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branched chain amino acids

Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Daria V Dibrova, Alena Yu Nikolaeva, Tatiana V Rakitina, Vladimir O Popov
New class IV transaminases with activity towards L-Leu, which is typical of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCAT), and with activity towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine ((R)-PEA), which is typical of (R)-selective (R)-amine:pyruvate transaminases, were identified by bioinformatics analysis, obtained in recombinant form, and analyzed. The values of catalytic activities in the reaction with L-Leu and (R)-PEA are comparable to those measured for characteristic transaminases with the corresponding specificity...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Stéphanie Leruez, Thomas Bresson, Juan M Chao de la Barca, Alexandre Marill, Grégoire de Saint Martin, Adrien Buisset, Jeanne Muller, Lydie Tessier, Cédric Gadras, Christophe Verny, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Guy Lenaers, Philippe Gohier, Dominique Bonneau, Gilles Simard, Dan Milea, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
Purpose: To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18). Results: A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuan Xu, Weiming Yu, Taotao Yang, Miaozun Zhang, Chao Liang, Xianlei Cai, Qinshu Shao
As one form of branched chain amino-acid transaminase(BCAT) enzymes, It has been found that up-regulation of BCAT1 is associated with poor prognosis in numerous types of tumors, but studies on the role of BCAT1 expression in gastric cancer(GC) are rare. The aim of this study was to detect BCAT1 expression in (GC) and to analyze its association with prognosis of GC patients. Microarray experiments were performed on the Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChip Array. The protein and mRNA levels of BCAT1 were validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in GC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT)...
February 12, 2018: Human Pathology
Sahir Kalim, Ron Wald, Andrew T Yan, Marc B Goldstein, Mercedeh Kiaii, Dihua Xu, Anders H Berg, Clary Clish, Ravi Thadhani, Eugene P Rhee, Jeffrey Perl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In-center, extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis has been associated with variable clinical benefits, but the effect of extended duration hemodialysis on many established uremic solutes and other components of the metabolome is unknown. We determined the magnitude of change in metabolite profiles for patients on extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a 52-week prospective, observational study, we followed 33 patients receiving conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis (7-8 hours per session, three times per week)...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
M Zacchigna, F Cateni, G Procida, D Zampieri, M G Mamolo
Methoxy polyethylene glycol conjugated with coenzyme Q10 (mPEG)-CoQ10 and analog adducts with amino acids as spacers were synthesized as a new drug delivery systems for CoQ10. Alanine and branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were conjugated to mPEG by an amide linkage and to CoQ10 by an ester bond. Recently, branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which are released along with CoQ10, have received increasing attention as 'anti-fatigue' elements. FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis were useful to characterize the synthesized conjugates...
December 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Yaping Shao, Guozhu Ye, Shancheng Ren, Hai-Long Piao, Xinjie Zhao, Xin Lu, Fubo Wang, Ma Wang, Jia Li, Peiyuan Yin, Tian Xia, Chuanliang Xu, Jane J Yu, Yinghao Sun, Guowang Xu
Genetic alterations drive metabolic reprogramming to meet increased biosynthetic precursor and energy demands for cancer cell proliferation and survival in unfavorable environments. A systematic study of gene-metabolite regulatory networks and metabolic dysregulation should reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis. Herein, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics and RNA-seq analyses in prostate tumors and matched adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) to elucidate the molecular alterations and potential underlying regulatory mechanisms in PCa...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Chih-Chun Lin, William G Ondo
Although VMAT2-inhibitors are now established as first-line treatment for tardive dyskinesia, not all patients respond to, or tolerate them. Numerous other agents have been adopted to treat tardive dyskinesia, but with variable results and generally lower quality methodologic reports. Amantadine is the most promising but benzodiazepines, branched chain neutral amino acids, Vitamin B6, several nutraceuticals, and botulinum toxin injections might help some patients. In all cases, better placebo controlled trials are needed before definitive recommendations can be made...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jong-Hoon Lee, Sojeong Heo, Do-Won Jeong
BACKGROUND: Our previous comparative genomic analysis of Staphylococcus equorum KS1039 with five S. equorum strains illuminated the genomic basis of its safety and salt tolerance. However, a comprehensive picture of the cellular components and metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of macromolecules and development of sensory properties has not been obtained for S. equorum. Therefore, in this study, we examined the general metabolism of S. equorum based on information obtained from published complete genome sequences of six S...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hirofumi Goto, Tatsuya Tanaka, Natsuki Suetsugi, Yoshihito Kubotsu, Nobuaki Momozaki, Toshihiko Mizuta
A 77-year-old right-handed woman without any liver diseases was admitted to our hospital because of transient right hemiparesis. She developed total aphasia with right hemiplegia on the third hospital day. We suspected that she had a cerebral infarction following a transient ischemic attack. However, brain diffusion-weighted images revealed no abnormal-intensity lesions, and cerebral angiography showed patent arteries. Additionally, her serum ammonia level was elevated. Theta waves without triphasic waves were detected by electroencephalogram...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Eke G Gruppen, Irina Shalaurova, Steven P Matyus, Russell P Grant, Ray Gegen, Stephan J L Bakker, James D Otvos, Margery A Connelly, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVES: Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. DESIGN AND METHODS: The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Marco Campetella, Andrea Le Donne, Maddalena Daniele, Francesca Leonelli, Lorenzo Gontrani, Stefano Lupi, Enrico Bodo
