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branched chain amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221987/hierarchical-recognition-of-amino-acid-co-germinants-during-clostridioides-difficile-spore-germination
#1
Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C...
December 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221133/endogenous-glutamine-decrease-is-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer-progression
#2
Cecilia Roux, Chiara Riganti, Sammy Ferri Borgogno, Roberta Curto, Claudia Curcio, Valeria Catanzaro, Giuseppe Digilio, Sergio Padovan, Maria Paola Puccinelli, Monica Isabello, Silvio Aime, Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is becoming the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The mortality is very high, which emphasizes the need to identify biomarkers for early detection. As glutamine metabolism alteration is a feature of PDAC, its in vivo evaluation may provide a useful tool for biomarker identification. Our aim was to identify a handy method to evaluate blood glutamine consumption in mouse models of PDAC. We quantified the in vitro glutamine uptake by Mass Spectrometry (MS) in tumor cell supernatants and showed that it was higher in PDAC compared to non-PDAC tumor and pancreatic control human cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211698/branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-cancer
#3
Elitsa A Ananieva, Adam C Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide an update on the recent biomedical interest in oncogenic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, and discusses the advantages of using BCAAs and expression of BCAA-related enzymes in the treatment and diagnosis of cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: An accumulating body of evidence demonstrates that BCAAs are essential nutrients for cancer growth and are used by tumors in various biosynthetic pathways and as a source of energy...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209542/skin-lesions-associated-with-nutritional-management-of-maple-syrup-urine-disease
#4
Jaraspong Uaariyapanichkul, Puthita Saengpanit, Ponghatai Damrongphol, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Sirinuch Chomtho
Introduction: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolism. We report an infant with MSUD who developed 2 episodes of cutaneous lesions as a result of isoleucine deficiency and zinc deficiency, respectively. Case Presentation: A 12-day-old male infant was presented with poor milk intake and lethargy. The diagnosis of MSUD was made based on clinical and biochemical data. Management and Outcome: Specific dietary restriction of BCAAs was given...
2017: Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208923/plant-endophytes-interaction-influences-the-secondary-metabolism-in-echinacea-purpurea-l-moench-an-in-vitro-model
#5
Valentina Maggini, Marinella De Leo, Alessio Mengoni, Eugenia Rosaria Gallo, Elisangela Miceli, Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel, Sauro Biffi, Luisa Pistelli, Renato Fani, Fabio Firenzuoli, Patrizia Bogani
The influence of the interaction(s) between the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and its endophytic communities on the production of alkamides is investigated. To mimic the in vivo conditions, we have set up an infection model of axenic in vitro E. purpurea plants inoculated with a pool of bacterial strains isolated from the E. purpurea stems and leaves. Here we show different alkamide levels between control (not-inoculated) and inoculated plants, suggesting that the alkamide biosynthesis may be modulated by the bacterial infection...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203860/adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-capacity-associates-with-long-term-weight-loss-success
#6
R Jokinen, R Rinnankoski-Tuikka, S Kaye, L Saarinen, S Heinonen, M Myöhänen, E Rappou, S Jukarainen, A Rissanen, A Pessia, V Velagapudi, K A Virtanen, E Pirinen, K H Pietiläinen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether (1) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mitochondrial capacity predicts weight loss success and (2) weight loss ameliorates obesity-related SAT mitochondrial abnormalities. METHODS: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (BMI 34.6±2.7 kg/m2) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 months) and from 19 lean reference subjects (BMI 22.7±1.1 kg/m2) at baseline. Based on one-year weight loss outcome, the subjects were divided into two groups: continuous weight losers (WL, n=6) and weight regainers (WR, n=13)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203783/dietary-amino-acids-and-incidence-of-hypertension-a-principle-component-analysis-approach
#7
Farshad Teymoori, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
The current study aimed to investigate the association between dietary amino acid patterns and incidence of hypertension, using principal components factor analyses. This study was conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 4288 adults, who were free of hypertension at baseline (2008-2011) and were followed for three years (2011-2014). Principal component factor analyses were conducted based on eight amino acid groups and three amino acid patterns were extracted. The first pattern was characterized by branched chain, aromatic, and alcoholic amino acids, and proline...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201035/effects-of-epsps-copy-number-variation-cnv-and-glyphosate-application-on-the-aromatic-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-synthesis-pathways-in-amaranthus-palmeri
