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ebola diagnostic

Delphin Kolie, Bienvenu S Camara, Alexandre Delamou, Abdoul H Béavogui, Veerle Hermans, Jeffrey K Edwards, Guido Benedetti, Claude P Muller, Johan van Griensven, Rony Zachariah
INTRODUCTION: The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was disruptive for the general health services in the affected countries. This study assessed the impact of the outbreak on the reported number and management of malaria in children under-five in rural Guinea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in nineteen health centres in two rural, malaria-endemic health districts, one at the epicentre of the outbreak (Guéckédou) and one (Koubia) spared by Ebola...
2018: PloS One
James Logue, Kaylie Tuznik, Dean Follmann, Greg Grandits, Jonathan Marchand, Cavan Reilly, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, James Pettitt, Eric J Stavale, Mosoka Fallah, Gene G Olinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Lisa E Hensley
As part of the scientific community's development of medical countermeasures against Ebola virus disease, optimization of standardized assays for product evaluation is paramount. The recent outbreak heightened awareness to the scarcity of available assays and limited information on performance and reproducibility. To evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccines entering Phase I-III trials and to identify survivors, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group assay and the Alpha Diagnostics International assay, were evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G against Ebola virus glycoprotein...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Maite Sabalza, Rubina Yasmin, Cheryl A Barber, Talita Castro, Daniel Malamud, Beum Jun Kim, Hui Zhu, Richard A Montagna, William R Abrams
In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of infectious disease outbreaks that spread rapidly to population centers resulting from global travel, population vulnerabilities, environmental factors, and ecological disasters such as floods and earthquakes. Some examples of the recent outbreaks are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Co) in the Middle East, and the Zika outbreak through the Americas. We have created a generic protocol for detection of pathogen RNA and/or DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and reverse dot-blot for detection (RDB) and processed automatically in a microfluidic device...
2018: PloS One
Manousos E Kambouris, Yiannis Manoussopoulos, Maria Kantzanou, Aristea Velegraki, Georgios Gaitanis, Michalis Arabatzis, George P Patrinos
Global Catastrophic Biological Risks (GCBRs) refer to biological events-natural, deliberate, and accidental-of a global and lasting impact. This challenges the life scientists to raise their game on two hitherto neglected innovation frontiers: a veritable "futures" thinking to "think the unthinkable," and "systems thinking" so as to see both the trees and the forest when it comes to GCBRs. This innovation analysis article outlines the promise of Omics systems science biotechnologies, for example, to deploy rapid fire diagnostics for health security crises at GCBR level, possibly involving neopathogens and/or incurring epidemics (e...
January 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Gui-Hua Qiu, Zi-Hua Weng, Pei-Pei Hu, Wen-Jun Duan, Bao-Ping Xie, Bin Sun, Xiao-Yan Tang, Jin-Xiang Chen
From a three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic framework (MOF) of {[Cu(Cmdcp)(phen)(H2O)]2·9H2O}n (1, H3CmdcpBr = N-carboxymethyl-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide, phen = phenanthroline), a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor has been developed for the simultaneous detection of ebolavirus conserved RNA sequences and ebolavirus-encoded microRNA-like (miRNA-like) fragment. The results from molecular dynamics simulation confirmed that MOF 1 absorbs carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-tagged and 5(6)-carboxyrhodamine, triethylammonium salt (ROX)-tagged probe ss-DNA (probe DNA, P-DNA) by π…π stacking and hydrogen bonding, as well as additional electrostatic interactions to form a sensing platform of P-DNAs@1 with quenched FAM and ROX fluorescence...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
Philomena Raftery, Orla Condell, Christine Wasunna, Jonathan Kpaka, Ruth Zwizwai, Mahmood Nuha, Mosoka Fallah, Maxwell Freeman, Victoria Harris, Mark Miller, April Baller, Moses Massaquoi, Victoria Katawera, John Saindon, Philip Bemah, Esther Hamblion, Evelyn Castle, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert Nyenswah
The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jinny L Liu, Lisa C Shriver-Lake, George P Anderson, Dan Zabetakis, Ellen R Goldman
BACKGROUND: A key advantage of recombinant antibody technology is the ability to optimize and tailor reagents. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), the recombinantly produced variable domains derived from camelid and shark heavy chain antibodies, provide advantages of stability and solubility and can be further engineered to enhance their properties. In this study, we generated sdAbs specific for Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP) and increased their stability to expand their utility for use in austere locals...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
A Mérens, C Bigaillon, D Delaune
The Ebola virus disease outbreak observed in West Africa from March 2014 to June 2016 has led to many fundamental and applied research works. Knowledge of this virus has substantially increased. Treatment of many patients in epidemic countries and a few imported cases in developed countries led to developing new diagnostic methods and to adapt laboratory organization and biosafety precautions to perform conventional biological analyses. Clinical and biological monitoring of patients infected with Ebola virus disease helped to determine severity criteria and bad prognosis markers...