We explore the structure of a series of Protic Ionic Liquids based on the choline cation and amino-acid anions. In the series, the length and the branching of the amino-acid alkyl chain varies. Ab-initio molecular dynamics, X-ray diffraction measurements and infrared spectra have been used to provide a reliable picture of the short range structure and of the short-time dynamic processes that characterize the fluids. We have put special emphasis on the peculiar and complicated network of hydrogen bonds that stem from the amphoteric nature of the anion moiety...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Huanyao Gao, Tamanna Azam, Sajini Randeniya, Jérémy Couturier, Nicolas Rouhier, Michael K Johnson
Dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD) is the third enzyme required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria, fungi, and plants. DHAD enzymes contain two distinct types of active-site Fe-S clusters. The best characterized examples are Escherichia coli DHAD, which contains an oxygen-labile [Fe4S4] cluster, and spinach DHAD, which contains an oxygen-resistant [Fe2S2] cluster. Although the Fe-S cluster is crucial for DHAD function, little is known about the cluster-coordination environment or the mechanism of catalysis and cluster biogenesis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qian Yang, Wei Deng, Shipeng Wang, Hongjie Liu, Xuefeng Li, Mingqi Zheng
BACKGROUND: Descurainia sophia L., a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, has developed high resistance to tribenuron-methyl. Amino acid substitutions at sites Pro197, Asp376 and Trp574 in the target acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) were primarily responsible for D. sophia resistance to tribenuron-methyl. In this study, D. sophia plants individually homozygous for a specific resistance mutation (Pro197Leu, Pro197His, Pro197Ser, Pro197Thr, Asp376Glu or Trp574Leu) in AHAS were purified and generated, and the effects of resistance mutations on D...
February 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Ana M Gil, Daniela Duarte, Joana Pinto, António S Barros
This nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics study compared the influence of two different Central Portugal exposomes, one of which comprising an important source of pollutants (the Estarreja Chemical Complex, ECC), on the urinary metabolic trajectory of a cohort of healthy pregnant women (total n=107). An exposome-independent description of pregnancy metabolism was found to comprise a set of 18 metabolites reflecting expected changes in branched-chain-amino acids catabolism, hormone and lipid metabolisms. In addition, a set of small changes in some metabolites were suggested to be exposome-dependent and characteristic of pregnant subjects from the Estarreja region...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
M Guevara-Cruz, J M Vargas-Morales, A L Méndez-García, A M López-Barradas, O Granados-Portillo, G Ordaz-Nava, A K Rocha-Viggiano, C A Gutierrez-Leyte, E Medina-Cerda, J L Rosado, J C Morales, N Torres, A R Tovar, L G Noriega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19...
January 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Aurore Martin Agnoux, Angélina El Ghaziri, Thomas Moyon, Anthony Pagniez, Agnès David, Gilles Simard, Patricia Parnet, El Mostafa Qannari, Dominique Darmaun, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau
Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Shuai Luo, Xin-Ai Chen, Xu-Ming Mao, Yong-Quan Li
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus in an acidic peptide complex A21978C. In this complex, A21978C1-3 is most abundant and contains branched-chain fatty acyl groups, while daptomycin has a straight decanoic acyl group. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCDH complex), encoded by bkd gene clusters in Streptomyces, is responsible for the early step of converting branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain fatty acids. In a daptomycin industrial producer S...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Filip Ottosson, Louise Brunkwall, Ulrika Ericson, Peter M Nilsson, Peter Almgren, Céline Fernandez, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander
Context: Emerging evidence has related the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites to human obesity. Gut microbiota is responsible for several metabolic functions and altered plasma metabolome may reflect differences in the gut microbiome. Objective: To identify a plasma metabolite profile associated with BMI in a general population and to investigate if such metabolite profile is associated with distinct composition of the gut microbiota. Design: Targeted profiling of 48 plasma metabolites was performed in a population of 920 Swedish adults (mean age 39y, 53% women) from the ongoing Malmö Offspring Study using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ricardo M Manzo, Roberto J Ceruti, Horacio L Bonazza, Wellington S Adriano, Guillermo A Sihufe, Enrique J Mammarella
Carboxypeptidase A (CPA) is a metalloexopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that are adjacent to the C-terminal end of a polypeptide chain. The enzyme preferentially cleaves over C-terminal L-amino acids with aromatic or branched side chains. This is of main importance for food industry because it can be employed for manufacturing functional foods from different protein sources with reduced hydrophobic amino acid content for patients with deficiencies in the absorption or digestion of the corresponding amino acids...
February 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hari B Krishnan, Bo Song, Nathan W Oehrle, Jeffrey C Cameron, Joseph M Jez
Nitrogen-fixing nodules, which are also major sites of sulfur assimilation, contribute significantly to the sulfur needs of whole soybean plants. Nodules are the predominant sites for cysteine accumulation and the activity of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASS) is central to the sulfur assimilation process in plants. Here, we examined the impact of overexpressing OASS on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome. Overexpression of OASS did not affect the nodule number, but negatively impacted plant growth. HPLC measurement of antioxidant metabolites demonstrated that levels of cysteine, glutathione, and homoglutathione nearly doubled in OASS overexpressing nodules when compared to control nodules...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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