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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922637/a-human-carboxypeptidase-e-nf-%C3%AE-1-gene-mutation-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-patient-leads-to-dementia-and-depression-in-mice
#1
Y Cheng, N X Cawley, T Yanik, S R K Murthy, C Liu, F Kasikci, D Abebe, Y P Loh
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common dementia among the aging population, often also suffer from depression. This comorbidity is poorly understood. Although most forms of AD are not genetically inherited, we have identified a new human mutation in the carboxypeptidase E (CPE)/neurotrophic factor-α1 (NF-α1) gene from an AD patient that caused memory deficit and depressive-like behavior in transgenic mice. This mutation consists of three adenosine inserts, introducing nine amino acids, including two glutamines into the mutant protein, herein called CPE-QQ...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921415/the-roles-of-t-helper-1-t-helper-17-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sarcoidosis
#2
Esmaeil Mortaz, Fatemeh Rezayat, Davar Amani, Arda Kiani, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Aliakbar Velayati
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unidentified etiology, with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin and common antigens. The balance between Th1, Th17 and Regulatory T(Treg) cells controls T-cell proliferation and activation.The Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluidis increased in patients with active sarcoidosis. Amplified IL-17A expression in granulomas and the presence of IL-17A+, IL-17A+IL-4+ and IL-17A+IFN-γ+ memory T helper cells in the circulation and BAL indicate Th17 cell involvement in granuloma induction and/or maintenance in sarcoidosis...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920277/the%C3%A2-diffuse%C3%A2-reduction%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-spleen%C3%A2-density-%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-indicator%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-severe%C3%A2-acute%C3%A2-pancreatitis
#3
Guangdong Shao, Yanmei Zhou, Zengfu Song, Maitao Jiang, Xiaoqian Wang, Xiangren Jin, Bei Sun, Xuewei Bai
BACKGROUND: We observed that acute pancreatitis (AP) was associated with diffuse reduction of spleen density (DROSD) in some patients. Furthermore, the condition of these patients was more serious, and the potential relationship between DROSD and structural and functional injury of the spleen remained unclear. Therefore, we performed a preliminary exploration of these factors. METHODS: We analysed pertinent clinical data for AP patients with normal spleen density (control group) and for those with DROSD (reduction group) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (2013...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918476/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-preterm-infants-is-associated-with-allergic-diseases-and-the-mental-development-index-in-children
#4
Wan-Ning Tseng, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Li-Tung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916087/-the-regulatory-role-of-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-the-proliferation-and-activation-of-memory-t-cells
#5
Lei Luo, Guangheng Luo, Qian Fang, Shan Huang, Hui Chen
Objective To study the regulatory effect of Wnt signaling pathway on the activation and proliferation of memory T cells (TMs). Methods We established the mouse model of skin allograft transplantation (BALB/c-C57BL/6), and then we sorted and cultured immature dendritic cells (imDCs), mature dendritic cells (mDCs) and TMs from the C57BL/6 mice by immunomagnetic bead cell sorting. The imDCs or mDCs loading antigens from BALB/c mice were co-cultured with TMs in a 96-well plate or Transwell(TM) plate (MLR). The (3)H-TdR was used to detect the proliferation of TMs...
December 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913304/effects-of-nongenetic-factors-on-immune-cell-dynamics-in-early-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#7
Diana van den Heuvel, Michelle A E Jansen, Kazem Nasserinejad, Willem A Dik, Ellen G van Lochem, Liesbeth E Bakker-Jonges, Halima Bouallouch-Charif, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herbert Hooijkaas, Jacques J M van Dongen, Henriëtte A Moll, Menno C van Zelm
BACKGROUND: . Numbers of blood leukocyte subsets are highly dynamic in childhood and differ greatly between individuals. Inter-individual variation is only partly accounted for by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Determine which nongenetic factors affect the dynamics of innate leukocytes, and naive and memory lymphocyte subsets. METHODS: . We performed six-color flow cytometry and linear mixed effect modeling to define the dynamics of 62 leukocyte subsets from birth to 6 years of age in 1,182 children with one to five measurements per individual...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912762/regulation-of-effector-function-of-cns-autoreactive-cd4-t-cells-through-inhibitory-receptors-and-il-7r%C3%AE
#8
Patrick K Nuro-Gyina, Elizabeth L Rieser, Marissa C Granitto, Wei Pei, Yue Liu, Priscilla W Lee, Saba Aqel, Jian Zhang, Amy E Lovett-Racke, Michael K Racke, Yuhong Yang
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic CNS autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal degeneration, where myelin-specific CD4 T cells play critical roles in the formation of acute MS lesions and disease progression. The suppression of IL-7Rα expression and the upregulation of inhibitory receptors (PD-1, etc.) are essential parts of the cell-intrinsic immunosuppressive program regulating T effector functions to prevent autoimmunity. However, little is known on the factors regulating IL-7Rα/PD-1 balance in myelin-specific CD4 T effector/memory cells during the development of CNS autoimmunity...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#9
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#10
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908305/abatacept-treatment-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-results-in-a-decrease-of-germinal-centres-in-salivary-gland-tissue
#11
Erlin A Haacke, Bert van der Vegt, Petra M Meiners, Arjan Vissink, Fred K L Spijkervet, Hendrika Bootsma, Frans G M Kroese
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the histopathological changes in parotid gland tissue of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients treated with abatacept. METHODS: In all 15 pSS patients included in the open-label Active Sjögren Abatacept Pilot (ASAP, 8 abatacept infusions) study parotid gland biopsies were taken before treatment and at 24 weeks of follow up. Biopsies were analysed for pSS-related histopathological features and placed in context of clini- cal responsiveness as assessed with EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI)...
