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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656441/a-review-on-current-status-of-antiviral-sirna
#1
REVIEW
Abid Qureshi, Vaqar Gani Tantray, Altaf Rehman Kirmani, Abdul Ghani Ahangar
Viral diseases like influenza, AIDS, hepatitis, and Ebola cause severe epidemics worldwide. Along with their resistant strains, new pathogenic viruses continue to be discovered so creating an ongoing need for new antiviral treatments. RNA interference is a cellular gene-silencing phenomenon in which sequence-specific degradation of target mRNA is achieved by means of complementary short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Short interfering RNA technology affords a potential tractable strategy to combat viral pathogenesis because siRNAs are specific, easy to design, and can be directed against multiple strains of a virus by targeting their conserved gene regions...
April 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628293/social-media-and-outbreaks-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#2
REVIEW
Lu Tang, Bijie Bie, Sung-Eun Park, Degui Zhi
BACKGROUND: The public often turn to social media for information during emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) outbreaks. This study identified the major approaches and assessed the rigors in published research articles on EIDs and social media. METHODS: We searched 5 databases for published journal articles on EIDs and social media. We then evaluated these articles in terms of EIDs studied, social media examined, theoretical frameworks, methodologic approaches, and research findings...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625392/the-current-landscape-of-nucleic-acid-tests-for-filovirus-detection
#3
REVIEW
David J Clark, John Tyson, Andrew D Sails, Sanjeev Krishna, Henry M Staines
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for pathogenic filoviruses plays a key role in surveillance and to control the spread of infection. As they share clinical features with other pathogens, the initial spread of these viruses can be misdiagnosed. Tests that can identify a pathogen in the initial stages of infection are essential to control outbreaks. Since the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in 2014-2016 several tests have been developed that are faster than previous tests and more suited for field use. Furthermore, the ability to test for a range of pathogens simultaneously has been expanded to improve clinical pathway management of febrile syndromes...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619364/harnessing-big-data-for-communicable-tropical-and-sub-tropical-disorders-implications-from-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Vincenza Gianfredi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Daniele Nucci, Mariano Martini, Roberto Rosselli, Liliana Minelli, Massimo Moretti
Aim: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607098/developing-a-multisectoral-national-action-plan-for-health-security-naphs-to-implement-the-international-health-regulations-ihr-2005-in-tanzania
#5
REVIEW
Janneth M Mghamba, Ambrose O Talisuna, Ludy Suryantoro, Grace Elizabeth Saguti, Martin Muita, Muhammad Bakari, Neema Rusibamayila, Mohamed Ally, Jubilate Bernard, Richard Banda, Maximillian Mapunda, Rachel Eidex, Rajesh Sreedharan, Karen Sliter, Simo Nikkari, Sohel Saikat, Glenn P M Lolong, Paul Verboom, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Stella Chungong, Guenael Rodier, Ibrahima Soce Fall
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa precipitated a renewed momentum to ensure global health security through the expedited and full implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) in all WHO member states. The updated IHR (2005) Monitoring and Evaluation Framework was shared with Member States in 2015 with one mandatory component, that is, States Parties annual reporting to the World Health Assembly (WHA) on compliance and three voluntary components: Joint External Evaluation (JEE), After Action Reviews and Simulation Exercises...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571970/unconventional-secretion-of-viral-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Malvina Schatz, Phuoc Bao Viet Tong, Bruno Beaumelle
Although largely less numerous and characterized than bacterial secreted effectors, several viral virulence factors are secreted by virus infected cells. However, their mode of secretion only starts to be studied at the molecular level. Several of these viral effectors are secreted using an unconventional secretion pathway, i.e. despite the lack of signal sequence. We here review recent results illustrating the diversity of these pathways. In the case of HIV-1 proteins Tat and matrix (p17) proteins, secretion directly takes place at the plasma membrane level following binding to PI(4,5)P2 ...
