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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#1
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#2
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230614/translating-predictions-of-zoonotic-viruses-for-policymakers
#3
Seth D Judson, Matthew LeBreton, Trevon Fuller, Risa M Hoffman, Kevin Njabo, Timothy F Brewer, Elsa Dibongue, Joseph Diffo, Jean-Marc Feussom Kameni, Severin Loul, Godwin W Nchinda, Richard Njouom, Julius Nwobegahay, Jean Michel Takuo, Judith N Torimiro, Abel Wade, Thomas B Smith
Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and Zika virus disease highlight the need for disseminating accurate predictions of emerging zoonotic viruses to national governments for disease surveillance and response. Although there are published maps for many emerging zoonotic viruses, it is unknown if there is agreement among different models or if they are concordant with national expert opinion. Therefore, we reviewed existing predictions for five high priority emerging zoonotic viruses with national experts in Cameroon to investigate these issues and determine how to make predictions more useful for national policymakers...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210303/treatment-focused-ebola-trials-supportive-care-and-future-of-filovirus-care
#4
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Karen A O Martins, Anthony Cardile, Ronald Reisler, George W Christopher, Sina Bavari
During the 2014-2016 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak, several candidate therapeutics were used in EBOV-infected patients in clinical trials and under expanded access for emergency use. This review will focus briefly on medications used during the outbreak. We will discuss current therapeutic candidates and their status and will then turn to a related and essential topic: supportive care and the standard of care for filovirus infected patients. Potential benefits and pitfalls of combination therapies for filoviruses will be discussed...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208326/a-review-on-the-antagonist-ebola-a-prophylactic-approach
#5
REVIEW
Fatima Nazish Khan, Sahar Qazi, Khushnuma Tanveer, Khalid Raza
Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of Filoviridae virus family under the genus Ebolavirus, has emerged as a dangerous and potential threat to human health globally. It causes a severe and deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, called Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). In recent outbreaks of EVD, there has been loss of large numbers of individual's life. Therefore, EBOV has attracted researchers and increased interests in developing new models for virus evolution, and therapies. The EBOV interacts with the immune system of the host which led to understand how the virus functions and effects immune system behaviour...
December 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207450/one-health-perspectives-on-emerging-public-health-threats
#6
Sukhyun Ryu, Bryan Inho Kim, Jun-Sik Lim, Cheng Siang Tan, Byung Chul Chun
Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175206/stochastic-simulation-of-multiscale-complex-systems-with-piskas-a-rule-based-approach
#7
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo Santibañez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170916/development-of-small-molecule-viral-inhibitors-targeting-various-stages-of-the-life-cycle-of-emerging-and-re-emerging-viruses
#8
REVIEW
Xiaohuan Wang, Peng Zou, Fan Wu, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
In recent years, unexpected outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses have become more frequent, which is possibly due to environmental changes. These outbreaks result in the loss of life and economic hardship. Vaccines and therapeutics should be developed for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress in the development of small-molecule viral inhibitors against highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, and Zika virus...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159596/human-monoclonal-antibodies-as-candidate-therapeutics-against-emerging-viruses
#9
REVIEW
Yujia Jin, Cheng Lei, Dan Hu, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying
The emergence of new pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Ebola virus, poses serious challenges to global public health and highlights the urgent need for novel antiviral approaches. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been successfully used to treat various diseases, particularly cancer and immunological disorders. Antigen-specific mAbs have been isolated using several different approaches, including hybridoma, transgenic mice, phage display, yeast display, and single B-cell isolation...
November 20, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153266/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#10
REVIEW
William A Fischer, Pauline Vetter, Daniel G Bausch, Timothy Burgess, Richard T Davey, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Peter B Jahrling, Andre C Kalil, Douglas L Mayers, Aneesh K Mehta, Timothy M Uyeki, Michael Jacobs
The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the understanding of the use of these countermeasures for post-exposure prophylaxis against Ebola virus infection. In future outbreaks, post-exposure prophylaxis could play an important part in reducing community transmission of Ebola virus by providing more immediate protection than does immunisation as well as providing additional protection for health-care workers who are inadvertently exposed over the course of their work...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148858/from-bench-to-almost-bedside-the-long-road-to-a-licensed-ebola-virus-vaccine
#11
Gary Wong, Emelissa J Mendoza, Francis A Plummer, George F Gao, Gary P Kobinger, Xiangguo Qiu
The Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic during 2014-16 in West Africa has accelerated the clinical development of several vaccine candidates that have demonstrated efficacy in the gold standard nonhuman primate (NHP) model, namely cynomolgus macaques. Areas covered: This review discusses the pre-clinical research and if available, clinical evaluation of the currently available EBOV vaccine candidates, while emphasizing the translatability of pre-clinical data generated in the NHP model to clinical data in humans...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104771/virus-vectored-ebola-vaccines
#12
I V Dolzhikova, E A Tokarskaya, A S Dzharullaeva, A I Tukhvatulin, D V Shcheblyakov, O L Voronina, S I Syromyatnikova, S V Borisevich, V B Pantyukhov, V F Babira, L V Kolobukhina, B S Naroditsky, D Y Logunov, A L Gintsburg
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most dangerous infections affecting humans and animals. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in 1976 in Sudan and Zaire. Since then, more than 20 outbreaks have occurred; the largest of which (2014-2016) evolved into an epidemic in West Africa and claimed the lives of more than 11,000 people. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent epidemics, there was no licensed vaccine for EVD at the beginning of the latest outbreak. The development of the first vaccines for EVD started in 1980 and has come a long technological way, from inactivated to genetically engineered vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083948/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-for-outbreak-pathogens
#13
Katie Ewer, Sarah Sebastian, Alexandra J Spencer, Sarah Gilbert, Adrian V S Hill, Teresa Lambe
The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the potential for large disease outbreaks caused by emerging pathogens and has generated considerable focus on preparedness for future epidemics. Here we discuss drivers, strategies and practical considerations for developing vaccines against outbreak pathogens. Chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd) vectors have been developed as vaccine candidates for multiple infectious diseases and prostate cancer. ChAd vectors are safe and induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity in all age groups, as well as circumventing the problem of pre-existing immunity encountered with human Ad vectors...
