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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#1
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasegawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285168/design-and-use-of-mouse-control-dna-for-dna-biomarker-extraction-and-pcr-detection-from-urine-application-for-transrenal-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dna-detection
#2
Hali Bordelon, Keersten M Ricks, Megan E Pask, Patricia K Russ, Francesca Solinas, Mark L Baglia, Philip A Short, Andrew Nel, Jonathan Blackburn, Keertan Dheda, Carlos Zamudio, Tatiana Cáceres, David W Wright, Frederick R Haselton, April C Pettit
Urine samples are increasingly used for diagnosing infections including Escherichia coli, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. However, extraction and concentration of nucleic acid biomarkers from urine is necessary for many molecular detection strategies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since urine samples typically have large volumes with dilute biomarker concentrations making them prone to false negatives, another impediment for urine-based diagnostics is the establishment of appropriate controls particularly to rule out false negatives...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258817/characteristics-and-survival-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-infection-malaria-or-both-in-sierra-leone-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Matthew Waxman, Adam R Aluisio, Soham Rege, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: The 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic strained health systems in west Africa already overburdened with other diseases, including malaria. Because EVD and malaria can be difficult to distinguish clinically, and rapid testing was not available in many Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs), guidelines recommended empirical malaria treatment. Little is known, however, about the prevalence and characteristics of patients entering an ETU who were infected with malaria parasites, either alone or concurrently with Ebola virus...
February 28, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250002/evaluating-novel-diagnostics-in-an-outbreak-setting-lessons-learned-from-ebola
#4
Nira R Pollock, Betsy Wonderly
Inadequate access to rapid testing for Ebola virus disease during the 2014-16 outbreak led to an explosion in the development of diagnostics that could be performed at or near the point-of-care and by less experienced operators, leading in turn to an acute need for novel test evaluation. Here, we present the challenges to novel diagnostic development and evaluation in an emergency setting, and suggestions for potential new "global emergency standards" to address them.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242293/lyophilized-visually-readable-loop-mediated-isothermal-reverse-transcriptase-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-for-detection-ebola-zaire-rna
#5
Christoph Carter, Kevan Akrami, Drew Hall, Davey Smith, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer
Recent viral outbreaks highlight the need for reliable, yet broadly deployable diagnostics for detection of epidemic and emerging pathogens. In this study we designed and optimized methods to visually detect viral nucleic acid by isothermal amplification and SYBR dye intercalation. We designed and tested loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers and lyophilized reactions to optimize the detection of Zaire Ebola Virus (ZEBOV) and further evolved the LAMP platform to allow room-temperature storage for deployment in resource limited settings...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231242/predicting-ebola-infection-a-malaria-sensitive-triage-score-for-ebola-virus-disease
#6
Mary-Anne Hartley, Alyssa Young, Anh-Minh Tran, Harry Henry Okoni-Williams, Mohamed Suma, Brooke Mancuso, Ahmed Al-Dikhari, Mohamed Faouzi
BACKGROUND: The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk "probable" wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180136/sequencing-of-ebola-virus-genomes-using-nanopore-technology
#7
Thomas Hoenen
Sequencing of virus genomes during disease outbreaks can provide valuable information for diagnostics, epidemiology, and evaluation of potential countermeasures. However, particularly in remote areas logistical and technical challenges can be significant. Nanopore sequencing provides an alternative to classical Sanger and next-generation sequencing methods, and was successfully used under outbreak conditions (Hoenen et al., 2016; Quick et al., 2016). Here we describe a protocol used for sequencing of Ebola virus under outbreak conditions using Nanopore technology, which we successfully implemented at the CDC/NIH diagnostic laboratory (de Wit et al...
November 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109682/label-free-checkerboard-assay-to-determine-overlapping-epitopes-of-ebola-virus-vp-40-antibodies-using-surface-plasmon-resonance
#8
George P Anderson, Jinny L Liu, Dan Zabetakis, Patricia M Legler, Ellen R Goldman
Immunoassay formats, in which antibodies provide sensitivity and specificity, are often utilized to provide rapid and simple diagnostic tests. Surface plasmon resonance is frequently used to evaluate the suitability of antibodies by determining binding kinetics to agents or surrogate antigens. We used SPR to evaluate a number of commercial monoclonal antibodies as well as single domain antibodies produced in-house. All the antibodies targeted the Ebola virus viral protein 40 (VP40). We determined the ability of each antibody to bind to immobilized VP40, and ensured they did not bind Ebola glycoprotein or the nucleoprotein...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057165/current-and-future-diagnostic-tests-for-ebola-virus-disease
#9
Bharti Singh, Advaita Ganguly, Hoon H Sunwoo
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a major public health concern with a high mortality rate in infected individuals. Outbreaks of Ebola have been widespread-there is no rapid, sensitive, specific, and affordable diagnostic test for the virus, nor there is any treatment for the disease. Overlapping symptoms of other endemic diseases, such as malaria and cholera, make it difficult to diagnose EVD. For clinical management, outbreak investigation, and proper surveillance, EVD requires a detection system, which should be fast, sensitive, specific, efficient, affordable, and user-friendly with in-country staff...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050868/field-assessment-of-the-new-rapid-diagnostic-test-ebola-ezyscreen-%C3%A2
#10
F Gallais, F Gay-Andrieu, V Picot, N Magassouba, S Mély, C N Peyrefitte, L Bellanger
During the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014, the World Health Organization has pointed out the need for rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free, and deliverable. The rapid diagnostic test (Lateral Flow Assay) Ebola eZYSCREEN(®) was developed in this emergency frame using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein of the virus. Two distinct versions have been industrialized, one for whole-blood samples and the other for serum/plasma samples...