#8
Manuel Fernández-Escalada, Ainhoa Zulet-González, Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Karl Ravet, Todd Gaines, Mercedes Royuela
A key enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19), is the known target of the widely used herbicide glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri, one of the most troublesome weeds in agriculture, has evolved through increased EPSPS gene copy number. The aim of this work was to study the pleiotropic effects of (i) EPSPS increased transcript abundance due to gene copy number variation (CNV) and of (ii) glyphosate application on the aromatic amino acid (AAA) and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198954/metabolic-reprogramming-of-hydrogenosomal-amino-acids-in-trichomonas-vaginalis-under-glucose-restriction
#9
Kuo-Yang Huang, Seow-Chin Ong, Chih-Ching Wu, Chia-Wei Hsu, Hsin-Chung Lin, Yi-Kai Fang, Wei-Hung Cheng, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
BACKGROUND: Glucose is the major energy source that is converted to pyruvate for ATP generation in the trichomonad hydrogenosome. Under glucose restriction (GR), the regulation of amino acids metabolism is crucial for trichomonad growth and survival. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis has been used to identify differentially expressed genes in Trichomonas vaginalis under GR, leading to significant advances in understanding adaptive responses of amino acid metabolism to GR. However, the levels of amino acid metabolites modulated by GR are unknown in T...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197337/genome-wide-motif-predictions-of-bcarr-box-in-the-amino-acid-repressed-genes-of-lactobacillus-helveticus-cm4
#10
Naoyuki Yamamoto, Taketo Wakai
BACKGROUND: A BCARR (branched-chain amino acid responsive repressor) identified in proteolytic gene expressions in Lactobacillus helveticus is considered to negatively control transcriptions by binding to operator sites at the promoter regions in the presence of BCAAs. However, the distributions and regulatory potential of the BCARR in all genes repressed by BCAAs in CM4 remains unclear. RESULTS: A genome-wide search for the BCARR-box was conducted to clarify the contribution of BCARR in the regulation of amino acid metabolism in L...
December 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196239/insulin-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-depletion-during-mouse-preimplantation-embryo-culture-programmes-body-weight-gain-and-raised-blood-pressure-during-early-postnatal-life
#11
Miguel A Velazquez, Bhavwanti Sheth, Stephanie J Smith, Judith J Eckert, Clive Osmond, Tom P Fleming
Mouse maternal low protein diet exclusively during preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to programme altered growth and cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring. Here, we use an in vitro model comprising preimplantation culture in medium depleted in insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), two proposed embryo programming inductive factors from Emb-LPD studies, to examine the consequences for blastocyst organisation and, after embryo transfer (ET), postnatal disease origin. Two-cell embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in defined KSOM medium supplemented with four combinations of insulin and BCAA concentrations...
November 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191093/branched-chain-amino-acids-regulate-type-i-tropocollagen-and-type-iii-tropocollagen-syntheses-via-modulation-of-mtor-in-the-skin
#12
Takumi Yamane, Yuka Morioka, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Ken Iwatsuki, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Yuichi Oishi
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) exhibit many physiological functions. However, the potential link and mechanism between BCAA and skin function are unknown. We examined the effects of deletion of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK), a key enzyme in BCAA catabolism, on type I and III tropocollagen syntheses in mice. Leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the skin of BDK-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. No changes in valine concentrations were observed. The levels of type I and III tropocollagen proteins and mRNAs (COL1A1 and COL3A1) were significantly lower in the skin of BDK-KO mice compared with wild-type mice...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183656/unbiased-plasma-metabolomics-reveal-the-correlation-of-metabolic-pathways-and-prakritis-of-humans
#13
Amey Shirolkar, Sutapa Chakraborty, Tusharkanti Mandal, Rajesh Dabur
BACKGROUND: Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medicinal system, has categorized human body constitutions in three broad constitutional types (prakritis) i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of plasma metabolites and related pathways to classify Prakriti specific dominant marker metabolites and metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 healthy male individuals were assessed for dominant Prakritis and their fasting blood samples were collected...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183595/interactions-between-salicylic-acid-and-antioxidant-enzymes-tilting-the-balance-of-h2o2-from-photorespiration-in-non-target-crops-under-halosulfuron-methyl-stress
