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branched chain amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664912/metatranscriptome-analysis-of-the-microbial-fermentation-of-dietary-milk-proteins-in-the-murine-gut
#1
Floor Hugenholtz, Mark Davids, Jessica Schwarz, Michael Müller, Daniel Tomé, Peter Schaap, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Hauke Smidt, Michiel Kleerebezem
Undigestible food ingredients are converted by the microbiota into a large range of metabolites, predominated by short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These microbial metabolites are subsequently available for absorption by the host mucosa and can serve as an energy source. Amino acids fermentation by the microbiota expands the spectrum of fermentation end-products beyond acetate, propionate and butyrate, to include in particular branched-SCFA. Here the long-term effects of high protein-diets on microbial community composition and functionality in mice were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664677/silac-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-livers-of-spontaneous-obese-and-diabetic-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Junlong Wang, Shimeng Xu, Jing Gao, Linqiang Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Wenhui Yang, Yunhai Li, Shasha Liao, Hu Zhou, Pingsheng Liu, Bin Liang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a severely metabolic disorder that affects above 10% worldwide population. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2DM. Liver is an essential metabolic organ that plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of liver in the transition of obesity to diabetes are not fully understood. Nonhuman primate (NHP) rhesus monkey is an appropriate animal for research of human diseases...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663011/plasma-branched-chain-aromatic-amino-acids-enriched-mediterranean-diet-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-case-cohort-study-within-the-predimed-trial
#3
Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Estefanía Toledo, Clary B Clish, Cristina Razquin, Liming Liang, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Ramón Estruch, Álvaro Hernáez, Edward Yu, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Yan Zheng, Fernando Arós, Dora Romaguera, Courtney Dennis, Emilio Ros, José Lapetra, Lluis Serra-Majem, Christopher Papandreou, Olga Portoles, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Frank B Hu, Miguel A Martínez-González
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, repeated measurements of BCAA/AAA and their interactions with dietary interventions have not been evaluated. We investigated the associations between baseline and changes at 1 year in BCAA/AAA with type 2 diabetes in the context of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) trial. METHODS: We included 251 participants with incident type 2 diabetes and a random sample of 694 participants (641 participants without type 2 diabetes and 53 overlapping cases) in a case-cohort study nested within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial...
April 16, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657561/habitual-sleep-and-human-plasma-metabolomics
#4
Qian Xiao, Andriy Derkach, Steven C Moore, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Fangyi Gu, Neil E Caporaso, Joshua N Sampson, Charles E Matthews
Introduction: Sleep plays an important role in cardiometabolic health. The sleep-wake cycle is partially driven by the endogenous circadian clock, which governs a range of metabolic pathways. The association between sleep and cardiometabolic health may be mediated by alterations of the human metabolome. Objectives: To better understand the biological mechanism underlying the association between sleep and health, we examined human plasma metabolites in relation to sleep duration and sleep timing...
May 2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656825/parenteral-nutrition-for-preterm-infants-issues-and-strategy
#5
D Darmaun, A Lapillonne, U Simeoni, J-C Picaud, J-C Rozé, E Saliba, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, C Dupont, F Feillet, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, D Turck, A Briend
Due to transient gut immaturity, most very preterm infants receive parenteral nutrition (PN) in the first few weeks of life. Yet providing enough protein and energy to sustain optimal growth in such infants remains a challenge. Extrauterine growth restriction is frequently observed in very preterm infants at the time of discharge from hospital, and has been found to be associated with later impaired neurodevelopment. A few recent randomized trials suggest that intensified PN can improve early growth; whether or not such early PN improves long-term neurological outcome is still unclear...