November 12, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905837/long-term-persistence-of-immunity-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-a-fact-not-a-fancy
#12
Andrea Trevisan
On the basis of an article previously published in the journal regarding immune persistence after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy, I discuss why this persistence is a fact and not a fancy. Immune memory after a primary vaccination series has been widely demonstrated by prompt response to booster doses and the proliferation of T cells secreting IFNγ. In a large cohort of medical students, 79% of subjects were positive for anti-HBs antibodies, and only 1.9% of the subjects had serological evidence of past hepatitis B infection...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905502/immune-responsiveness-of-cd4-t-cells-during-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-infection
#13
Marie-Pier Lecours, Corinne Letendre, Damian Clarke, Paul Lemire, Tristan Galbas, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, Jacques Thibodeau, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis infection, a major swine and human pathogen, is only partially understood and knowledge on the host adaptive immune response is critically scarce. Yet, S. suis virulence factors, particularly its capsular polysaccharide (CPS), enable this bacterium to modulate dendritic cell (DC) functions and potentially impair the immune response. This study aimed to evaluate modulation of T cell activation during S. suis infection and the role of DCs in this response. S. suis-stimulated total mouse splenocytes readily produced TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, CCL3, CXCL9, and IL-10...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905482/pharmacologic-modulation-of-ror%C3%AE-t-translates-to-efficacy-in-preclinical-and-translational-models-of-psoriasis-and-inflammatory-arthritis
#14
Xiaohua Xue, Pejman Soroosh, Aimee De Leon-Tabaldo, Rosa Luna-Roman, Marciano Sablad, Natasha Rozenkrants, Jingxue Yu, Glenda Castro, Homayon Banie, Wai-Ping Fung-Leung, Luis Santamaria-Babi, Thomas Schlueter, Michael Albers, Kristi Leonard, Alison L Budelsky, Anne M Fourie
The IL-23/IL-17 pathway is implicated in autoimmune diseases, particularly psoriasis, where biologics targeting IL-23 and IL-17 have shown significant clinical efficacy. Retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma t (RORγt) is required for Th17 differentiation and IL-17 production in adaptive and innate immune cells. We identified JNJ-54271074, a potent and highly-selective RORγt inverse agonist, which dose-dependently inhibited RORγt-driven transcription, decreased co-activator binding and promoted interaction with co-repressor protein...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903738/tgf-%C3%AE-controls-the-formation-of-kidney-resident-t-cells-via-promoting-effector-t-cell-extravasation
#15
Chaoyu Ma, Shruti Mishra, Erika L Demel, Yong Liu, Nu Zhang
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells, a population of noncirculating memory T cells, are one of the essential components of immunological memory in both mouse and human. Although CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells represent a major TRM cell population in barrier tissues including the mucosal surface and the skin, CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells dominate most nonbarrier tissues, such as the kidney. TGF-β is required for the differentiation of CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells in barrier tissues. However, the developmental control of CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells in nonbarrier tissues remains largely unknown and the involvement of TGF-β signaling is less clear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903721/cross-talk-between-brain-innate-immunity-and-serotonin-signaling-underlies-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-alzheimer-s-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-in-mice
#16
Jose Henrique Ledo, Estefania P Azevedo, Danielle Beckman, Felipe C Ribeiro, Luis E Santos, Daniela S Razolli, Grasielle C Kincheski, Helen M Melo, Maria Bellio, Antonio L Teixeira, Licio A Velloso, Debora Foguel, Fernanda G De Felice, Sergio T Ferreira
: Considerable clinical and epidemiological evidence links Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection are largely unknown. We reported recently that soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs), toxins that accumulate in AD brains and are thought to instigate synapse damage and memory loss, induce depressive-like behavior in mice. Here, we report that the mechanism underlying this action involves AβO-induced microglial activation, aberrant TNF-α signaling, and decreased brain serotonin levels...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903296/factors-affecting-long-term-efficacy-of-t-regulatory-cell-based-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#17
Natalia Marek-Trzonkowska, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Mateusz Gliwiński, Ilona Derkowska, Magdalena Żalińska, Maciej Zieliński, Marcelina Grabowska, Hanna Zielińska, Karolina Piekarska, Anna Jaźwińska-Curyłło, Radosław Owczuk, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Krystyna Wyka, Piotr Witkowski, Wojciech Młynarski, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Artur Bossowski, Janusz Siebert, Piotr Trzonkowski
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy using T regulatory cells (Tregs) prolongs remission in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Here, we report factors that possibly affect the efficacy of this treatment. METHODS: The metabolic and immune background of 12 children with recently diagnosed T1DM, as well as that of untreated subjects, during a 2-year follow-up is presented. Patients were treated with up to 30 × 10(6)/kg b.w. of autologous expanded CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) Tregs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#18
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#19
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901642/a-generic-rna-pulsed-dc-based-approach-for-developing-therapeutic-intervention-against-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
Rajeev K Tyagi, Rajesh Parmar, Naisargee Patel
The recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma of head-and-neck cancers pathology showed unique symptoms and clinical characteristics. The complexity of pathology poses challenges for developing therapeutic interventional approaches against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The conventional treatment regimens offer limited local control and survival, which, leads to adverse delayed complications. Our study present a generic monocyte derived dendritic cell (MoDC) vaccine strategy for NPC in which RNA is used as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAgs)...
November 30, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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