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branched chain amino acids

Amany K Elshorbagy, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl Turner, Helga Refsum, Leonie K Heilbronn
Background: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes. Objective: We investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption. Methods: Forty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean ± SEM) of 25.6 ± 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Chao-Qiang Lai, Caren E Smith, Laurence D Parnell, Yu-Chi Lee, Dolores Corella, Paul Hopkins, Bertha A Hidalgo, Stella Aslibekyan, Michael A Province, Devin Absher, Donna K Arnett, Katherine L Tucker, Jose M Ordovas
Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS)...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Anjaneya S Kathait, Paulo Puac, Mauricio Castillo
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that affects branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. It is characterized by accumulation of BCAAs and corresponding branched-chain keto acids of leucine, isoleucine, and valine in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Leucine is toxic to brain cells, leading to cytotoxic edema affecting the myelinated white matter, and involving the corticospinal tracts, thalami, globus palladi, midbrain, dorsal brain stem, and cerebellum. We present a neonate with the classic subtype of MSUD and its imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Manuel Schlimpert, Simon Lagies, Vadym Budnyk, Barbara Müller, Gerd Walz, Bernd Kammerer
Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal recessive form of cystic kidney disease and the leading cause of hereditary kidney failure in children and young adults. Like other NPH proteins, the NPHP16/Anks6-interacting protein Anks3 has been identified to cause laterality defects in humans. However, the cellular functions of Anks3 remain enigmatic. We investigated the metabolic impact of Anks3 depletion in cultured murine inner medullary collecting duct cells via GC-MS profiling and LC-MS/MS analysis. Combined metabolomics successfully identified 155 metabolites; 48 metabolites were identified to be significantly altered by decreasing Anks3 levels...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
F T Fellendorf, M Platzer, R Pilz, A Rieger, H P Kapfhammer, H Mangge, N Dalkner, S Zelzer, A Meinitzer, A Birner, S A Bengesser, R Queissner, C Hamm, R Hartleb, E Z Reininghaus
OBJECTIVES: An important aspect of bipolar disorder (BD) research is the identification of biomarkers pertaining to the somatic health state. The branched-chain essential amino acids (BCAAs), viz valine, leucine and isoleucine, have been proposed as biomarkers of an individual's health state, given their influence on protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis inhibition. METHODS: BCAA levels of 141 euthymic/subsyndromal individuals with BD and 141 matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography and correlated with clinical psychiatric, anthropometric and metabolic parameters...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Meghana D Gadgil, Christopher B Newgard, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Denise M Scholtens, Frank B Hu, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula
Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Feiran Wang, Haitao Shi, Shuxiang Wang, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) and supplementing with certain amino acids (AAs) has been known as a potential solution to improve nitrogen (N) efficiency in dairy production. Thus understanding how AAs are utilized in various sites along the gut is critical. AA flow from the intestine to portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver then to the mammary gland was elaborated in this article. Recoveries in individual AA in PDV and liver seem to share similar AA pattern with input: output ratio in mammary gland, which subdivides essential AA (EAA) into two groups, lysine (Lys) and branched-chain AA (BCAA) in group 1, input: output ratio > 1; methionine (Met), histidine (His), phenylalanine (Phe) etc...
June 10, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Shuhei Tsuji, Satoshi Koyama, Ryoji Taniguchi, Takako Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Fujiwara, Yukihito Sato
BACKGROUND: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and low nutritional status are major complications of severe chronic heart failure (CHF) and have been associated with poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of outpatients with CHF based on their body composition, such as skeletal muscle index (SMI) and serum amino acid concentration. METHODS: We compared the body composition data and results of blood samples, including the serum amino acid concentration, of patients with CHF and those of controls...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Mauro Tomassetti, Betiana S Garavaglia, Cecilia V Vranych, Natalia Gottig, Jorgelina Ottado, Hugo Gramajo, Lautaro Diacovich
Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), bacterium which is unable to survive out of the host for extended periods of time. Once established inside the plant, the pathogen must compete for resources and evade the defenses of the host cell. However, a number of aspects of Xcc metabolic and nutritional state, during the epiphytic stage and at different phases of infection, are poorly characterized. The 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase complex (MCC) is an essential enzyme for the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid leucine, which prevents the accumulation of toxic intermediaries, facilitates the generation of branched chain fatty acids and/or provides energy to the cell...
2018: PloS One
Christian Reitz, Qin Fan, Peter Neubauer
In E. coli the non-canonical amino acids acids norvaline, norleucine, and β-methylnorleucine, which derive from an off-pathway of the branched-chain amino acid synthesis route are synthesized and incorporated into cellular and recombinant proteins. The synthesis of these amino acids is supported by a high flux of glucose through the glycolytic pathway in combination with a derepression of the enzymes of the branched chain amino acid pathway, for example, when leucine-rich proteins are produced. Avoiding the synthesis and misincorporation of these amino acids has been challenging, especially in large-scale pharmaceutical processes where the problem is boosted by the typical fed-batch production and the technical limitation of mass transfer in the bioreactors...