April 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651844/a-novel-strategy-for-comprehensive-identification-of-acylcarnitines-based-on-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Di Yu, Lina Zhou, Qiuhui Xuan, Lichao Wang, Xinjie Zhao, Xin Lu, Guowang Xu
Carnitines play important roles in fatty acid oxidation and branched chain amino acid metabolism. The disturbance of acylcarnitines is associated with occurrence and development of many diseases. Comprehensive acylcarnitine identification can greatly benefit their targeted detection, following disease differential diagnosis and possible mechanism study. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to identify as many acylcarnitines as possible based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650854/-a-case-of-hyperammonemia-induced-by-chemotherapy-with-5-fluorouracil-for-metastatic-colon-cancer
#7
Shinji Tokuyama, Mutsumi Fukunaga, Ken Konishi, Shoko Honda, Ryohei Yukimoto, Aoi Okamoto, Akina Saito, Kazuyuki Okada, Hideo Ota, Shigekazu Yokoyama, Hirofumi Miki, Kenji Kobayashi
Systemic chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)is a standard treatment for unresectable or recurrent colon cancers. Here, we report a case of hyperammonemia induced by chemotherapy using 5-FU for metastatic colon cancer. An 84-yearold male patient with past histories of liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus and renal dysfunction underwent an operation for the rectosigmoid colon cancer 8 years ago. Three years after that operation, a local recurrence of the colon cancer was diagnosed, and chemotherapy using sLV5FU2 was initiated...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650838/-two-cases-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-after-chemotherapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Tae Matsumura, Shingo Noura, Masaki Hirota, Yuki Ozato, Daiki Marukawa, Takashi Shuto, Arisa Muratsu, Akinobu Yasuyama, Akihiro Takata, Chikato Koga, Chizu Kameda, Masahiro Murakami, Ryohei Kawabata, Junzo Shimizu, Junichi Hasegawa
We reported 2 cases of hepatic encephalopathy after chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Case 1: A 49-year-old male was diagnosed advanced sigmoid colon cancer with peritoneal dissemination, multiple liver metastasis and multiple osseous metastasis. After resection of primary lesion, we administered mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab combination therapy. He was in comatose(Japan coma scale 200)3 days after 2 courses of administration of this regimen. Case 2: A 57-year-old female was diagnosed advanced rectal cancer with multiple huge liver metastasis and multiple osseous metastasis...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650772/branched-chain-amino-acids-the-metabolic-link-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Sony Tuteja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644492/update-on-the-therapeutic-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#10
REVIEW
Linda Skibsted Kornerup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Hendrik Vilstrup, Gitte Dam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and devastating complication to chronic liver disease. In this paper, we summarize the latest research and evidence of both conventional and up-coming treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses report beneficial effects of lactulose, branched-chain amino acids, rifaximin, and to some degree L-ornithine L-aspartate on the manifestations of HE in patients with cirrhosis, and generally the numbers needed to treat are low...
April 11, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625864/dietary-intakes-of-branched-chained-amino-acid-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-in-adults-the-harbin-cohort-study-on-diet-nutrition-and-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-study
#11
Akinkunmi Paul Okekunle, Xiaoyan Wu, Wei Duan, Rennan Feng, Ying Li, Changhao Sun
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) intakes and risk for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed in 1,804 people with type 2 diabetes and 7,020 controls with information on nutrient intakes, including BCAAs derived from Chinese food composition tables. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of type 2 diabetes, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by quartiles of BCAAs were estimated using logistic regression with 2-sided p<0...
December 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621522/metabolic-changes-in-urine-and-serum-during-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Nan Hee Kim, Jin Seong Hyeon, Nam Hoon Kim, Ahreum Cho, Gayoung Lee, Seo Young Jang, Mi-Kyung Kim, Eun Young Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Hunjoo Ha, Geum Sook Hwang
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) involves various pathogenic processes during progression to end stage renal disease, and activated metabolic pathways might be changing based on major pathophysiologic mechanisms as DKD progresses. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolic profiling was performed in db/db mice to suggest potential biomarkers for early detection and its progression. We compared concentrations of serum and urinary metabolites between db/m and db/db mice at 8 or 20 weeks of age and investigated whether changes between 8 and 20 weeks in each group were significant...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620942/food-withdrawal-alters-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-mice
#13
Xiaojiao Zheng, Kejun Zhou, Yunjing Zhang, Xiaolong Han, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Chun Qu, Kun Ge, Fengjie Huang, Brenda Hernandez, Herbert Yu, Jun Panee, Tianlu Chen, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Food withdrawal as a health-enhancing measure has beneficial effects on aging, disease prevention, and treatment. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involving gut microbial changes and metabolic consequences resulting from food withdrawal have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we subjected lean and obese mice to a dietary intervention that consisted of a 4-d complete food withdrawal and an 8-d 50% food withdrawal, and we studied changes in cecal microbiome and host serum metabolome. The abundance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria was decreased and Akkermansia muciniphila was elevated by food withdrawal in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620688/effects-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-on-spontaneous-seizures-and-neuronal-viability-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Amedeo Rapuano, Hitten P Zaveri, Amber Tang, Nihal de Lanerolle, Tore Eid
BACKGROUND: The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine have recently emerged as a potential novel treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Blood-derived BCAAs can readily enter the brain, where they contribute to glutamate biosynthesis and may either suppress or trigger acute seizures. However, the effects of BCAAs on chronic (ie, spontaneous recurrent) seizures and epilepsy-associated neuron loss are incompletely understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen rats with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were randomized into 2 groups that could drink, ad libitum, either a 4% solution of BCAAs in water (n=8) or pure water (n=8)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617841/applications-for-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-in-human-nutrition
#15
Donald K Layman, Bo Lönnerdal, John D Fernstrom
α-Lactalbumin is a whey protein that constitutes approximately 22% of the proteins in human milk and approximately 3.5% of those in bovine milk. Within the mammary gland, α-lactalbumin plays a central role in milk production as part of the lactose synthase complex required for lactose formation, which drives milk volume. It is an important source of bioactive peptides and essential amino acids, including tryptophan, lysine, branched-chain amino acids, and sulfur-containing amino acids, all of which are crucial for infant nutrition...
