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branched chain amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035970/emerging-perspectives-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#1
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipogenesis has been extensively studied in the context of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, little information exists on the role of amino acid metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we review how branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is modified during adipogenesis and, due to the limited information in the area, address questions that remain to be answered with further research. RECENT FINDINGS: BCAAs are rapidly consumed during adipocyte differentiation and are indispensable for this process...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035969/effects-of-medical-food-leucine-content-in-the-management-of-methylmalonic-and-propionic-acidemias
#2
Jennifer G Myles, Irini Manoli, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the varied effects of medical foods high in leucine (Leu) and devoid of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in the management of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, aiming to advance dietary practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Leu is a key metabolic regulator with a multitude of effects on different organ systems. Recent observational studies have demonstrated that these effects can have unintended consequences in patients with MMA as a result of liberal use of medical foods...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032949/correction-of-hyperleucinemia-in-msud-patients-on-leucine-free-dietary-therapy
#4
Anna I Scott, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan
PURPOSE: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acid catabolism associated with encephalopathy from accumulation of leucine. Leucine is closely monitored during normal growth and particularly during acute illness. As most hospitals do not have access to rapid plasma amino acid quantification, the initial management is often empirical. A model describing the reduction of plasma leucine in hyperleucinemic patients on leucine-free formula would help to guide management and optimize testing frequency...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030588/impaired-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-may-underlie-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-like-pathology-of-neonatal-testosterone-treated-female-rats
#5
Álvaro Anzai, Rodrigo R Marcondes, Thiago H Gonçalves, Kátia C Carvalho, Manuel J Simões, Natália Garcia, José M Soares, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Edmund C Baracat, Ismael D C G da Silva, Gustavo A R Maciel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms involved in the development of NAFLD in PCOS are not well known. We investigated histological changes and metabolomic profile in the liver of rat models of PCOS phenotype induced by testosterone or estradiol. Two-day old female rats received sc injections of 1.25 mg testosterone propionate (Testos; n = 10), 0.5 mg estradiol benzoate (E2; n = 10), or vehicle (control group, CNT; n = 10)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#6
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024598/effects-of-long-term-exposures-to-low-iron-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-containing-diets-on-aging-skeletal-muscle-of-fisher-344-brown-norway-rats
#7
Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C DeRuisseau
Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A low iron (LI) containing diet could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male F344BN rats consumed the following control-base diets: Control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); Control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020023/the-continuous-reaction-time-test-for-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-validated-by-a-randomized-controlled-multi-modal-intervention-a-pilot-study
#8
M M Lauridsen, S Mikkelsen, T Svensson, J Holm, C Klüver, J Gram, H Vilstrup, O B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell
BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is clinically undetectable and the diagnosis requires psychometric tests. However, a lack of clarity exists as to whether the tests are in fact able to detect changes in cognition. AIM: To examine if the continuous reaction time test (CRT) can detect changes in cognition with anti-HE intervention in patients with cirrhosis and without clinically manifest hepatic encephalopathy (HE). METHODS: Firstly, we conducted a reproducibility analysis and secondly measured change in CRT induced by anti-HE treatment in a randomized controlled pilot study: We stratified 44 patients with liver cirrhosis and without clinically manifest HE according to a normal (n = 22) or abnormal (n = 22) CRT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016470/efficacy-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-and-walking-exercise-for-preventing-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#9
Atsushi Hiraoka, Kojiro Michitaka, Daisuke Kiguchi, Hirofumi Izumoto, Hidetaro Ueki, Miho Kaneto, Shogo Kitahata, Toshihiko Aibiki, Tomonari Okudaira, Hideomi Tomida, Yuji Miyamoto, Hiroka Yamago, Yoshifumi Suga, Ryuichiro Iwasaki, Kenichiro Mori, Hideki Miyata, Eiji Tsubouchi, Masato Kishida, Tomoyuki Ninomiya, Shigeru Kohgami, Masashi Hirooka, Yoshio Tokumoto, Masanori Abe, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa
BACKGROUND/AIM: Sarcopenia is recognized as a condition related to quality of life and prognosis in patients with chronic liver disease, although no useful strategy for improving muscle volume and strength has been established. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration and walking exercise. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 2015 to July 2016, 33 Japanese outpatients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled (median: 67 years, HCV : HBV : alcohol : others=26 : 2 : 2 : 3, male : female=13 : 20, Child-Pugh A : B=30 : 3)...