March 20, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558199/emergency-risk-communication-lessons-learned-from-a-rapid-review-of-recent-gray-literature-on-ebola-zika-and-yellow-fever
#7
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555345/rapid-response-to-an-emerging-infectious-disease-lessons-learned-from-development-of-a-synthetic-dna-vaccine-targeting-zika-virus
#8
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554280/g-quadruplexes-and-g-quadruplex-ligands-targets-and-tools-in-antiviral-therapy
#9
Emanuela Ruggiero, Sara N Richter
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical nucleic acids secondary structures that form within guanine-rich strands of regulatory genomic regions. G4s have been extensively described in the human genome, especially in telomeres and oncogene promoters; in recent years the presence of G4s in viruses has attracted increasing interest. Indeed, G4s have been reported in several viruses, including those involved in recent epidemics, such as the Zika and Ebola viruses. Viral G4s are usually located in regulatory regions of the genome and implicated in the control of key viral processes; in some cases, they have been involved also in viral latency...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551136/filoviruses-ecology-molecular-biology-and-evolution
#10
Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann
The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534607/addressing-the-selectivity-and-toxicity-of-antiviral-nucleosides
#11
Joy Y Feng
Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs have played significant roles in antiviral therapies and are valued for their impressive potency and high barrier to resistance. They have been approved for treatment of herpes simplex virus-1, HIV, HBV, HCV, and influenza, and new drugs are being developed for the treatment of RSV, Ebola, coronavirus MERS, and other emerging viruses. However, this class of compounds has also experienced a high attrition rate in clinical trials due to toxicity. In this review, we discuss the utility of different biochemical and cell-based assays and provide recommendations for assessing toxicity liability before entering animal toxicity studies...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529284/evaluating-implementation-of-the-ebola-response-in-margibi-county-liberia
#12
Charles E Sepers, Stephen B Fawcett, Ithar Hassaballa, Florence DiGennaro Reed, Jerry Schultz, Davison Munodawafa, Peter Malekele Phori, Ephraim Chiriseri
Implementation of the Ebola response was credited with reducing incidence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa; however little is known about the amount and kind of Ebola response activities that were ultimately successful in addressing the 2014 outbreak. We collaboratively monitored Ebola response activities and associated effects in Margibi County, Liberia, a rural county in Liberia deeply affected by the outbreak. We used a participatory monitoring and evaluation system, including key informant interviews and document review, to systematically document activities, code them, characterize their contextual features, and discover and communicate patterns in Ebola response activities to essential stakeholders...
February 24, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527187/emerging-viral-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-the-developing-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503261/short-term-results-of-the-efficacy-of-percutaneous-tibial-nerve-stimulation-on-urinary-symptoms-and-its-financial-cost
#14
Alessandra Mendelski Pereira, Denise Leite Maia Monteiro, Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Bianca Guedes, Gabriele Tonni, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Central and South America is one of the most serious global public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. In Brazil, especially in the north, northeast, and southeast parts of the country, the ZIKV outbreak is a cause of concern for pregnant women because ZIKV intrauterine infection has been found to be associated with multiple brain malformations and microcephaly. In Brazil, the number of newborns with confirmed microcephaly per year recorded during the ZIKV outbreak, has been approximately 15 times greater than previously reported...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502517/strategy-and-technology-to-prevent-hospital-acquired-infections-lessons-from-sars-ebola-and-mers-in-asia-and-west-africa
#15
REVIEW
Sanjeewa Jayachandra Rajakaruna, Wen-Bin Liu, Yi-Bo Ding, Guang-Wen Cao
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are serious problems for healthcare systems, especially in developing countries where public health infrastructure and technology for infection preventions remain undeveloped. Here, we characterized how strategy and technology could be mobilized to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control in hospitals during the outbreaks of Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Asia and West Africa. Published literature on the hospital-borne outbreaks of SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa was comprehensively reviewed...
October 27, 2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466516/-infoxication-in-health-health-information-overload-on-the-internet-and-the-risk-of-important-information-becoming-invisible
#16
Marcelo D Agostino, Felipe Medina Mejía, Myrna Martí, David Novillo-Ortiz, Flavio Hazrum, Federico G de Cosío
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to: 1) raise awareness of the volume of quality health information on the Internet; 2) explore perceptions of information professionals with regard to the use of qualified sources for health decision-making; and 3) make recommendations that facilitate strengthening health worker capacities and institutional competencies related to digital literacy. METHODS: A non-experimental, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probability sample of 32 information professionals from nine countries...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452995/immune-barriers-of-ebola-virus-infection
#17
REVIEW
Anita K McElroy, Elke Mühlberger, César Muñoz-Fontela
Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410084/measles-derived-vaccines-to-prevent-emerging-viral-diseases
#18
Phanramphoei N Frantz, Samaporn Teeravechyan, Frédéric Tangy
Infectious disease epidemics match wars and natural disasters in their capacity to threaten lives and damage economies. Like SARS previously and Zika recently, the Ebola crisis in 2015 showed how vulnerable the world is to these epidemics, with over 11,000 people dying in the outbreak. In addition to causing immense human suffering, these epidemics particularly affect low- and middle-income countries. Many of these deadly infectious diseases that have epidemic potential can become global health emergencies in the absence of effective vaccines...
January 31, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406822/world-health-organization-joint-external-evaluations-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-2016-17
#19
Dalia Samhouri, Kashef Ijaz, Michel Thieren, Antoine Flahault, Suzanne M Babich, Hamid Jafari, Jaouad Mahjour
By 2014, only 33% of countries had self-reported compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005), including 8 countries from the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). During the Ebola epidemic, the discovery of a gap between objective assessment and self-reports for certain IHR capacities prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to review and update the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework to include a voluntary objective review process, called Joint External Evaluation (JEE), that did not exist before...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384053/viral-infections-in-pregnancy-a-focus-on-ebola-virus
#20
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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