March 29, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617462/doxorubicin-chemotherapy-affects-the-intracellular-and-interstitial-free-amino-acid-pools-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
Sergio Fabris, David A MacLean
Skeletal muscle (SM) health and integrity is dependent on the dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation, and central to this process is the availability of amino acids (AA) in the amino pool. While Doxorubicin (DOX) remains one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies, little is known of the effect of the drug on SM, particularly its effect on the availability of amino acids in the tissue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of DOX administration on vascular, interstitial and intracellular concentrations of AA in SM of the rat up to 8 days after the administration of a 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614759/high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-death-may-be-linked-to-unbalanced-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-energy-metabolism
#17
Xi Zhang, Qiuting Lin, Jiuxia Chen, Tingting Wei, Chen Li, Liangcai Zhao, Hongchang Gao, Hong Zheng
High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death is a common symptom in advanced-stage diabetic patients, while its metabolic mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore metabolic changes in high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes and the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. We found that high glucose can promote cardiomyocyte death both in vitro and in vivo studies. Metabolomic results show that several metabolites exhibited inconsistent variations in vitro and in vivo...
April 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614611/-characterization-analysis-of-gm-gl-genes-of-varicella-zoster-virus-in-six-provinces-of-china
#18
J J Mou, M Y Qi, C S Li, H Y Zheng, M Chen, J H Zhou, J L He, W W Xu, S T Xu, X G Xu
Objective: To analyze the genetic characterization of glycoprotein M(gM.),glycoprotein L(gL) of varicella zoster virus. Methods: According to the program of "Ministry of Science and Technology of China" , Based on the 12 suspected VZV patients monitored in Beijing (1 case), Shanghai (5 cases), Jilin (2 cases), Qinghai (1 case), Guangdong (2 case) and Sichuan (case) in 2007-2015. A total of 12 Vesicle fluid and throat swab samples were collected. Positive samples were identified by Agarose gel electrophoresis and two glycoprotein genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610263/cardiac-dysfunction-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetes-without-dyslipidaemia
#19
Maria Rohm, Dragana Savic, Vicky Ball, M Kate Curtis, Sarah Bonham, Roman Fischer, Nathalie Legrave, James I MacRae, Damian J Tyler, Frances M Ashcroft
Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for heart disease leading to impaired cardiac function and a metabolic switch towards fatty acid usage. Here, we investigated if hyperglycaemia/hypoinsulinaemia in the absence of dyslipidaemia is sufficient to drive these changes, and if they can be reversed by restoring euglycaemia. Using the βV59M mouse model, in which diabetes can be rapidly induced and reversed, we show that stroke volume and cardiac output were reduced within two weeks of diabetes induction. Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase was decreased, as measured in vivo by hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
April 2, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607651/lower-concentrations-of-circulating-medium-and-long-chain-acylcarnitines-characterize-insulin-resistance-in-persons-with-hiv
#20
Samuel Bailin, Cathy Jenkins, Christopher Petucci, Jeffrey A Culver, Bryan E Shepherd, Joshua P Fessel, Todd Hulgan, John Robert Koethe
In HIV-negative individuals, a plasma metabolite profile characterized by higher levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), aromatic amino acids, and C3/C5 acylcarnitines is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of diabetes. We sought to characterize the metabolite profile accompanying insulin resistance in HIV-positive persons to assess whether the same or different bioenergetics pathways might be implicated. We performed an observational cohort study of 70 non-diabetic, HIV-positive individuals (50% with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine with suppressed HIV-1 RNA levels (< 50 copies/mL) for at least 2 years and a CD4+ count over 350 cells/µL...
April 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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