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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912782/health-systems-strengthening-in-german-development-cooperation-making-the-case-for-a-comprehensive-strategy
#1
REVIEW
Khullat Munir, Ilse Worm
In the aftermath of the Ebola crisis and with renewed attention to resilient health systems, the process of improving approaches of global health actors to health systems strengthening is of great relevance. Despite the increased amount of attention paid to health systems strengthening, there is no standard definition of this concept among global health actors. Germany is no exception. Though there have been recent commitments to increase resources allocated to health systems strengthening, German Development Cooperation has no comprehensive strategy for its pursuit...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910805/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#2
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902321/the-serology-of-ebolavirus-a-wider-geographical-range-a-wider-genus-of-viruses-or-a-wider-range-of-virulence
#3
Magdalena Formella, Derek Gatherer
Viruses of the genus Ebolavirus are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease (EVD), of which there have been only 25 recorded outbreaks since the discovery of Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses in the late 1970s. Until the west African outbreak commencing in late 2013, EVD was confined to an area of central Africa stretching from the coast of Gabon through the Congo river basin and eastward to the Great Lakes. Nevertheless, population serological studies since 1976, most of which were carried out in the first two decades after that date, have suggested a wider distribution and more frequent occurrence across tropical Africa...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888126/understanding-the-complex-evolution-of-rapidly-mutating-viruses-with-deep-sequencing-beyond-the-analysis-of-viral-diversity
#4
REVIEW
Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani
With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887599/how-severe-and-prevalent-are-ebola-and-marburg-viruses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-case-fatality-rates-and-seroprevalence
#5
Luke Nyakarahuka, Clovice Kankya, Randi Krontveit, Benjamin Mayer, Frank N Mwiine, Julius Lutwama, Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Ebola and Marburg virus diseases are said to occur at a low prevalence, but are very severe diseases with high lethalities. The fatality rates reported in different outbreaks ranged from 24-100%. In addition, sero-surveys conducted have shown different seropositivity for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. We aimed to use a meta-analysis approach to estimate the case fatality and seroprevalence rates of these filoviruses, providing vital information for epidemic response and preparedness in countries affected by these diseases...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881208/the-west-africa-disaster-preparedness-initiative-strengthening-national-capacities-for-all-hazards-disaster-preparedness
#6
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Gabor D Kelen, Nicole A Bradstreet, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: The Ebola outbreak demonstrated the need for improved disaster response throughout West Africa. The West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative was a training and assessment effort led by US Africa Command and partners to strengthen capacities among 12 West African partner nations (PNs). METHODS: Series of 3-week training sessions with representatives from each PN were held from 13 July through 20 November 2015 at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana...
November 24, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871327/ebola-zika-and-the-international-health-regulations-implications-for-port-health-preparedness
#7
R W Glynn, M Boland
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa in 2014-2015 was unprecedented in terms of its scale and consequence.  This, together with the emergence of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016, has again highlighted the potential for disease to spread across international borders and provided an impetus for countries to review their Port Health preparedness. This report reviews the legislative framework and actions taken under this framework in advancing and improving Port Health preparedness in Ireland, in response to the declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern for Ebola Virus Disease in August 2014...
November 21, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853993/the-roles-of-ebolavirus-glycoproteins-in-viral-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Yun-Jia Ning, Fei Deng, Zhihong Hu, Hualin Wang
Ebolaviruses are highly dangerous pathogens exhibiting extreme virulence in humans and nonhuman primates. The majority of ebolavirus species, most notably Zaire ebolavirus, can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, in humans. EVD is associated with case-fatality rates as high as 90%, and there is currently no specific treatment or licensed vaccine available against EVD. Understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of ebolaviruses is important for the development of antiviral therapeutics...
November 14, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849507/deployment-of-the-1st-area-medical-laboratory-in-a-split-based-configuration-during-the-largest-ebola-outbreak-in-history
#9
Anthony P Cardile, Christopher T Littell, Michael G Backlund, Richard A Heipertz, Jerod A Brammer, Sean M Palmer, Todd J Vento, Felix A Ortiz, William R Rosa, Michael J Major, Patrick M Garman
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army 1(st) Area Medical Laboratory (1(st) AML) is currently the only deployable medical CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives) laboratory in the Army's Forces Command. In support of the United States Agency for International Development Ebola response, the U.S. military initiated Operation United Assistance (OUA), and deployed approximately 2,500 service members to support the Government of Liberia's Ebola control efforts. Due to its unique molecular diagnostic and expeditionary capabilities, the 1(st) AML was ordered to deploy in October of 2014 in support of OUA via establishment of Ebola testing laboratories...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849485/psychological-impact-of-deploying-in-support-of-the-u-s-response-to-ebola-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-past-outbreaks
#10
Kartavya J Vyas, Eileen M Delaney, Jennifer A Webb-Murphy, Scott L Johnston
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential psychological impact of deploying in support of the U.S. response to Ebola in west Africa by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were identified using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Thirty-two studies involving 26,869 persons were included in the systematic review; 13 studies involving 7,785 persons were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823560/redox-active-selenium-in-health-and-disease-a-conceptual-review
#11
Boguslaw Lipinski
Although it is generally accepted that selenium (Se) is important for life, it is not well known which forms of organic and/or inorganic Se compound are the most biologically active. In nature Se exists mostly in two forms, namely as selenite with fourvalent and selenate with sixvalent cations, from which all other inorganic and organic species are derived. Despite a small difference in their electronic structure, these two inorganic parent compounds differ significantly in their redox properties. Hence, only selenite can act as an oxidant, particularly in the reaction with free and/or protein-bound sulhydryl (SH) groups...
