity for the nucleoprotein, but found their melting temperatures to be low relative to most single-domain antibodies...
2016: PloS One
Emmie de Wit, Shelby Kramer, Joseph Prescott, Kyle Rosenke, Darryl Falzarano, Andrea Marzi, Robert J Fischer, David Safronetz, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Neeltje van Doremalen, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin L McNally, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Hideki Ebihara, Igor A C Damiani, Brett Adamson, Kathryn C Zoon, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Fatorma K Bolay, Moses Massaquoi, Armand Sprecher, Heinz Feldmann, Vincent J Munster
The development of point-of-care clinical chemistry analyzers has enabled the implementation of these ancillary tests in field laboratories in resource-limited outbreak areas. The Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) outbreak diagnostic laboratory, established in Monrovia, Liberia, to provide Ebola virus and Plasmodium spp. diagnostics during the Ebola epidemic, implemented clinical chemistry analyzers in December 2014. Clinical chemistry testing was performed for 68 patients in triage, including 12 patients infected with Ebola virus and 18 infected with Plasmodium spp...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne, Helen Karlberg, Karoline Bragstad, Gunnel Lindegren, Malin Lundahl Stoltz, Cristiano Salata, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Susanne Gjeruldsen Dudman, Ali Mirazimi, Anders Fomsgaard
Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Kristen E McLean, Sharon Alane Abramowitz, Jacob D Ball, Josephine Monger, Kodjo Tehoungue, Sarah Lindley McKune, Mosoka Fallah, Patricia A Omidian
The goal of this study was to assess morbidity, mortality, and health-seeking behaviours during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia. This study examined commonly reported symptoms of illness, pre-clinical diagnostic practices, typical healthcare-seeking strategies, and health resources available to populations, in order to identify salient needs and gaps in healthcare that would inform local emergency response efforts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with household members in four Monrovia neighbourhoods...
July 27, 2016: Global Public Health
Reiko Yoshida, Shino Muramatsu, Hiroshi Akita, Yuji Saito, Miwa Kuwahara, Daisuke Kato, Katendi Changula, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Rashid Manzoor, Wakako Furuyama, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Aaron Mweene, Justin Masumu, Jimmy Kapeteshi, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Ayato Takada
The latest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has highlighted the urgent need for the development of rapid and reliable diagnostic assays. We used monoclonal antibodies specific to the ebolavirus nucleoprotein to develop an immunochromatography (IC) assay (QuickNavi-Ebola) for rapid diagnosis of EVD. The IC assay was first evaluated with tissue culture supernatants of infected Vero E6 cells and found to be capable of detecting 10(3)-10(4) focus-forming units/mL of ebolaviruses. Using serum samples from experimentally infected nonhuman primates, we confirmed that the assay could detect the viral antigen shortly after disease onset...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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