June 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Dan-Dan Wei, Jun-Song Wang, Jin-Ao Duan, Ling-Yi Kong
Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction, a traditional Chinese formula, has been reported to protect liver from various injuries. Two cholestasis models of rats induced by thioacetamide and by bile duct ligation were established and treated with Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based urinary metabolic profiles were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and univariate analysis to excavate differential metabolites associated with the injuries of the two models and the treatment effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Federica Gevi, Giuseppina Fanelli, Lello Zolla
Male hypogonadism associated with insulin resistance (IR) very often leads to metabolic syndrome, at variance with hypogonadism in its first stadium of insulin sensitivity (IS). A plasma metabolomic investigation of these patients can provide useful information in comparison with the values of IS patients. To this aim plasma from insulin-resistant males with hypogonadism were analysed by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Thus, metabolites were compared to the controls through multivariate statistical analysis and grouped by metabolic pathways...
April 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mingxu Fang, Carl E Bauer
When faced with amino acid starvation, prokaryotic cells induce a stringent response that modulates their physiology. The stringent response is manifested by production of signaling molecules guanosine 5'-diphosphate,3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) that are also called alarmones. In many species, alarmone levels are regulated by a multidomain bifunctional alarmone synthetase/hydrolase called Rel. In this enzyme, there is an ACT domain at the carboxyl region that has an unknown function; however, similar ACT domains are present in other enzymes that have roles in controlling amino acid metabolism...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Efstathia Papada, Ljilja Torović, Charalampia Amerikanou, Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos, Ilias Smyrnioudis, Andriana C Kaliora
We aimed to explore whether plasma-free amino acids are modified in response to terpenes administration in healthy humans. In this open-label, single-arm acute trial, seventeen healthy male volunteers were administered with a naturally occurring product of known terpenes-namely mastiha-after overnight fasting. Blood samples were collected at different time points before and after ingestion. We aimed at identifying and quantifying 60 free amino acids in plasma applying Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total of 24 free amino acids were quantified...
June 3, 2018: Nutrients
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Xiang Li, Joseph A DiDonato, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in gut microbiota have been linked to host insulin resistance, diabetes and impaired amino acid metabolism. We investigated whether changes in gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its nutrient precursors (choline and L-carnitine) were associated with improvements in glucose metabolism and diabetes-related amino acids in a weight-loss diet intervention. DESIGN: We included 504 overweight and obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four energy-reduced diets varying in macronutrient intake...
June 2, 2018: Gut
Natthaporn Takpho, Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takagi
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) Bat1 and Bat2 catalyze the conversion of α-ketoisovalerate, α-keto-β-methylvalerate, and α-ketoisokaproate and into valine, isoleucine, and leucine, respectively, as the final step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Bat1 and Bat2 are homologous proteins that share 77% identity, but Bat1 localizes in the mitochondria and Bat2 in the cytosol. Based on our preliminary finding that only disruption of the BAT1 gene led to slow-growth phenotype, we hypothesized that Bat1 and Bat2 play distinct roles in valine biosynthesis and the regulation of cell growth...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Cell
Guillermo Bodega, Matilde Alique, Lourdes Bohórquez, Miriam Morán, Luis Magro, Lilian Puebla, Sergio Ciordia, María C Mena, Elvira Arza, Manuel R Ramírez
In a previous study, we demonstrated that endothelial microvesicles (eMVs) have a well-developed enzymatic team involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification. In the present paper, we demonstrate that eMVs can synthesize the reducing power (NAD(P)H) that nourishes this enzymatic team, especially those eMVs derived from senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the molecules that nourish the enzymatic machinery involved in NAD(P)H synthesis are blood plasma metabolites: lactate, pyruvate, glucose, glycerol, and branched-chain amino acids...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Anders Valdemar Edhager, Jonas Agerlund Povlsen, Bo Løfgren, Hans Erik Bøtker, Johan Palmfeldt
Congestive heart failure and poor clinical outcome after myocardial infarction are known complications in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein alterations may be involved in the mechanisms underlying these disarrays in the diabetic heart. Here we map proteins involved in intracellular metabolic pathways in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat heart as T2DM develops using MS based proteomics. The pre-diabetic state only induced minor pathway changes, whereas onset and late T2DM caused pronounced perturbations...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Yoshiharu Shimomura, Yasuyuki Kitaura
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine) are essential amino acids for humans and play an important role as the building blocks of proteins. Recent studies have disclosed that free BCAAs in the tissue amino acid pool function not only as substrates for protein synthesis, but also as regulators of protein and energy metabolism. Furthermore, BCAAs are actively used as an amino group donor to synthesize glutamate in the brain. These functions of BCAAs are closely related to human health...
May 24, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Huajie Li, Dan Ye, Wei Xie, Fei Hua, Yiling Yang, Jian Wu, Aifang Gu, Yi Ren, Keshi Mao
Diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, namely valine, leucine, and isoleucine) metabolic defect is observed in human diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance. But whether BCAAs connect diabetes and AD remains unknown. Here we show that BCAA metabolic defect may be one of the drivers of the AD. BCAA levels were increased in the blood in human patients and mice with diabetes or AD. BCAAs-eriched diet promoted the development of AD in mice as evidenced by the behavior and pathological analysis...
May 25, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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