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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095476/a-systematic-review-of-ebola-treatment-trials-to-assess-the-extent-to-which-they-adhere-to-ethical-guidelines
#1
Thomas Richardson, Andrew McDonald Johnston, Heather Draper
BACKGROUND: Objective: To determine to what extent each trial met criteria specified in three research frameworks for ethical trial conduct. Design: Systematic review and narrative analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data sources: MEDBASE and EMBASE databases were searched using a specific search strategy. The Cochrane database for systematic reviews, the PROSPERO database and trial registries were examined. A grey literature search and citation search were also carried out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093332/chitin-and-chitinase-role-in-pathogenicity-allergenicity-and-health
#2
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Arun Goyal
Chitin, a polysaccharide with particular abundance in fungi, nematodes and arthropods is immunogenic. It acts as a threat to other organisms, to tackle which they have been endowed with chitinase enzyme. Even if this enzyme is not present in all organisms, they possess proteins having chitin-binding domain(s) (ChtBD). Many lethal viruses like Ebola, and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) have these domains to manipulate their carriers and target organisms. In keeping with the basic rule of survival, the self-origin (own body component) chitins and chitinases are protective, but that of non-self origin (from other organisms) are detrimental to health...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064527/child-violence-experiences-in-institutionalised-orphanage-care
#3
Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J Roberts, Natasha Gandhi
Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children. In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some countries have closed institutions down -driven by findings that cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care. Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057259/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-history-value-in-basic-research-and-current-perspectives-for-vaccine-development
#4
REVIEW
A Volz, G Sutter
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057165/current-and-future-diagnostic-tests-for-ebola-virus-disease
#5
Bharti Singh, Advaita Ganguly, Hoon H Sunwoo
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a major public health concern with a high mortality rate in infected individuals. Outbreaks of Ebola have been widespread-there is no rapid, sensitive, specific, and affordable diagnostic test for the virus, nor there is any treatment for the disease. Overlapping symptoms of other endemic diseases, such as malaria and cholera, make it difficult to diagnose EVD. For clinical management, outbreak investigation, and proper surveillance, EVD requires a detection system, which should be fast, sensitive, specific, efficient, affordable, and user-friendly with in-country staff...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051966/operational-perspective-of-lessons-learned-from-the-ebola-crisis
#6
Zygmunt F Dembek, Jerry L Mothershead, Tesema Chekol, David B Myers, Ronald G Meris, Dana Meranus, Aiguo Wu
Given its potential to quickly spread internationally and initially uncontrollable nature, the 2014 to 2015 Ebola outbreak has implications for global biosecurity. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Reachback provided near real-time analysis and recommendations as outbreak-relevant events unfolded. Our review of often-conflicting or incomplete information was required to answer policy decision makers about the expanding Ebola epidemic, and enable the formulation of best-possible U.S. Department of Defense and Government response...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049495/the-link-between-the-west-african-ebola-outbreak-and-health-systems-in-guinea-liberia-and-sierra-leone-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Haitham Shoman, Emilie Karafillakis, Salman Rawaf
BACKGROUND: An Ebola outbreak started in December 2013 in Guinea and spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014. The health systems in place in the three countries lacked the infrastructure and the preparation to respond to the outbreak quickly and the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern on August 8 2014. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of health systems' organisation and performance on the West African Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and lessons learned...
January 4, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#8
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
December 14, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031301/social-mobilization-and-community-engagement-central-to-the-ebola-response-in-west-africa-lessons-for-future-public-health-emergencies
#9
Amaya M Gillespie, Rafael Obregon, Rania El Asawi, Catherine Richey, Erma Manoncourt, Kshiitij Joshi, Savita Naqvi, Ade Pouye, Naqibullah Safi, Ketan Chitnis, Sabeeha Quereshi
Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care...
December 23, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012412/human-transmission-of-ebola-virus
#10
REVIEW
Philip Lawrence, Nicolas Danet, Olivier Reynard, Valentina Volchkova, Viktor Volchkov
Ever since the first recognised outbreak of Ebolavirus in 1976, retrospective epidemiological analyses and extensive studies with animal models have given us insight into the nature of the pathology and transmission mechanisms of this virus. In this review focusing on Ebolavirus, we present an outline of our current understanding of filovirus human-to-human transmission and of our knowledge concerning the molecular basis of viral transmission and potential for adaptation, with particular focus on what we have learnt from the 2014 outbreak in West Africa...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999271/use-of-aptamers-as-diagnostics-tools-and-antiviral-agents-for-human-viruses
#11
REVIEW
Víctor M González, M Elena Martín, Gerónimo Fernández, Ana García-Sacristán
Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins...