#14
Dongjin Pan, Qing X Li, Zhangxing Lin, Zhaojie Chen, Wenwei Tang, Canping Pan, Huihua Tan, Dongqiang Zeng
Halosulfuron-methyl (HSM) is a safe, selective and effective sulfonylurea herbicide (SU) for the control of sedge and broadleaf weeds in sugarcane, corn, tomato, and other crops. The primary site of action is acetolactate synthase (ALS), a key enzyme of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) synthesis. In addition to ALS inhibition, BCAAs deficiencies and oxidative damage may be involved in toxic effects of SUs. However, secondary targets of HSM relevant to plant physiological responses are unclear. In the present study, comparative growth inhibition and peroxidization injury between sensitive and tolerance crops were observed at biochemical and physiological levels suggesting involvement of H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid (SA) in the oxidative stress responses to HSM...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182451/protein-recommendations-for-weight-loss-in-elite-athletes-a-focus-on-body-composition-and-performance
#15
Amy Hector, Stuart M Phillips
There exists a large body of scientific evidence to support protein intakes in excess of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (0.8g protein/kg/d) to promote the retention of skeletal muscle and loss of adipose tissue during dietary energy restriction. Diet-induced weight loss with as low as possible ratio of skeletal muscle to fat mass loss is a situation we refer to as high quality weight loss. We propose that high quality weight loss is often of importance to elite athletes in order to maintain their muscle (engine) and shed unwanted fat mass, potentially improving athletic performance...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179484/association-of-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acids-with-cardiometabolic-traits-differs-between-adults-and-the-oldest-old
#16
Liang Sun, Caiyou Hu, Ruiyue Yang, Yuan Lv, Huiping Yuan, Qinghua Liang, Benjin He, Guofang Pang, Menghua Jiang, Jun Dong, Ze Yang
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are promising for their potential anti-aging effects. However, findings in adults suggest that circulating BCAAs are associated with cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, little information is available about how BCAAs influence clustered cardiometabolic traits in the oldest-old (>85 years), which are the fastest-growing segment of the population in developed countries. Here, we applied a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum BCAAs in Chinese participants (aged 21-110 years) based on a longevity cohort...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177054/increase-in-branched-chain-amino-acids-due-to-acidemia-in-neonatal-calves-with-diarrhoea
#17
Kenji Tsukano, Hiroki Inoue, Kazuyuki Suzuki
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between acid-base status and plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) concentration in calves with diarrhoea for intravenous nutrition, especially with amino acid solution in calves with diarrhoea. Thirty-four Holstein calves aged 11.0±5.9 days old were enrolled in this study. In 10 of 34 calves exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea, severe dehydration and acidemia were observed (severe group: pH: 7.04±0.11, base excess (BE): -17.4±4.5) based on blood gas analysis...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165132/plasma-free-amino-acid-profiles-evaluate-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-diabetes-dyslipidemia-and-hypertension-in-a-large-asian-population
#18
Natsu Yamaguchi, M H Mahbub, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryosuke Hase, Yasutaka Ishimaru, Hiroshi Sunagawa, Hiroki Amano, Mikiko Kobayashi-Miura, Hideyuki Kanda, Yasuyuki Fujita, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Mai Yamamoto, Shinya Kikuchi, Atsuko Ikeda, Mariko Takasu, Naoko Kageyama, Mina Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. METHODS: We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association with variables associated with obesity, blood glucose, lipid, and blood pressure...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164733/regulation-of-intestinal-health-by-branched-chain-amino-acids
#19
REVIEW
Hua Zhou, Bing Yu, Jun Gao, John Khun Htoo, Daiwen Chen
Besides its primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, the intestine also interacts with a complex external milieu, and is the first defense line against noxious pathogens and antigens. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier is associated with enhanced intestinal permeability and development of various gastrointestinal diseases. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important nutrients, which are the essential substrates for protein biosynthesis. Recently, emerging evidence showed that BCAAs are involved in maintaining intestinal barrier function...
November 22, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157816/effect-of-ipomoea-aquatica-ethanolic-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#20
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Chandradevan Machap, Muhajir Hamid, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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