November 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813879/ebola-anatomy-of-an-epidemic
#12
Terrence Q Lo, Barbara J Marston, Benjamin A Dahl, Kevin M De Cock
As of the end of March 2016, the West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) had resulted in a total of 28,646 cases, 11,323 of them fatal, reported to the World Health Organization. Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone were most heavily affected, but Ebola cases were exported to several other African and European countries as well as the United States, with limited further transmission, including to healthcare workers. We review the descriptive epidemiology of the outbreak, novel aspects and insights concerning the unprecedented response, scientific observations, and public health implications...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807010/an-outbreak-inside-an-epidemic-managing-an-infectious-disease-outbreak-while-treating-ebola
#13
REVIEW
Simon Horne, K Forbes, D Burns, Jjh Tuck
Even in the middle of an epidemic of a very serious illness, outbreaks of other infectious diseases will continue. Clinicians need to be able to make rapid decisions about the nature of the outbreak and how to manage it. A balance needs to be struck between managing all patients as if they have the worst-case scenario illness and the resultant risks to themselves, their colleagues and the mission. This paper reviews basic epidemiological tools that inform robust decision-making in the management of such outbreaks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794520/impact-of-interventions-and-the-incidence-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-liberia-implications-for-future-epidemics
#14
Thomas D Kirsch, Heidi Moseson, Moses Massaquoi, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Rachel Goodermote, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Justin Lessler, Derek Cumings, David H Peters
To better understand the impact of national and global efforts to contain the Ebola virus disease epidemic of 2014-15 in Liberia, we provide a detailed timeline of the major interventions and relate them to the epidemic curve. In addition to personal experience in the response, we systematically reviewed situation reports from the Liberian government, UN, CDC, WHO, UNICEF, IFRC, USAID, and local and international news reports to create the timeline. We extracted data on the timing and nature of activities and compared them to the timeline of the epidemic curve using the reproduction number-the estimate of the average number of new cases caused by a single case...
October 29, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788135/diagnostics-in-ebola-virus-disease-in-resource-rich-and-resource-limited-settings
#15
REVIEW
Robert J Shorten, Colin S Brown, Michael Jacobs, Simon Rattenbury, Andrew J Simpson, Stephen Mepham
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in scale and location. Limited access to both diagnostic and supportive pathology assays in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings had a detrimental effect on the identification and isolation of cases as well as individual patient management. Limited access to such assays in resource-rich settings resulted in delays in differentiating EVD from other illnesses in returning travellers, in turn utilising valuable resources until a diagnosis could be made...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777926/effects-of-the-west-africa-ebola-virus-disease-on-health-care-utilization-a-systematic-review
#16
Kim J Brolin Ribacke, Dell D Saulnier, Anneli Eriksson, Johan von Schreeb
Significant efforts were invested in halting the recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Now, studies are emerging on the magnitude of the indirect health effects of the outbreak in the affected countries, and the aim of this study is to systematically assess the results of these publications. The methodology for this review adhered to the Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews. A total of 3354 articles were identified for screening, and while 117 articles were read in full, 22 studies were included in the final review...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769596/vaccine-development-from-concept-to-early-clinical-testing
#17
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764560/ebola-vaccines-in-clinical-trial-the-promising-candidates
#18
Yuxiao Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuemei Hu, Qi Liang, Mingwei Wei, Fengcai Zhu
Ebola virus disease (EVD) has become a great threat to humans across the world in recent years. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused numerous deaths and attracted worldwide attentions. Since no specific drugs and treatments against EVD was available, vaccination was considered as the most promising and effective method of controlling this epidemic. So far, 7 vaccine candidates had been developed and evaluated through clinical trials. Among them, the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine (rVSV-EBOV) is the most promising candidate, which demonstrated a significant protection against EVD in phase III clinical trial...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754861/deciphering-assumptions-about-stepped-wedge-designs-the-case-of-ebola-vaccine-research
#19
Adélaïde Doussau, Christine Grady
Ethical concerns about randomising persons to a no-treatment arm in the context of Ebola epidemic led to consideration of alternative designs. The stepped wedge (SW) design, in which participants or clusters are randomised to receive an intervention at different time points, gained popularity. Common arguments in favour of using this design are (1) when an intervention is likely to do more good than harm, (2) all participants should receive the experimental intervention at some time point during the study and (3) the design might be preferable for practical reasons...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746903/navigating-the-zika-panic
#20
Nathan D Grubaugh, Kristian G Andersen
The epidemics of Ebola virus in West Africa and Zika virus in America highlight how viruses can explosively emerge into new territories. These epidemics also exposed how unprepared we are to handle infectious disease emergencies. This is also true when we consider hypothesized new clinical features of infection, such as the associations between Zika virus infection and severe neurological disease, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the surface, these pathologies appear to be new features of Zika virus infection, however, causal relationships have not yet been established...
2016: F1000Research
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