January 3, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#11
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025125/production-purification-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-ebola-virus-proteins-a-comparison-of-freund-s-adjuvant-and-adjuvant-system-03
#12
Krister Melén, Laura Kakkola, Felix He, Kari Airenne, Olli Vapalahti, Helen Karlberg, Ali Mirazimi, Ilkka Julkunen
There is an urgent need for Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins, EBOV-specific antibodies and recombinant antigens to be used in diagnostics and as potential vaccine candidates. Our objective was to produce and purify recombinant proteins for immunological assays and for the production of polyclonal EBOV specific antibodies. In addition, a limited comparison of the adjuvant effects of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and adjuvant system 03 (AS03) was carried out. Recombinant EBOV GST-VP24, -VP30, -VP35, -VP40 and -NP were produced in E...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012899/corning-hyperflask-%C3%A2-for-viral-amplification-and-production-of-diagnostic-reagents
#13
Brian J Kearney, Matthew A Voorhees, Priscilla L Williams, Scott P Olschner, Cynthia A Rossi, Randal J Schoepp
Viral preparations are essential components in diagnostic research and development. The production of large quantities of virus traditionally is done by infecting numerous tissue culture flasks or roller bottles, which require large incubators and/or roller bottle racks. The Corning HYPERFlask(®) is a multilayer flask that uses a gas permeable film to provide gas exchange between the cells and culture medium and the atmospheric environment. This study evaluated the suitability of the HYPERFlask for production of Lassa, Ebola, Bundibugyo, Reston, and Marburg viruses and compared it to more traditional methods using tissue culture flasks and roller bottles...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003349/assessment-and-optimization-of-the-genexpert-diagnostic-platform-for-detection-of-ebola-virus-rna-in-seminal-fluid
#14
James Pettitt, Elizabeth Higgs, Mosoka Fallah, Martha Nason, Eric Stavale, Jonathan Marchand, Cavan Reilly, Kenneth Jensen, Bonnie Dighero-Kemp, Kaylie Tuznik, James Logue, Fatorma Bolay, Lisa Hensley
Recent studies have suggested that Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA potentially present in the semen of a large number of survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Western Africa may contribute to sexual transmission of EVD and generate new clusters of cases in regions previously declared EBOV free. These findings drive the immediate need for a reliable, rapid, user-friendly assay for detection of EBOV RNA in semen that is deployable to multiple sites across Western Africa. In this study, we optimized the Xpert EBOV assay for semen samples by adding dithiothreitol...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999271/use-of-aptamers-as-diagnostics-tools-and-antiviral-agents-for-human-viruses
#15
REVIEW
Víctor M González, M Elena Martín, Gerónimo Fernández, Ana García-Sacristán
Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins...
December 16, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994284/assessment-of-ebola-virus-disease-preparedness-in-the-who-south-east-asia-region
#16
Sirenda Vong, Reuben Samuel, Philip Gould, Hammam El Sakka, Bardan J Rana, Vason Pinyowiwat, Supriya Bezbaruah, Roderico Ofrin
OBJECTIVE: To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. METHODS: Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990727/coupling-sensitive-nucleic-acid-amplification-with-commercial-pregnancy-test-strips
#17
Yan Du, Arti Pothukuchy, Jimmy D Gollihar, Armin Nourani, Bingling Li, Andrew D Ellington
The detection of nucleic acid biomarkers for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is currently limited by technical complexity, cost, and time constraints. To overcome these shortcomings, we have combined loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), programmable toehold-mediated strand-exchange signal transduction, and standard pregnancy test strips. The incorporation of an engineered hCG-SNAP fusion reporter protein (human chorionic gonadotropin-O(6) -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase) led to LAMP-to-hCG signal transduction on low-cost, commercially available pregnancy test strips...
January 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974537/ebola-preparedness-diagnosis-improvement-using-rapid-approaches-for-proficiency-testing
#18
Katherine A Lau, Torsten Theis, Joanna Gray, William D Rawlinson
The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972276/cost-of-ebola-virus-disease-diagnosis-using-rapid-point-of-care-diagnostics-in-sierra-leone
#19
J S Evans, N C Hearmon, R C Beale, W Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#20
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
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