October 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074200/data-management-of-clinical-trials-during-an-outbreak-of-ebola-virus-disease
#14
Stefanie Hossmann, Alan G Haynes, Adrian Spoerri, Ibrahima Dina Diatta, Barry Aboubacar, Matthias Egger, Felix Rintelen, Sven Trelle
INTRODUCTION: Clinical trial data management (DM) conducted during outbreaks like that of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, 2014-2016, has to adapt to specific, unique circumstances. CTU Bern was asked to set up a safe data capture/management system that could be launched within a few weeks and cover two different vaccine trials. This article describes some of the challenges we faced and our solutions during the two different trials. METHODS: Setting up a DM system was split into four phases/tasks: (1) quick set-up of the (electronic) data capture system (EDC) and mobile infrastructure in Bern, (2) moving the EDC and infrastructure to Conakry, Guinea and implementation of a local data management centre (DMC), (3) running the DMC, and (4) data cleaning...
October 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073992/ebola-virus-epidemic-in-west-africa-global-health-economic-challenges-lessons-learned-and-policy-recommendations
#15
Mahmoud Elmahdawy, Gihan H Elsisi, Joao Carapinha, Mohamed Lamorde, Abdulrazaq Habib, Peter Agyie-Baffour, Redouane Soualmi, Samah Ragab, Anthony W Udezi, Cyril Usifoh, Stella Usifoh
The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053626/a-systematic-review-of-computational-drug-discovery-development-and-repurposing-for-ebola-virus-disease-treatment
#16
REVIEW
James Schuler, Matthew L Hudson, Diane Schwartz, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to the threat. We review published research studies that utilize computational approaches to find or develop drugs that target the Ebola virus and synthesize its results. A variety of hypothesized and/or novel treatments are reported to have potential anti-Ebola activity. Approaches that utilize multi-targeting/polypharmacology have the most promise in treating EVD...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049274/reporting-deaths-among-children-aged-5-years-after-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-bombali-district-sierra-leone-2015-2016
#17
Amanda L Wilkinson, Reinhard Kaiser, Mohamed F Jalloh, Mamudi Kamara, Dianna M Blau, Pratima L Raghunathan, Alpha Kamara, Umaru Kamara, Nathaniel Houston-Suluku, Kevin Clarke, Amara Jambai, John T Redd, Sara Hersey, Brima Osaio-Kamara
Mortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 live births (1,2). To inform efforts to strengthen surveillance, stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years from multiple surveillance streams in Bombali Sebora chiefdom were retrospectively reviewed. In total, during January 2015-November 2016, 930 deaths in children aged <5 years were identified, representing 73...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047180/systematic-screening-of-viral-entry-inhibitors-using-surface-plasmon-resonance
#18
REVIEW
Penmetcha K R Kumar
Viral binding and entry into host cells for various viruses have been studied extensively, yielding a detailed understanding of the overall viral entry process. As cell entry is an essential and requisite process by which a virus initiates infection, it is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. The advantages of targeting viral entry are an extracellular target site, relatively easy access for biological interventions, and lower toxicity. Several cell-based strategies and biophysical techniques have been used to screen compounds that block viral entry...
October 18, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034663/-anthropology-engaged-against-ebola-2014-2016-approaches-contributions-and-new-questions
#19
Alice Desclaux, Julienne Anoko
Anthropologists contributed to the response to the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in three ways : as Ebola experts, cultural mediators between populations and caregivers, and researchers. This article presents a preliminary review of approaches, contributions and related issues based on a literature review, case studies and debates. The anthropological research discussed in this article concerns four themes : epidemiological contexts of transmission ; cultural interpretation of illness and social responses ; social construction of stakeholders' experience ; critical analysis of public health interventions...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034662/-the-lessons-of-the-ebola-epidemic-for-a-more-effective-preparedness-face-to-health-crises
#20
Anne Fortin, Joseph Vroh Benie Bi, Abdelkrim Soulimane
Although uncommon, public health crises cause considerable human suffering and death and have major political, economic and social impacts. For many years, countries have made considerable efforts to prepare for emergencies. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa, as well as recent events and emerging public health threats force countries to strengthen, adapt or implement their Emergency Preparedness Plans. Emergency Preparedness is a difficult process. Some authors would even say that it is an impossible mission...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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