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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452995/immune-barriers-of-ebola-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Anita K McElroy, Elke Mühlberger, César Muñoz-Fontela
Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410084/measles-derived-vaccines-to-prevent-emerging-viral-diseases
#2
Phanramphoei N Frantz, Samaporn Teeravechyan, Frédéric Tangy
Infectious disease epidemics match wars and natural disasters in their capacity to threaten lives and damage economies. Like SARS previously and Zika recently, the Ebola crisis in 2015 showed how vulnerable the world is to these epidemics, with over 11,000 people dying in the outbreak. In addition to causing immense human suffering, these epidemics particularly affect low- and middle-income countries. Many of these deadly infectious diseases that have epidemic potential can become global health emergencies in the absence of effective vaccines...
January 31, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406822/world-health-organization-joint-external-evaluations-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-2016-17
#3
Dalia Samhouri, Kashef Ijaz, Michel Thieren, Antoine Flahault, Suzanne M Babich, Hamid Jafari, Jaouad Mahjour
By 2014, only 33% of countries had self-reported compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005), including 8 countries from the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). During the Ebola epidemic, the discovery of a gap between objective assessment and self-reports for certain IHR capacities prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to review and update the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework to include a voluntary objective review process, called Joint External Evaluation (JEE), that did not exist before...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384053/viral-infections-in-pregnancy-a-focus-on-ebola-virus
#4
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375139/post-exposure-treatments-for-ebola-and-marburg-virus-infections
#5
REVIEW
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas W Geisbert
The filoviruses - Ebola virus and Marburg virus - cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352230/histology-immunohistochemistry-and-in-situ-hybridization-reveal-overlooked-ebola-virus-target-tissues-in-the-ebola-virus-disease-guinea-pig-model
#6
Timothy K Cooper, Louis Huzella, Joshua C Johnson, Oscar Rojas, Sri Yellayi, Mei G Sun, Sina Bavari, Amanda Bonilla, Randy Hart, Peter B Jahrling, Jens H Kuhn, Xiankun Zeng
Survivors of Ebola virus infection may become subclinically infected, but whether animal models recapitulate this complication is unclear. Using histology in combination with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in a retrospective review of a guinea pig confirmation-of-virulence study, we demonstrate for the first time Ebola virus infection in hepatic oval cells, the endocardium and stroma of the atrioventricular valves and chordae tendinae, satellite cells of peripheral ganglia, neurofibroblasts and Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and ganglia, smooth muscle cells of the uterine myometrium and vaginal wall, acini of the parotid salivary glands, thyroid follicular cells, adrenal medullary cells, pancreatic islet cells, endometrial glandular and surface epithelium, and the epithelium of the vagina, penis and, prepuce...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351152/ebola-infection-in-pregnancy-a-global-perspective-and-lessons-learned
#7
Lisa B Haddad, John Horton, Bruce S Ribner, Denise J Jamieson
The 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak, primarily based in 3 West African countries, had far-reaching global effects. Importantly, the crisis highlighted large gaps in reproductive health services in affected countries and inadequate health care system preparedness for obstetrical patients in the setting of highly contagious infectious diseases. We aim to review Ebola virus effects with a focus on the obstetrical implications in the context of this recent Ebola outbreak, discuss the lessons learned following this outbreak and propose current measures specific to obstetrics that should be considered in preparation for the next concerning emergent infectious disease...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341945/lessons-about-causes-and-management-of-an-ebola-outbreak
#8
Aida Elargoubi, Anis W Belhaj Khelifa, Ons Haddad, Salma Mhalla, Nabil Sakly, Maha Mastouri
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at an unstoppable pace. The West Africa outbreak ended but the disease may strike again at any time. The latest epidemic was, by far, the deadliest to date. The most concern was why this outbreak was so different from the previous ones. We proposed in this review firstly to summarize the principal causes of its unprecedented spread and secondly to identify the steps for an effective management approach of a future Ebola outbreak...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306614/emergency-nurses-and-department-preparedness-for-an-ebola-outbreak-a-narrative-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Mihirika Sds Pincha Baduge, Julia Morphet, Cheryle Moss
INTRODUCTION: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa triggered a public health emergency of international concern. Emergency departments worldwide responded with Ebola containment and preparation measures. This paper reports a literature inquiry into how emergency departments and emergency nurses prepared to manage the Ebola risk. METHOD: Narrative review was the method used. Guidelines (n = 5) for organisational and emergency department preparedness were retrieved from relevant websites...
January 3, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305306/filovirus-proteins-for-antiviral-drug-discovery-structure-function-of-proteins-involved-in-assembly-and-budding
#10
REVIEW
Baptiste Martin, Olivier Reynard, Viktor Volchkov, Etienne Decroly
There are no approved medications for the treatment of Marburg or Ebola virus infection. In two previous articles (Martin et al., 2016, Martin et al., 2017), we reviewed surface glycoprotein and replication proteins structure/function relationship to decipher the molecular mechanisms of filovirus life cycle and identify antiviral strategies. In the present article, we recapitulate knowledge about the viral proteins involved in filovirus assembly and budding. First we describe the structural data available for viral proteins associated with virus assembly and virion egress and then, we integrate the structural features of these proteins in the functional context of the viral replication cycle...