October 9, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991180/robust-regression-analysis-of-gcms-data-reveals-differential-rewiring-of-metabolic-networks-in-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients
#10
Cedric Simillion, Nasser Semmo, Jeffrey R Idle, Diren Beyoğlu
About one in 15 of the world's population is chronically infected with either hepatitis virus B (HBV) or C (HCV), with enormous public health consequences. The metabolic alterations caused by these infections have never been directly compared and contrasted. We investigated groups of HBV-positive, HCV-positive, and uninfected healthy controls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of their plasma and urine. A robust regression analysis of the metabolite data was conducted to reveal correlations between metabolite pairs...
October 8, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987236/associations-of-cord-blood-metabolites-with-perinatal-characteristics-newborn-anthropometry-and-cord-blood-hormones-in-project-viva
#11
Wei Perng, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Scott McCulloch, Leda Chatzi, Christos Mantzoros, Marie-France Hivert, Emily Oken
CONTEXT: Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize biomarkers and elucidate physiological processes underlying adverse health outcomes. Little is known of these relationships during gestation and infancy, which are critical period for development of metabolic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: To identify cord blood metabolite patterns associated with birth size; and to investigate relations of the birth size-associated metabolite patterns, and a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite pattern with a range of newborn and perinatal characteristics...
November 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984678/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplements-on-muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#12
Haruki Uojima, Seiko Sakurai, Hisashi Hidaka, Takeshi Kinbara, Ji Hyun Sung, Chikamasa Ichita, Shinnosuke Tokoro, Sakue Masuda, Akiko Sasaki, Kazuya Koizumi, Hideto Egashira, Makoto Kako, Shuzo Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplements on muscle strength and muscle mass in patients with liver cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a single-center, prospective study of adult cirrhotic patients receiving nutrition therapy at Shonan Kamakura General Hospital. A 28-day pretreatment observation period was followed by a 24-week treatment period. Patients who fulfilled the treatment criteria received one package of oral BCAA supplement powder twice a day and the response was evaluated...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977745/bacterial-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-structures-mechanisms-and-drugability
#13
Tathyana Mar Amorim Franco, John S Blanchard
The eight enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the three branched-chain amino acids; L-isoleucine, L-leucine and L-valine were identified decades ago using classical genetic approaches based on amino acid auxotrophy. This review will highlight recent progress in the determination of the three-dimensional structures of these enzymes, their chemical mechanisms and insights into their suitability as targets for the development of antibacterial agents. Given the enormous rise in bacterial drug resistance to every major class of antibacterial compound, there is a clear and present need for the identification of new antibacterial compounds with nonoverlapping targets to current antibacterials...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975665/crystal-structures-of-staphylococcus-aureus-ketol-acid-reductoisomerase-in-complex-with-two-transition-state-analogs-that-have-biocidal-activity
#14
Khushboo Patel, David Teran, Shan Zheng, Ajit Kandale, Mario Garcia, You Lv, Mark A Schembri, Ross P McGeary, Gerhard Schenk, Luke William Guddat
Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) is an NAD(P)H and Mg2+-dependent enzyme of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis pathway. Here we describe the first crystal structures of Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) KARI, these in complex with two transition state analogs, cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxylate (CPD) and N-isopropyloxalyl hydroxamate (IpOHA). These compounds bind competitively and in multi-dentate manner to KARI with Ki values of 2.73 μM and 7.9 nM, respectively; however, IpOHA binds slowly to the enzyme...
