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Nutrition prediabetes insulin resistance obesity

Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Juan P González-Rivas, Marcos Lima-Martínez, Victoria Stepenka, Alejandro Rísquez, Jeffrey I Mechanick
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its economic burden have increased in Venezuela, posing difficult challenges in a country already in great turmoil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the prevalence, causes, prevention, management, health policies, and challenges for successful management of diabetes and its complications in Venezuela. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review spanning 1960 to 2015 was performed...
November 2015: Annals of Global Health
Catherine L Davis, Martha S Tingen, Jenny Jia, Forrest Sherman, Celestine F Williams, Kruti Bhavsar, Nancy Wood, Jessica Kobleur, Jennifer L Waller
BACKGROUND: Passive smoke exposure (PSE) may be a risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity and is associated with worse neurocognitive development, cognition, and sleep in children. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of PSE on adiposity, cognition, and sleep in overweight and obese children using an objective measure of PSE. METHODS: Overweight or obese children (n = 222) aged 7-11 (9.4 ± 1.1 years; 58% black; 58% female; 85% obese) were recruited from schools near Augusta, Georgia, over the course of the school year from 2003-2006 for a clinical trial, with data analyzed in 2009-2010...
April 2016: Childhood Obesity
Jill M Olausson, Marilyn J Hammer, Veronica Brady
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Many patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematologic malignancies experience hyperglycemic events during treatment, leading to adverse outcomes. Understanding how hyperglycemia during the acute HCT treatment phase impacts outcomes is vital for preventing and mitigating adverse events. This integrative review evaluates the impact of hyperglycemia on adult patients undergoing HCT. LITERATURE SEARCH: PubMed, MEDLINE®, and CINAHL® electronic databases were used to identify relevant articles...
September 2014: Oncology Nursing Forum
Kimberley D Bruce
The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.4 % of the adult population (285 million) have diabetes. In recent years, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a condition traditionally associated with aging, has been steadily increasing among younger individuals. It is now a well-established notion that the early-life period is a critical window of development and that influences during this period can "developmentally prime" the metabolic status of the adult...
January 2014: Current Diabetes Reports
Mary Savoye, Sonia Caprio, James Dziura, Anne Camp, Greg Germain, Craig Summers, Fangyong Li, Melissa Shaw, Paulina Nowicka, Romy Kursawe, Fredrick Depourcq, Grace Kim, William V Tamborlane
OBJECTIVE: The childhood obesity epidemic has been accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), particularly in minority children. Twenty to thirty percent of obese youth have "prediabetes," a precursor to diabetes marked by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. The Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrated that T2D could be prevented/delayed by intensive lifestyle modification in adults with prediabetes, but efficacy of similar interventions in youth has not been established...
February 2014: Diabetes Care
Charumathi Sabanayagam, Srinivas Teppala, Anoop Shankar
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Recent experimental studies have suggested that BPA affects glucose metabolism through diverse mechanisms including insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, adipogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Prediabetes is a stage earlier in the hyperglycemia continuum associated with increased future risk of developing diabetes. Therefore, we examined the association between BPA exposure and prediabetes among subjects free of diabetes...
August 2013: Acta Diabetologica
Soundarya L Madhira, Satya S Challa, Maniprabha Chalasani, Giridharan Nappanveethl, Ramesh R Bhonde, Rajanna Ajumeera, Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan
BACKGROUND: Development of model systems have helped to a large extent, in bridging gap to understand the mechanism(s) of disease including diabetes. Interestingly, WNIN/GR-Ob rats (Mutants), established at National Centre for Laboratory Animals (NCLAS) of National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), form a suitable model system to study obesity with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrating several secondary complications (cataract, cardiovascular complications, infertility, nephropathy etc). The present study has been carried out to explore the potent application(s) of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), to portray features of pre-diabetic/T2D vis-à-vis featuring obesity, with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), hyperinsulinemia (HI) and insulin resistance (IR) seen with Mutant rats akin to human situation...
2012: PloS One
Roger Clemens, Sibylle Kranz, Amy R Mobley, Theresa A Nicklas, Mary Pat Raimondi, Judith C Rodriguez, Joanne L Slavin, Hope Warshaw
Current fiber intakes are alarmingly low, with long-term implications for public health related to risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, certain gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, and the continuum of metabolic dysfunctions including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Eating patterns high in certain fibers are known to lower LDL cholesterol and blood pressure, lower blood glucose, and decrease insulin resistance in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes; help with both weight loss and maintenance; and improve bowel regularity and gastrointestinal health...
July 2012: Journal of Nutrition
Preethi Srikanthan, Andrea L Hevener, Arun S Karlamangla
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528)...