December 16, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989900/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#12
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989237/modernising-epidemic-science-enabling-patient-centred-research-during-epidemics
#13
EDITORIAL
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Emerging and epidemic infectious disease outbreaks are a significant public health problem and global health security threat. As an outbreak begins, epidemiological investigations and traditional public health responses are generally mounted very quickly. However, patient-centred research is usually not prioritised when planning and enacting the response. Instead, the clinical research response occurs subsequent to and separate from the public health response, and is inadequate for evidence-based decision-making at the bedside or in the offices of public health policymakers...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983503/sequelae-and-other-conditions-in-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-sierra-leone-2015
#14
Hamish Mohammed, Alren O Vandy, Rebecca Stretch, David Otieno, Mukesh Prajapati, Mauricio Calderon, Mohamed Vandi
We rapidly assessed the health of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone, by reviewing medical charts of all patients attending the Survivor Clinic of Kenema Government Hospital. Data were abstracted on signs and symptoms at every attendance. As of November 2015, a total of 621 attendances by 115 survivors with laboratory-confirmed EVD were made to the Survivor Clinic. Most (60.9%) survivors were women. Survivors' median age was 28 years (range 0.25-70 years). Survivors attended the clinic a median of 5 times (range 1-21 times) each, and the median time from EVD discharge to attendance was 261 days (range 4-504 days)...
2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972973/ebola-virus-disease-and-its-management-a-review
#15
S Palanisamy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959626/the-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease
#16
Laura Baseler, Daniel S Chertow, Karl M Johnson, Heinz Feldmann, David M Morens
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control...
December 7, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959624/will-there-be-a-cure-for-ebola
#17
Anthony P Cardile, Travis K Warren, Karen A Martins, Ronald B Reisler, Sina Bavari
Despite the unprecedented Ebola virus outbreak response in West Africa, no Ebola medical countermeasures have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, multiple valuable lessons have been learned about the conduct of clinical research in a resource-poor, high risk-pathogen setting. Numerous therapeutics were explored or developed during the outbreak, including repurposed drugs, nucleoside and nucleotide analogues (BCX4430, brincidofovir, favipiravir, and GS-5734), nucleic acid-based drugs (TKM-Ebola and AVI-7537), and immunotherapeutics (convalescent plasma and ZMapp)...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937012/planning-for-the-unexpected-ebola-virus-zika-virus-what-s-next
#18
William Welfare, Edward Wright
Since 2000 we have witnessed global pandemics and public health emergencies of international concern. This review details which viruses are likely to caused further outbreaks and looks at the strategies and tools available to UK medical professionals to mitigate the threat posed.
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931998/-between-combat-boots-and-birkenstocks-lessons-from-hiv-aids-sars-h1n1-and-ebola
#19
R Crawford, D C Rutz, D P Evans
OBJECTIVES: In late 2013, an Ebola outbreak quickly grew into an epidemic of extraordinary magnitude, killing more people than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. Although the epidemic was unprecedented, the world had previously experienced several acute public health emergencies requiring global coordination. HIV/AIDS, SARS and H1N1 tested global response, and in each case coordination proved problematic, making the 2013-2015 Ebola epidemic no exception. The purpose of this project was to identify persistent vulnerabilities within global public health emergency response and to identify areas for future research and improvement...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928085/development-of-a-prediction-model-for-ebola-virus-disease-a-retrospective-study-in-nz%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-kor%C3%A3-ebola-treatment-center-guinea
#20
Paul Loubet, Romain Palich, Richard Kojan, Olivier Peyrouset, Christine Danel, Sarala Nicholas, Mamoudou Conde, Klaudia Porten, Augustin Augier, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
The 2014 Ebola epidemic has shown the importance of accurate and rapid triage tools for patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). Our objective was to create a predictive score for EVD. We retrospectively reviewed all suspected cases admitted to the Ebola treatment center (ETC) in Nzérékoré, Guinea, between December 2, 2014, and February 23, 2015. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to identify clinical and epidemiological factors associated with EVD, which were used to create a predictive score...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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