January 2, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291209/recent-advances-in-vaccine-development-against-ebola-threat-as-bioweapon
#11
EDITORIAL
Prachi Gera, Ankit Gupta, Priyanka Verma, Joginder Singh, Jeena Gupta
With the increasing rate of Ebola virus appearance, with multiple natural outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, it is worthy of consideration as bioweapon by anti-national groups. Further, with the non-availability of the vaccines against Ebola virus, concerns about the public health emerge. In this regard, this review summarizes the structure, genetics and potential of Ebola virus to be used as a bioweapon. We highlight the recent advances in the treatment strategies and vaccine development against Ebola virus...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248587/enhanced-case-management-can-be-delivered-for-patients-with-evd-in-africa-experience-from-a-uk-military-ebola-treatment-centre-in-sierra-leone
#12
S J Dickson, K A Clay, M Adam, C Ardley, M S Bailey, D S Burns, A T Cox, D G Craig, M Espina, G Fitchett, J Grindrod, D E Hinsley, S Horne, E Hutley, A M Johnston, R L C Kao, L E Lamb, S Lewis, D Marion, A J Moore, T C Nicholson-Roberts, A Phillips, J Praught, P S Rees, I Schoonbaert, T Trinick, D R Wilson, A J Simpson, D Wang, M K O'Shea, T E Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing supportive care management, laboratory abnormalities and outcomes in patients with EVD (Ebola virus disease) in West Africa. We report data which constitute the first description of the provision of enhanced EVD case management protocols in a West African setting. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected by retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with confirmed EVD admitted between 5 November 2014 and 30 June 2015...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#13
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#14
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230614/translating-predictions-of-zoonotic-viruses-for-policymakers
#15
Seth D Judson, Matthew LeBreton, Trevon Fuller, Risa M Hoffman, Kevin Njabo, Timothy F Brewer, Elsa Dibongue, Joseph Diffo, Jean-Marc Feussom Kameni, Severin Loul, Godwin W Nchinda, Richard Njouom, Julius Nwobegahay, Jean Michel Takuo, Judith N Torimiro, Abel Wade, Thomas B Smith
Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and Zika virus disease highlight the need for disseminating accurate predictions of emerging zoonotic viruses to national governments for disease surveillance and response. Although there are published maps for many emerging zoonotic viruses, it is unknown if there is agreement among different models or if they are concordant with national expert opinion. Therefore, we reviewed existing predictions for five high priority emerging zoonotic viruses with national experts in Cameroon to investigate these issues and determine how to make predictions more useful for national policymakers...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210303/treatment-focused-ebola-trials-supportive-care-and-future-of-filovirus-care
#16
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Karen A O Martins, Anthony Cardile, Ronald Reisler, George W Christopher, Sina Bavari
During the 2014-2016 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak, several candidate therapeutics were used in EBOV-infected patients in clinical trials and under expanded access for emergency use. This review will focus briefly on medications used during the outbreak. We will discuss current therapeutic candidates and their status and will then turn to a related and essential topic: supportive care and the standard of care for filovirus infected patients. Potential benefits and pitfalls of combination therapies for filoviruses will be discussed...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208326/a-review-on-the-antagonist-ebola-a-prophylactic-approach
#17
REVIEW
Fatima Nazish Khan, Sahar Qazi, Khushnuma Tanveer, Khalid Raza
Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of Filoviridae virus family under the genus Ebolavirus, has emerged as a dangerous and potential threat to human health globally. It causes a severe and deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, called Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). In recent outbreaks of EVD, there has been loss of large numbers of individual's life. Therefore, EBOV has attracted researchers and increased interests in developing new models for virus evolution, and therapies. The EBOV interacts with the immune system of the host which led to understand how the virus functions and effects immune system behaviour...
December 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207450/one-health-perspectives-on-emerging-public-health-threats
#18
Sukhyun Ryu, Bryan Inho Kim, Jun-Sik Lim, Cheng Siang Tan, Byung Chul Chun
Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175206/stochastic-simulation-of-multiscale-complex-systems-with-piskas-a-rule-based-approach
#19
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo Santibañez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170916/development-of-small-molecule-viral-inhibitors-targeting-various-stages-of-the-life-cycle-of-emerging-and-re-emerging-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Xiaohuan Wang, Peng Zou, Fan Wu, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
In recent years, unexpected outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses have become more frequent, which is possibly due to environmental changes. These outbreaks result in the loss of life and economic hardship. Vaccines and therapeutics should be developed for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress in the development of small-molecule viral inhibitors against highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, and Zika virus...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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