May 26, 2010: PloS One
Sean H Adams
Dysregulation of insulin action is most often considered in the context of impaired glucose homeostasis, with the defining feature of diabetes mellitus being elevated blood glucose concentration. Complications arising from the hyperglycemia accompanying frank diabetes are well known and epidemiological studies point to higher risk toward development of metabolic disease in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. Although the central role of proper blood sugar control in maintaining metabolic health is well established, recent developments have begun to shed light on associations between compromised insulin action [obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)] and altered intermediary metabolism of fats and amino acids...
November 2011: Advances in Nutrition
Preethi Srikanthan, Arun S Karlamangla
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance, the basis of type 2 diabetes, is rapidly increasing in prevalence; very low muscle mass is a risk factor for insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether increases in muscle mass at average and above average levels are associated with improved glucose regulation. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 13,644 subjects in a national study were evaluated...
September 2011: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anja Miesel, Helge Müller, Margot Thermann, Marc Heidbreder, Peter Dominiak, Walter Raasch
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become an epidemiological problem in Western countries. We developed a diet-induced obese rat model that mimics all the symptoms of MS in humans, but whose insulin resistance, hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia are caused by nutrition rather than genetic modifications. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allowed for 12 weeks to choose between a cafeteria diet (CD, 20.3 kJ/g) and standard rat chow (11...
2010: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Linda M Delahanty, David M Nathan
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trials are long-term randomized clinical trials that have the potential to direct diabetes care and medical nutrition therapy for obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes both now and in the future. This article summarizes and compares the important evidence-based results of these diabetes and obesity clinical trials and reviews the similarities and differences in lifestyle interventions that were designed for these trials...
April 2008: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Anna Mg Cali, Sonia Caprio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity in youth is increasing alarmingly among children and adolescents in the United States. The problem falls disproportionately on African-American and Hispanic children. Many of the metabolic and cardiovascular complications associated with obesity are already present during childhood and are closely linked to the concomitant insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and degree of obesity. Moreover, these co-morbidities persist into adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: The progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus involves an intermediate stage known as prediabetes or impaired glucose regulation...
April 2008: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
William T Cefalu, Jianping Ye, Aamir Zuberi, David M Ribnicky, Ilya Raskin, Zhijun Liu, Zhong Q Wang, Phillip J Brantley, Luke Howard, Michael Lefevre
Metabolic syndrome describes the human condition characterized by the presence of coexisting traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity, in addition to nontraditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as inflammatory processes and abnormalities of the blood coagulation system. Although the specific etiology for metabolic syndrome is not known, insulin resistance--a clinical state in which a normal or elevated insulin concentration reflects an impaired biological response--is present and is considered a key pathophysiologic abnormality...
February 2008: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Erol Cerasi
Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes has been increasing exponentially over the past decade and a half and it is estimated that within short it will comprise more than 350 million patients. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is complex, but has two dominating factors, insulin resistance (which is mainly due to obesity and physical inactivity), and deficient insulin production. Indeed, although approximately 80% of type 2 diabetics are obese, 2/3 of overweight or obese persons show normal glucose metabolism...
April 2007: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Stephan Martin
Insulin resistance caused by obesity and lack of physical activity plays a major role for the development of type 2 diabetes. If the reduced insulin action cannot be compensated by overproduction of insulin, glucose regulation disorder is developing. In addition, other trigger factors such as television viewing, sleep, alcohol or smoking are discussed. During the past years an intensification of pharmacological therapy was believed to be the major goal for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, now the value of nonpharmacological treatment improves...
December 15, 2006: Medizinische Klinik
D C Henderson, P M Copeland, D D Nguyen, C P Borba, C Cather, A Eden Evins, O Freudenreich, L Baer, D C Goff
OBJECTIVE: We studied a sample of schizophrenia out-patients to test the hypotheses that serum homocysteine concentrations would correlate positively with measures of glucose metabolism. METHOD: Subjects underwent a nutritional assessment and fasting plasma, serum insulin and homocysteine tests. RESULTS: Males had a significantly higher homocysteine levels than females (7.69 +/- 1.42 microM vs. 6.63 +/- 1.40 microM; P = 0.02). Comparing subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) (glucose < 100 mg/dl) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (> or = 100 mg/dl) subjects with IFG (mean 8...
February 2006: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Melvin R Hayden, Suresh C Tyagi
Over the past three decades, we have witnessed an improvement of survival in those patients with the trio of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Revolutionary changes in technology and an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in acute coronary syndromes have resulted in this observation. Due to advances in coronary care, we are currently at a crossroads, wherein, the mortality from acute cardiovascular events have been declining and the mortality associated with this trio has been increasing due to congestive heart failure (CHF)...
July 2003: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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