October 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971838/hyperglucagonemia-correlates-with-plasma-levels-of-non-branched-chained-amino-acids-in-patients-with-liver-disease-independent-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Anders E Junker, Mette Christensen, Sofie Hædersdal, Flemming Wibrand, Allan M Lund, Katrine Douglas Galsgaard, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) frequently exhibit elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia). Hyperglucagonemia and alpha-cell hyperplasia may result from elevated levels of plasma amino acids when glucagon's action on hepatic amino acid metabolism is disrupted. We therefore measured plasma levels of glucagon and individual amino acids in patients with and without biopsy-verified NAFLD and with and without type T2D. Fasting levels of amino acids and glucagon in plasma were measured, using validated ELISAs and high-performance liquid chromatography, in obese, middle-aged individuals with I) normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and NAFLD, II) T2D and NAFLD, III) T2D without liver disease, and IV) NGT and no liver disease...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969796/induction-of-the-pdh-bypass-and-upregulation-of-the-aldh7b4-in-plants-treated-with-herbicides-inhibiting-amino-acid-biosynthesis
#16
Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Tagnon D Missihoun, Peter Dörmann, Dorothea Bartels, Mercedes Royuela
Imazamox and glyphosate represent two classes of herbicides that inhibit the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway and the activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, respectively. However, it is still unclear how imazamox and glyphosate lead to plant death. Both herbicides inhibit amino-acid biosynthesis and were found to induce ethanol fermentation in plants, but an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was neither more susceptible nor more resistant than the wild-type to the herbicides...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958693/amino-acid-profile-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-male-mediterranean-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
A Ntzouvani, T Nomikos, D Panagiotakos, E Fragopoulou, C Pitsavos, A McCann, P M Ueland, S Antonopoulou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of clinically relevant factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Circulating levels of several amino acids and metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and MetS. We aimed to identify the amino acid profile that is significantly associated with MetS among an all male Mediterranean population. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred middle-aged men (54...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958691/branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-rather-than-amino-acids-plasma-concentrations-is-associated-with-diet-induced-changes-in-insulin-resistance-in-overweight-to-obese-individuals
#18
S Haufe, S Engeli, J Kaminski, H Witt, D Rein, B Kamlage, W Utz, J C Fuhrmann, V Haas, A Mähler, J Schulz-Menger, F C Luft, M Boschmann, J Jordan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, which stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that circulating 3-HIB herald insulin resistance and that metabolic improvement with weight loss are related to changes in BCAAs and 3-HIB. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed plasma and urine in 109 overweight to obese individuals before and after six months on hypocaloric diets reduced in either carbohydrates or fat...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957322/shared-genetic-regulatory-networks-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-multiple-populations-of-diverse-ethnicities-in-the-united-states
#19
Le Shu, Kei Hang K Chan, Guanglin Zhang, Tianxiao Huan, Zeyneb Kurt, Yuqi Zhao, Veronica Codoni, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Jun Yang, James G Wilson, Xi Luo, Daniel Levy, Aldons J Lusis, Simin Liu, Xia Yang
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are closely interrelated complex diseases likely sharing overlapping pathogenesis driven by aberrant activities in gene networks. However, the molecular circuitries underlying the pathogenic commonalities remain poorly understood. We sought to identify the shared gene networks and their key intervening drivers for both CVD and T2D by conducting a comprehensive integrative analysis driven by five multi-ethnic genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for CVD and T2D, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), ENCODE, and tissue-specific gene network models (both co-expression and graphical models) from CVD and T2D relevant tissues...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952033/metabolic-pathways-at-the-crossroads-of-diabetes-and-inborn-errors
#20
REVIEW
Eric S Goetzman, Zhenwei Gong, Manuel Schiff, Yan Wang, Radhika H Muzumdar
Research over the past two decades has led to advances in our understanding of the genetic and metabolic factors that underlie the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While T2DM is defined by its hallmark metabolic symptoms, the genetic risk factors for T2DM are more immune-related than metabolism-related, and the observed metabolic disease may be secondary to chronic inflammation. Regardless, these metabolic changes are not benign, as the accumulation of some metabolic intermediates serves to further drive the inflammation and cell stress, eventually leading to insulin resistance and ultimately to T2DM...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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