March 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Amanda VanSteelandt, Josephine Aho, Kristyn Franklin, Jacques Likofata, Jean Baptiste Kamgang, Sakoba Keita, Lamine Koivogui, N'Faly Magassouba, Lise D Martel, Anicet George Dahourou
BACKGROUND: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) at the point of care have the potential to increase access and acceptability of EVD testing and the speed of patient isolation and secure burials for suspect cases. A pilot program for EVD RDTs in high risk areas of Guinea was introduced in October 2015. This paper presents concordance data between EVD RDTs and PCR testing in the field as well as an assessment of the acceptability, feasibility, and quality assurance of the RDT program...
2017: PloS One
Kyle B Gustafson, Joshua L Proctor
Containing the recent West African outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) required the deployment of substantial global resources. Despite recent progress in analysing and modelling EBOV epidemiological data, a complete characterization of the spatio-temporal spread of Ebola cases remains a challenge. In this work, we offer a novel perspective on the EBOV epidemic in Sierra Leone that uses individual virus genome sequences to inform population-level, spatial models. Calibrated to phylogenetic linkages of virus genomes, these spatial models provide unique insight into the disease mobility of EBOV in Sierra Leone without the need for human mobility data...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
M Biava, F Colavita, A Marzorati, D Russo, D Pirola, A Cocci, A Petrocelli, M Delli Guanti, G Cataldi, T A Kamara, A S Kamara, K Konneh, A Cannas, S Coen, S Quartu, S Meschi, M B Valli, A Mazzarelli, C Venditti, G Grassi, G Rozera, C Castilletti, A Mirazimi, M R Capobianchi, G Ippolito, R Miccio, A Di Caro
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak showed a lack of diagnostic point-of-care methods. Currently, EBOV diagnosis relies on quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR (RT- qPCR), highly specific and sensitive, but requiring skilled personnel and well-equipped laboratories. In field settings, these factors and others, such as samples' time of collection and transportation, determine a prolonged turnaround-time to final results. In outbreak scenarios, a rapid and transportable method could eliminate issues of cohorting suspected and actual EVD patients for lack of diagnostic certainty...
February 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Annika Brinkmann, Koray Ergünay, Aleksandar Radonić, Zeliha Kocak Tufan, Cristina Domingo, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics. METHODOLOGY: An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tomasz Wolkowicz
Modern diagnostics is in general based on molecular biology methods. Nowadays sequencing-based methods, especially whole genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly important. Implementation of such methods into routine diagnostic of highly dangerous pathogens, like Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Ebola virus, MERS, Lassa virus etc. would be very helpful. The best diagnostic strategy would be the metagenomic sequencing directly from the clinical sample. Implementation of majority of currently available WGS platforms inside the BSL-3 or 4 laboratory is impractical because of the size of the equipment and time consuming wet lab part (e...
November 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Jennifer L Gardy, Nicholas J Loman
The recent Ebola and Zika epidemics demonstrate the need for the continuous surveillance, rapid diagnosis and real-time tracking of emerging infectious diseases. Fast, affordable sequencing of pathogen genomes - now a staple of the public health microbiology laboratory in well-resourced settings - can affect each of these areas. Coupling genomic diagnostics and epidemiology to innovative digital disease detection platforms raises the possibility of an open, global, digital pathogen surveillance system. When informed by a One Health approach, in which human, animal and environmental health are considered together, such a genomics-based system has profound potential to improve public health in settings lacking robust laboratory capacity...
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
F Colavita, M Biava, P Mertens, Q Gilleman, C Borlon, M Delli Guanti, A Petrocelli, G Cataldi, A T Kamara, S A Kamara, K Konneh, D Vincenti, C Castilletti, S Abdurahman, A Mirazimi, M R Capobianchi, G Ippolito, R Miccio, A Di Caro
OBJECTIVES: Efficient interruption of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission chains critically depends on reliable and fast laboratory diagnosis. We evaluated the performance of the EBOLA Virus Antigen Detection K-SeT (EBOLA Ag K-SeT), a new rapid diagnostic antigen test in field settings. METHODS: The study was conducted in a field laboratory located in Freetown (Sierra Leone) by the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases 'L. Spallanzani' and the EMERGENCY Onlus NGO...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Shefali Oza, Alieu A Sesay, Neal J Russell, Kevin Wing, Sabah Boufkhed, Lahai Vandi, Sahr C Sebba, Rachael Cummings, Francesco Checchi
Rapidly identifying likely Ebola patients is difficult because of a broad case definition, overlap of symptoms with common illnesses, and lack of rapid diagnostics. However, rapid identification is critical for care and containment of contagion. We analyzed retrospective data from 252 Ebola-positive and 172 Ebola-negative patients at a Sierra Leone Ebola treatment center to develop easy-to-use risk scores, based on symptoms and laboratory tests (if available), to stratify triaged patients by their likelihood of having Ebola infection...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
December 16, 2017: Lancet
James E Strong, Heinz Feldmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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